Chapter 4 Section 2: The Middle Colonies

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1 Chapter 4 Section 2: The Middle Colonies In this section, we will: Explain why the colony of New Netherland became the colony of New York. Identify why New Jersey separated from New York. Describe how Pennsylvania was founded. Summarize life in the Middle Colonies. William Penn Peter Stuyvesant 1

2 By 1700, England had four colonies in the region south of New England. New Netherland Becomes New York as we have studied, the Dutch set up the colony of New Netherland along the Hudson River. early settlers traded with Indians for furs and built New Amsterdam into a great port city. 2

3 to encourage farming in New Netherland, Dutch officials gave large parcels of land to a few rich families. Owners of these huge estates were called patroons. in exchange for the grants, patroons promised to settle at least 50 European farm families. few people wanted to work for the patroons, however. Patroons had great power and often charged very high rents for land. however, many settlers that did come were excited to be able to practice their religion freely. 3

4 Dutch were primarily Protestant, but they permitted members of other religions to live and work with them in New Netherland. They were tolerant of other faiths, including Jews, French Protestants & Roman Catholics. By 1664, the rivalry between England and the Netherlands for trade & colonies was at its high point. August 1664, English warships sailed into New Amsterdam's harbor. Governor Peter Stuyvesant vowed to defend the city, but with little ammunition and gunpowder, not to mention very few loyal followers, he was forced to give up the colony without firing a shot. King Charles II of England gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York. Renamed the colony in his brother's honor: NEW YORK 4

5 King Charles II His Brother, Peter Stuyvesant The Duke of York 5

6 New Jersey separates from New York the Duke of York soon realized that New York was too big to govern easily. he gave part of the colony to his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. they set up a proprietary colony which they called New Jersey. In a proprietary colony, the King gave land to one or more people in return for a yearly payment. The proprietors were free to divide the land and rent to others. the proprietors also made laws for the colonies but had to respect the rights of the colonists under English law. 6

7 In 1702, New Jersey became a royal colony- which is a colony under direct control of the English crown. the charter for the colony protected religious freedom and the rights of an assembly to vote on local matters. 7

8 What New Jersey landmark is this??? 8

9 The Founding of Pennsylvania founded by William Penn in Penn was a friend of King Charles II and was from a wealthy English family. at a young age, he joined the Quakers, a hated religious group in England. 9

10 The Quakers much like the Pilgrims & Puritans, the Quakers were Protestant reformers. believed all people were equal in God's eyes. spoke out against war; refused to serve in the army. Pacifists they had been persecuted in England and Penn asked his friend the King for help. King issued a royal charter with Penn as proprietor of large piece of land in North America. King named it Pennsylvania which means "Penn's Woodlands." 10

11 A Policy of fairness let's read about Penn's "policy of fairness" on page

12 The Colony Grows Penn publicized his colony all over Europe by sending pamphlets. Settlers from England, Scotland, Wales, the Netherlands, France & Germany came across the Atlantic to Pennsylvania. many German-speaking Protestants arrived; they became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch, because people couldn't pronounce the word "Deutsch" which means German. African slaves also came to Pennsylvania. Penn planned a capital city on the Delaware River, naming it Philadelphia. 12

13 Delaware For a time, Pennsylvania included some lands along the lower Delaware River. The region was known as Pennsylvania's Lower Counties. Look at the map on page 111 to view Delaware!! Settlers in the Lower Counties did not want to send delegates to a distant assembly in Philadelphia. In 1701, Penn allowed them to elect their own assembly. Later, in 1704, the Lower Counties would break away to form the colony of Delaware. 13

14 Life in the Middle Colonies most made their living in the Middle Colonies by farming. A Thriving Economy in the Eastern Counties farmers raised wheat, barley & rye. These were cash crops, or crops that were sold for money at markets. Middle Colonies exported so much grain, they became known as the "Breadbasket Colonies." also raised herds of pigs and cattle. Soil was better in the Middle Colonies than in New England; as a result, farms typically were bigger. landowners hired workers to assist with planting & harvesting. some slaves worked on larger farms. but most workers were farmhands that worked alongside people that owned the land. 14

15 15

16 there also were skilled artisans in the Middle Colonies. colony over time became a center of manufacturing & crafts. hardware, clocks, watches, guns, locks, glass, stoneware, nails & paper all were produced in the Middle Colonies. 16

17 Middle Colony Homes homes tended to be farther apart in the Middle Colonies; the counties became centers of local government. different groups that settled brought their favorite ways of building. Swedish introduced log cabins. Dutch home houses were self-sufficient; everything needed for survival, such as food or clothing, was made at home. 17

18 The Backcountry Many German and Scotch-Irish settlers arrived in Philadelphia in the 1700s. they traveled west along the "Great Wagon Road" let's read about the backcountry on page

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