Buffers and Texture Mapping. Overview. Buffers. David Carr Fundamentals of Computer Graphics Spring 2004 Based on Slides by E.

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1 INSTITUTIONEN FÖR SYSTEMTEKNIK LULEÅ TEKNISKA UNIVERSITET Buffers and Texture Mapping David Carr Fundamentals of Computer Graphics Spring 2004 Based on Slides by E. Angel Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 1 L Overview Buffers - Additional OpenGL buffers - Reading and writing buffers - Blending Texture mapping - Mapping Methods + Texture mapping + Environmental Mapping + Bump Mapping - Basic strategies + Forward versus backward mapping + Point sampling versus area averaging Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 2 L INSTITUTIONEN FÖR SYSTEMTEKNIK LULEÅ TEKNISKA UNIVERSITET Buffers Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 3 L 1

2 Buffer Define a buffer by its spatial resolution (n x m) and its depth k, the number of bits/pixel pixel Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 4 L OpenGL Buffers Color buffers - Front - Back - Auxiliary + Undisplayed + System dependent - Overlay + Chroma key animation Depth Accumulation - High resolution buffer Stencil - Holds masks Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 5 L Writing in Buffers Conceptually, we can consider all of memory as a large twodimensional array of pixels We read and write rectangular block of pixels - Bit block transfer (bitblt) operations The frame buffer is part of this memory memory source frame buffer (destination) writing into frame buffer Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 6 L 2

3 Writing Model Read destination pixel before writing source Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 7 L Writing Modes Source and destination bits are combined bitwise 16 possible functions (one per column in table) replace XOR OR Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 8 L XOR mode Recall from Chapter 3 that we can use XOR by enabling logic operations and selecting the XOR write mode XOR is especially useful for swapping blocks of memory such as menus that are stored off screen If S represents screen and M represents a menu the sequence S S M M S M ([S M] M) S S M ([S M] S) swaps the S and M Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 9 L 3

4 The Pixel Pipeline OpenGL has a separate pipeline for pixels - Writing pixels involves + Moving pixels from processor memory to the frame buffer + Format conversions + Mapping, Lookups, Tests - Reading pixels + Format conversion Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 10 L Raster Position OpenGL maintains a raster position as part of the state Set by gl.glrasterpos*() - 2D or 3D position in various forms The raster position is a geometric entity - Passes through geometric pipeline - Eventually yields a 2D position in screen coordinates - This position in the frame buffer is where the next raster primitive is drawn Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 11 L Buffer Selection OpenGL can draw into or read from any of the color buffers (front, back, auxiliary) Default to the back buffer Change with gl.gldrawbuffer and gl.glreadbuffer Note that format of the pixels in the frame buffer is different from that of processor memory and these two types of memory reside in different places - Need packing and unpacking - Drawing and reading can be slow Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 12 L 4

5 Bitmaps OpenGL treats 1-bit pixels (bitmaps) differently than multi-bit pixels (pixelmaps) Bitmaps are masks which determine if the corresponding pixel in the frame buffer is drawn with the present raster color - 0 fi color unchanged - 1 fi color changed based on writing mode Bitmaps are useful for raster text fonts Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 13 L Raster Color Same as drawing color set by gl.glcolor*() Fixed by last call to gl.glrasterpos*() gl.glcolor3f(1.0, 0.0, 0.0); gl.glrasterpos3f(x, y, z); gl.glcolor3f(0.0, 0.0, 1.0); gl.glbitmap(. gl.glbegin(gl_lines); gl.glvertex3f(..) Geometry drawn in blue Ones in bitmap use a drawing color of red Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 14 L Drawing Bitmaps gl.glbitmap(width, height, x0, y0, xi, yi, bitmap) first raster position offset from raster position increments in raster position after bitmap drawn second raster position Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 15 L 5

6 Pixel Maps OpenGL works with rectangular arrays of pixels called pixel maps or images Pixels are in one byte (8 bit) chunks - Luminance (gray scale) images 1 byte/pixel - RGB 3 bytes/pixel Three functions - Draw pixels: processor memory to frame buffer - Read pixels: frame buffer to processor memory - Copy pixels: frame buffer to frame buffer Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 16 L OpenGL Pixel Functions gl.glreadpixels(x,y,width,height,format,type,myimage) start pixel in frame buffer size type of pixels type of image pointer to processor memory byte myimage[512][512][3]; gl.glreadpixels(0,0, 512, 512, GL.GL_RGB, GL.GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, myimage); gl.gldrawpixels(width,height,format,type,myimage) starts at raster position Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 17 L Image Formats We often work with images in a standard format (JPEG, TIFF, GIF) How do we read/write such images with OpenGL? No support in OpenGL - OpenGL knows nothing of image formats - Some code available on Web Basic plan of attack - Find (write) a class that reads/writes into a standard data structure - Write a translation to a pixel map - Transfer pixel map to OpenGL Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 18 L 6

7 INSTITUTIONEN FÖR SYSTEMTEKNIK LULEÅ TEKNISKA UNIVERSITET Texture Mapping Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 19 L Application Want to: - Map realistic variation onto an object - Limit model complexity Solution directly map a digital pattern to an object Example, mapping reflections to Geri s glasses Image Box texture map Centered on the lens Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 20 L The Limits of Geometric Modeling Graphics cards can render over 10 million polygons per second But, that is insufficient for many phenomena - Clouds - Grass - Terrain - Skin Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 21 L 7

8 Modeling an Orange Consider the problem of modeling an orange (the fruit) Start with an orange-colored sphere - Too simple Replace sphere with a more complex shape - Does not capture surface characteristics (small dimples) - Takes too many polygons to model all the dimples Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 22 L Modeling an Orange (Alternate) Take a picture of a real orange, scan it, and paste onto simple geometric model - This process is texture mapping Still might not be sufficient because resulting surface will be smooth - Need to change local shape - Bump mapping Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 23 L Three Types of Mapping Texture Mapping - Uses images to fill inside of polygons Environmental (reflection mapping) - Uses a picture of the environment for texture maps - Allows simulation of highly specular surfaces Bump mapping - Emulates altering normal vectors during the rendering process Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 24 L 8

9 Texture Mapping Geometric Model Feb Texture Mapped SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 25 L 26 L 27 L Environment Mapping Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping Bump Mapping Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 9

10 Where Does Mapping Take Place? Mapping techniques are implemented at the end of the rendering pipeline - Very efficient because few polygons pass down the geometric pipeline Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 28 L Is It Simple? Although the idea is simple - Map an image to a surface - There are 3 or 4 coordinate systems involved 2D image 3D surface Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 29 L Coordinate Systems Parametric coordinates - May be used to model curved surfaces Texture coordinates - Used to identify points in the image to be mapped World Coordinates - Conceptually, where the mapping takes place Screen Coordinates - Where the final image is really produced Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 30 L 10

11 Texture Mapping parametric coordinates texture coordinates screen coordinates world coordinates Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 31 L Mapping Functions Basic problem is how to find the maps Consider mapping from texture coordinates to a point a surface Appear to need three functions x = x(s,t) (x,y,z) y = y(s,t) t z = z(s,t) But we really want to go s the other way Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 32 L Backward Mapping We really want to go backwards - Given a pixel, we want to know to which point on an object it corresponds - Given a point on an object, we want to know to which point in the texture it corresponds + Need a map of the form s = s(x,y,z) t = t(x,y,z) Such functions are difficult to find in general Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 33 L 11

12 Two-Part Mapping One solution to the mapping problem is to first map the texture to a simple intermediate surface Example: map to cylinder Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 34 L Cylindrical Mapping Parametric cylinder x = r cos 2p u y = r sin 2pu z = v/h Maps rectangle in u,v space to cylinder of: - Radius r and height h in world coordinates s = u t = v Maps from texture space Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 35 L Spherical Map We can similarly use a parametric sphere x = r cos 2pu y = r sin 2pu cos 2pv z = r sin 2pu sin 2pv But, must decide where to put the distortion Spheres are use in environmental maps Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 36 L 12

13 Box Mapping Easy to use with simple orthographic projection Also used in environmental maps Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 37 L Second Mapping Map from intermediate object to actual object - Normal vectors from intermediate to actual actual - Normal vectors from actual to intermediate - Vectors from center of intermediate intermediate Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 38 L Aliasing Point sampling of the texture can lead to aliasing errors miss blue stripes point samples in u,v (or x,y,z) space point samples in texture space Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 39 L 13

14 Area Averaging A better but slower option is to use area averaging pre image Note that pre image of pixel is curved pixel Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 40 L Questions? Feb SMD159, Buffers and Texture Mapping 41 L 14

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