# Introduction to Computer Graphics 8. Buffers and Mapping techniques (A)

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1 Introduction to Computer Graphics 8. Buffers and Mapping techniques (A) National Chiao Tung Univ, Taiwan By: I-Chen Lin, Assistant Professor Textbook: Hearn and Baker, Computer Graphics, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall Ref: E.Angel, Interactive Computer Graphics, 4 th Ed., Addison Wesley

2 Outline Buffers Mapping techniques Anti-aliasing

3 Buffer Define a buffer by its spatial resolution (n x m) and its depth (or precision) k, the number of bits/pixel

4 OpenGL Frame Buffer

5 Buffers Color buffers can be displayed Front Back Depth Accumulation Stencil

6 Writing in Buffers Conceptually, we can consider all of memory as a large two-dimensional array of pixels We read and write rectangular block of pixels Bit block transfer (bitblt) operations The frame buffer is part of this memory

7 Writing Model Read destination pixel before writing source

8 Bit Writing Modes Source and destination bits are combined bitwise 6 possible functions (one per column in table) replace XOR OR

9 Mapping Methods Texture Mapping Environment Mapping Bump Mapping

10 The Limits of Geometric Modeling Although graphics cards can render over 0 million polygons per second, the number is insufficient for many phenomena Clouds Grass Terrain Skin Image from Final Fantasy movie

11 Modeling an Orange Consider the problem of modeling an orange (the fruit) Start with an orange-colored sphere Too simple Replace sphere with a more complex shape Does not capture surface characteristics (small dimples) Takes too many polygons to model all the dimples

12 Modeling an Orange Take a picture of a real orange, scan it, and paste onto simple geometric model This process is known as texture mapping Still might not be sufficient because resulting surface will be smooth Need to change local shape Bump mapping

13 Three Types of Mapping Texture Mapping Uses images to fill inside of polygons Environment (reflection mapping) Uses a picture of the environment for texture maps Allows simulation of highly specular surfaces Bump mapping Emulates altering normal vectors during the rendering process

14 Texture Mapping geometric model texture mapped

15 Environment Mapping

16 Bump Mapping

17 Where Does Mapping Take Place? Mapping techniques are implemented at the end of the rendering pipeline vertices Geometric Geometric Processing Processing Rasterization Rasterization Display Display pixels Pixel Pixel Operations Operations

18 Is it Simple? Although the idea is simple map an image to a surface---there are 3 or 4 coordinate systems involved 2D image 3D surface

19 Coordinate Systems Parametric coordinates May be used to model curves and surfaces Texture coordinates Used to identify points in the image to be mapped Object or World Coordinates Conceptually, where the mapping takes place Window Coordinates Where the final image is really produced

20 Texture Mapping parametric coordinates texture coordinates world coordinates window coordinates

21 Mapping Functions Basic problem is how to find the maps Consider mapping from texture coordinates to a point a surface Appear to need three functions x = x(s,t) y = y(s,t) z = z(s,t) t s (x, y, z) But we really want to go the other way

22 Backward Mapping We really want to go backwards Need a map of the form s = s(x, y, z) t = t(x, y, z) Such functions are difficult to find in general

23 Two-part Mapping One solution to the mapping problem is to first map the texture to a simple intermediate surface Example: map to cylinder

24 Cylindrical Mapping parametric cylinder x = r cos 2π u y = r sin 2πu z = v/h maps rectangle in u,v space to cylinder of radius r and height h in world coordinates s = u t = v maps from texture space

25 Spherical Map We can use a parametric sphere x = r cos 2πu y = r sin 2πu cos 2πv z = r sin 2πu sin 2πv in a similar manner to the cylinder but have to decide where to put the distortion Spheres are used in environmental maps

26 Box Mapping Easy to use with simple orthographic projection Also used in environment maps (Cube mapping)

27 Second Mapping Map from an intermediate object to an actual object Normals from intermediate to actual Normals from actual to intermediate Vectors from center of intermediate

28 Two-part Mapping

29 Texture Example The texture (below) is a 256 x 256 image, mapped to a rectangular polygon which is viewed in perspective. OpenGL requires texture dimensions to be powers of 2

30 Texture Mapping for Polygons Based on parametric texture coordinates gltexcoord*() specified at each vertex

31 Interpolation OpenGL uses interpolation to find proper texels from specified texture coordinates Can be distortions good selection of tex coordinates poor selection of tex coordinates texture stretched over trapezoid showing effects of bilinear interpolation

32 Interpolation Can we just use Linear interpolation in screen space? Pictures from lecture notes of Computer Graphics, UNC

33 Reduction of the flaws Subdivide the texture-mapped triangles into smaller triangles. Is it correct?

34 Screen Space vs. 3D space m V P P 2 n V 2 Interpolation in screen space P(m) = P + m(p 2 P ) Interpolation in 3D space V(n) = V + n(v 2 V ) P y (n)= V y (n) / V z (n)

35 Mapping from Screen Space to 3D Space ( ) ( ) z z n z y y n y z y z y m z y P y + + = + = n in terms of m ( ) 2 2 z z m z mz n + =

36 Perspective Correct Interpolation T(n) = T + n(t 2 T ) Assume w = /z, w 2 =/z 2 (for the graphics pipeline) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( w w m w w I w I m w I I I w w m w mw I I I z z m z mz I I + + = + + = + + =

37 Magnification and Minification Minification More than one texel can cover a pixel Magnification More than one pixel can cover a texel point sampling (nearest texel) is the most efficient approach, but

38 Aliasing Original image Sample one for each 5x5 pixels Ref:

39 Aliasing Point sampling of the texture can lead to aliasing errors miss blue stripes point samples in texture space point samples in u,v (or x,y,z) space

40 Area Averaging A better but slower option is to use area averaging preimage pixel

41 Area Averaging Original image Sampling every 5x5 pixels Applying a 5x5 box filter Sampling every 5x5 pixels

42 Mipmapped Textures On-line processing or pre-filtering? Mipmapping allows for prefiltered texture maps of decreasing resolutions Lessens interpolation errors for smaller textured objects

43 MipMap storage

44 Mipmaping /3 overhead of maintaining the MIP map.

45 Example point sampling linear filtering mipmapped point sampling mipmapped linear filtering

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