Ch 15 Notes Start of Cold War Containment policy -

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1 Ch 15 Notes- Start of Cold War Students will develop and use basic vocabulary about the Cold War era. Students will describe events that led to the Cold War between the U.S. and Soviet Union. Students will explain efforts of the United States to contain Communism in Europe during the Cold War era. I. Birth of the Cold War a. After WWII the Alliance of Britain, U.S. and Soviet Union broke up. b. Decisions from and brought division between East and West- this created physical division in Germany, and the city of Berlin c. The Growth of in Eastern Europe raised American fear of it spreading further. II. Soviet Influence in Eastern Europe- Iron Curtain goes up a. Soviet Union oversaw elections with troops in other countries to insure election of Communist officials b. These nations in E. Europe became or of the Soviet Union. These are nations controlled politically and economically by another nation, or have a military controlled by another nation. In this case the Soviet Union was controlling the others. c. This area became known as, or Eastern bloc. d. When leaders were disloyal, Stalin ordered - forced removal of officials, so a new, Communist could be installed as the leader. e. March Winston Churchill coined the term - this referred to the line of (areas of protection) the Soviet Union created along its Western border f. Nations in poverty began to look to Communism for answers to equality., armed troops not in the regular military, were used to excite civil wars. III. U.S Response to the Spread of Communism & Raising of the Iron Curtain a. Truman and the United States, inspired by George F. Kennan responded with a Containment policy to try to keep Communism where it was, and not allow it to spread further around the globe. b. - this term was popularized by journalist Walter Lippmann

2 i. He believed we couldn t contain the spread of Communism everywhere. ii. see wikianswers for who coined Cold War r iii. Lippmann, and others felt the U.S. should take stronger action, feeling this containment policy was too soft. IV. Carrying out Containment Policy in Europe. The United States used two basic policies to try to enforce the policy of containment in Europe. a i. Proposed to provide economic and military aid to the nations of Greece and Turkey, where Communism was a threat. Great Britain had been providing aid to Turkey, but no longer could afford to do so. ii. This policy was approved by Congress and moved the U.S. away from peacetime, once again. iii. This policy becomes important later when we place military weapons in Turkey, and use them as bargaining power during the Cuban Missile Crisis. b. i. June This was a plan to give aid to all European countries, and even offered to, but not accepted by, the Soviet Union. ii. This aid was in the form of: iii. Many Western European Countries accepted aid from the Marshall Plan, and changed tariffs/trade laws to help commerce. iv. During the Truman administration, were given in loans or grants through the Marshall Plan. v. This led to 16 Nations that formed the European Economic Cooperation, which was the predecessor of the now prominent or EU. vi. The Marshall Plan helped restructure the European Economy and rebuild industry after World War II.

3 V. Soviet Response to Containment a. The Soviets and the Eastern Bloc formed the (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) in 1949 to help with its economic development after WWII. b. Resentment towards U.S. involvement in Europe grows VI a. U.S., Great Britain, France decide to unite their sectors of Germany to create a Democratic-Republic, in the western half of Germany. b. (Berlin Crisis) i. In Response to the creation of West Germany, the Soviets block off the Western section of Berlin, which western nations controlled in the middle of the Soviet Sector. c. Berlin Airlift i. This prompted the, where Truman ordered airplanes to drop supplies to the people of West Berlin. In May 1948, the blockade was finally lifted, after 10 months of airlifting. VII. Creation of a. The Berlin Blockade, coupled with a subversive Communist govt. gaining control in Yugoslavia, prompted the Western Nations to form a collective security agreement. b. NATO- - est i. Formed by 5 western European nations who asked the United States to also join. ii. This was to be a military alliance to hold off Soviet aggression. In April 1949, this became a reality with 12 nations chartering the NATO agreement.

4 VIII. - est a. The Soviets and Eastern Bloc countries formed a counteralliance to NATO in b. This prompted a worldwide Nuclear Arms Race. c. Pitting the United States vs. The Soviet Union - vs. - East vs. West The Iron Curtain now was a reality, with the Soviets guarding against trade, ideas, and communications from western countries. Section 2- GI Bill- What were the benefits? Baby Boom World Organizations/Programs created in mid 1940 s United Nations- World Bank- International Monetary Fund- GATT- Section 3-Cold War in Asia There were also other conflicts in ASIA, in the 1940 s-50 s that pitted East vs. West, Democracy vs. Communism, as the Soviet Union tried to spread its sphere of influence, and they were strengthened by Mao in China.

5 1945- In July just before WWII ends, at the Conference in Potsdam, Germany-. - The Allies discussed how to deal with Germany and Japan after the War ended, finalizing plans from Yalta. Remember they decide to Partition Germany among France, Britain, U.S. and Soviet Union With Japan: the Allies decide to allow the U.S. and General MacArthur to occupy Japan to insure: 1. Punishment & disarmament of military & its leaders 2. Japanese would be restricted to rule only its home islands 3. Japan would be re-educated in democracy, reorganizing the school system They eventually regain total independence in In 1946, the U.S. gave independence to the Philippine Islands, which it had controlled since the Spanish American War in U.S. gave economic and even military aid to fight communist guerillas China Since the 1930 s China had been in a civil war & this is why Japan was able to easily take Manchuria. During WWII the revolution ceased to defend the country, but after the War, the conflict resumes. Nationalist leader- Chiang Kai-shek- Communist revolution leader- Mao-Zedong The U.S. using containment policy, had given Chiang s Nationalists forces $2 billion in aid to try to stop communists, but they were still failing. General George Marshall, who soon became Sec. of State, went to try to solve the conflict. He said it was going to be very costly to stop the communist in China & the U.S. should focus on stopping Stalin in Europe. Many in the U.S. felt that Chiang s government was too corrupt to defeat the communists, and Truman decides the U.S. would be no further help to China By 1949, Mao s forces push Chiang s army off mainland China to Taiwan. Mao then creates a communist regime in The People s Republic of China, but the United States recognized Chiang s Republic of China in Taiwan as the true government for all of China.

6 This causes conflict in the United Nations, because the U.S. refuses to seat Mao s government in the United Nations, which causes the Soviet Union to boycott the U.N. Security Council. Red Scare- Soviet Atomic Technology U.S. Laws Limiting Communism Smith Act McCarran Act These also limit 1 st Amendment Rights U.S. people spying for Soviets HUAC- House Un-American Affairs Committee Hollywood Ten/ Blacklists McCarthyism- Section 4 Korean War At the end of WWII, Soviet troops occupied Korea North of the 38 th parallel. The U.S. still had troops in South Korea In 1948 the U.N. supervised elections where Syngman Rhee won & was recognized by the U.S. as the government of Korea the U.S. decided Korea was outside of its defense perimeter and pulled its remaining troops out of Korea On June 25, 1950 North Korean troops invaded South Korea. The United Nations reacted by ordering N. Korean troops out, & when they did not leave the U.N. ordered troops in on June 27. General Douglas MacArthur commanded U.N. troops and was instructed to only fight below the 38 th parallel. Truman did not ask Congress to declare war this was a U.N.

7 action, with U.S. troops serving. However, he does think we should support the war to eliminate the Domino Effect, or Domino theory in regards to nations falling to communism, one after the other. Summer of MacArthur was pushed clear to the Southern tip of Korea at Pusan. He then made a surprise attack up the West Coast at Inchon to regain control of the South. He was then given permission to take all of Korea, even above the 38 th. By November 1950, U.N. troops had advanced near the Chinese border, where they were then met by ~ 200,000 Chinese troops who push the U.N. forces back into Southern Korea. The U.N. forces were able to regain territory back to the north around the 38 th parallel. In July 1953, a cease-fire agreement was made to end the War. In 1951, Truman fires General MacArthur- MacArthur had wanted to Bomb China to help Chiang Kai-shek regain power on the mainland. Truman however did not want to risk war with China. MacArthur then criticizes Truman in a letter to Congress, and Truman dismissed him. Results of the Korean War No major territory was exchanged, it was pretty much a stalemate. U.S. lost ~ 37,000 troops- UN 60,000 Korean military & civilian casualties were in the 4-5 million range. Neutral nations drew closer to U.S. to help defend against communism.

8 The U.S. felt it proved it could stop communist expansion, and containment could work. DMZ-Demilitarized Zone- created around the 38 th Parallel between North and South Korea.- aimed at preventing threat of invasion by the opposing nation.

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