Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom"

Transcription

1 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39, 41, 45, 51, 57, 61, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, Check for the MasteringChemistry.com assignment and complete before due date Earlier we learned: Dalton s Indivisible Atom explained the Law of Constant Composition and the Law of Conservation of Mass and led to the Law of Multiple Proportions. J.J. Thomson, through Cathode Ray Tube experiments, discovered that electrons are small negatively charged particles inside a divisible atom and came up with the Plum Pudding Model of the atom. Rutherford came up with the gold foil experiment shooting alpha particles through thin gold foil to test the Plum Pudding Model and discovered that some alpha particles were deflected. This led to Rutherford s Nuclear Model of the atom in which a heavy positive nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Now we will further our knowledge of the atom by describing how electrons behave inside the atom. Important Constants and Equations: Below are several terms, constants and important equations for this section. c = ; wavelength ( ), frequency or hertz ( ), speed of light (c=3.00 x 10 8 m/s) sidenote: sound waves move about 340 m/s E = h ; Planck s constant (h= x J s) 1/ = R[1/n 2 final 1/n 2 initial] Rydberg s constant (R = x 10 7 m -1 ) Energy of a Bohr Hydrogen orbit (E n = -B/n 2 ) Bohr s constant (B = x J) De Broglie equation wavelength is Planck s constant over momentum ( = h/(mv)) Mass of an electron (m e = 9.11 x kg) Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle ( x. (mv) h/(4 ))

2 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 2 Quantum Mechanics: Explains the behavior of the electrons inside atoms and leads to the explanation of the periodic law and chemical bonding Electrons are very small. Electron behavior determines much of the behavior of atoms Directly observing electrons is impossible; observing an electron would change its behavior Nature of Light: Electromagnetic radiation (also called Light) is wave-like: speed of light= (wavelength)(frequency); c = speed of light (c=3.00 x 10 8 m/s) Electromagnetic radiation has a magnetic field component and perpendicular to that an electric field component.

3 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 3 The electromagnetic spectrum is continuous starting with the low energy, long wavelength, low frequency radio waves and increasing in energy through microwaves, IR, VIS (ROYGBIV), UV, Xrays, and gamma rays which are high energy, short wavelength, high frequency). The color of light is determined by its wavelength: Visible light: 750nm-400nm Example 1: c = ; wavelength ( ), frequency or hertz ( ), speed of light (c=3.00 x 10 8 m/s) E = h ; Planck s constant (h= x J s) a) Solve for the frequency of green light with a wavelength of 540nm. b) Solve for the wavelength of a radio signal whose frequency is 100.7MHz. Hz = s -1 c) Solve for the energy of a photon with a frequency of 2.55 x s -1.

4 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 4 The interaction between waves is called interference When waves interact so that they add to make a larger wave it is called constructive interference: waves are in-phase When waves interact so they cancel each other it is called destructive interference: waves are out-of-phase Diffraction: When traveling waves encounter an obstacle or opening in a barrier that is about the same size as the wavelength, they bend around it this is called diffraction The diffraction of light through two slits separated by a distance comparable to the wavelength results in an interference pattern of the diffracted waves An interference pattern is a characteristic of all light waves; traveling particles do not diffract

5 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 5 Light is particle-like (E = h or E = hc/ ). Light has photons of quantized energy. Quantized energy can explain the emission of light from hot bodies, the emission of electrons from metal surfaces on which light shines (the photoelectric effect). Photoelectric Effect: Many metals emit electrons when light (photons) shines on their surface. It was observed that a minimum frequency (called threshold frequency) is needed before electrons would be emitted from the surface of a metal. Greater intensity or brightness of light only increased the current once the minimal frequency was met. In 1905, Albert Einstein published a paper explaining experimental data from the photoelectric effect as the result of light energy in discrete quantized packets. This led to the quantum revolution. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for "his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The photoelectric effect experiment shown below led to photons and E = h Planck s constant (h= x J s)

6 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 6 Emission Spectra: the emission of light (waves) from excited gas atoms. When atoms or molecules absorb energy, that energy is often released as light energy. The spectrum is noncontinuous (quantized) and can be used to identify the material.

7 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 7 Emission Spectra are like fingerprints, each element or compound has a unique emission spectrum. This allows scientist to investigate what matter makes up our sun, the stars or the planet Mars without the necessity to bring back material samples to earth for testing. Johannes Rydberg ( ) analyzed the spectrum of hydrogen and found that a mathematical equation could describe the lines Example 2: 1/ = R[1/n 2 final 1/n 2 initial] Rydberg s constant (R = x 10 7 m -1 ) This equation only works for hydrogen Solve for the wavelength that is emitted as an electron jumps form level 5 to level 2. n initial = 5 and n final = 2 Problems with Rutherford s nuclear atom: Electrons are moving charged particles According to classical physics, moving charged particles give off energy Therefore electrons should constantly be giving off energy; they should glow! The electrons should lose energy, crash into the nucleus, and the atom should collapse; but it doesn t!

8 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 8 Neils Bohr ( ) 1913 Bohr s Model (electrons move around the nucleus in circular orbits): Emission spectra of hydrogen gave experimental evidence of quantized energy states for electrons within an atom. Quantum Theory: Explains the emission and absorption spectra 1. An electron moves in circular orbits at a fixed distance from the nucleus. The energy of the electron is proportional to that distance from the nucleus. 2. Therefore, energy of the electron is quantized. An atom has discrete energy levels (orbits) where e - may exist without emitting or absorbing electromagnetic radiation. 3. An electron may jump from one orbit to another. By doing so the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed (jumps farther from nucleus) or emitted (jumps closer to the nucleus and a photon of light is produced). Emission Spectra of Hydrogen explained by the Bohr Model. Bohr s mathematically equations are limited to one electron systems such as Hydrogen

9 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 9 Hydrogen Series: n final = 1, Lyman series (UV), n final = 2, Balmer series (Visible) n final = 3, Paschen series (IR) n final = 4, Brackett series (IR) n final = 5, Pfund series Example 3: Solve for the energy value of orbits n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Energy of a Bohr Hydrogen orbit (E n = -B/n 2 ) Bohr s constant (B = x J) Example 4: Solve for the wavelength emitted for a jump from n = 4 to n = 1 a) Using Rydberg s equation: 1/ = R[1/n 2 final 1/n 2 initial]; (R = x 10 7 m -1 ) b) Using E = hc/ (h= x J s) Problem: Bohr s theory only worked for spectra with only one electron.

10 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 10 Louis de Broglie ( ) de Broglie proposed that particles could have wave-like character the wavelength of a particle was inversely proportional to its momentum = h/(mv) Because it is so small, (mass of an electron; m e = 9.11 x kg), the wave character of electrons is significant Electrons have both particle and wave like properties just as light does. Proof of the wavelike properties came when an experiment demonstrated that beams of electrons passing between slits had interference patterns. If electrons behave only like particles there should be only two bright lines. The wave and particle nature of the electron are complementary properties As you know more about one you know less about the other Example 5: Calculate the wavelength of an electron traveling at 2.75 x 10 6 m/s

11 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 11 Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle: The product of the uncertainties in both the position and speed of a particle was inversely proportional to its mass x. (m v) h/(4 ) x = position, x = uncertainty in position v = velocity, v = uncertainty in velocity m = mass This means that the more accurately you know the position of a small particle, such as an electron, the less you know about its speed and vice-versa Example 6: a) Calculate the uncertainty in position for an electron in a hydrogen atom if the electron velocity is known to be within 10% of 2.2 x 10 6 m/s. m e = 9.11 x kg b) Given that the diameter of a hydrogen atom is 240 pm = 2.4 x m, how does the uncertainty of position compare to the diameter of H? Bohr s atomic theory only worked for 1 electron systems, to explain further the next theory involves orbitals not orbits Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (orbitals): Electrons can be treated as waves or particles (just as in light) Weakness: Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle. It is impossible to determine both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously; x. (mv) h/(4 ). Use 90% probability maps (orbitals not orbits) volume of space. 1. Electrons have quantized energy states (orbitals). 2. Electrons absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation when changing energy states. 3. Allowed energy states are described by four quantum numbers: n, l, m l, m s, which describe size, shape, position and spin respectively.

12 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 12

13 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 13

14 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 14 All the orbitals exist in one atom surrounding one nucleus. The orbitals are each quantized, but it does look a bit like Rutherford s nuclear model with a cloud of electrons taking up most of the space.

15 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 15 Orbitals: Shapes and amounts within an energy level s-1 spherical shape p-3 dumbell shapes on x, y, z d-5 shaped f-7 shapes Maximum 2 electrons in any one orbital (must have opposite spins), Maximum 2n 2 electrons for any n level i.e. n= 1, 2 electrons in 1s 2 ; n = 2, 8 electrons 2s 2 2p 6, n = 3, 18 e - s 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 Electron configuration of atoms and ions Aufbau Principle Hund s Rule of multiplicity Pauli s Exculsion Principle Long (Complete) and Condensed Configurations. Energy vs Size order. Core, pseudocore, and valence electron Some exceptions (s 1 d 5, s 1 d 10 ). Cations lose valence p,s orbital electrons before d orbital electrons. Ground state electrons fill lowest energy and up, excited state electrons are in higher energy orbits. Paramagnetic (weakly attracted to a magnetic field): The electron configuration has unpaired electrons. Diamagnetic: All electrons are paired. (weakly repelled by a magnetic field) Isoelectronic: Atoms and ions having the same number of electrons. Orbital diagram

16 C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 16 Quantum Numbers (n, l, m l, m s ) Size: n 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 for s, p orbital n = period number for d orbitals n-1 of period for f orbitals n-2 of period Shape: l 0, 1, 2, 3 s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3 Orientation: ml -l +l s=0, p=-1, 0, +1, d=-2,-1, 0, +1, +2, f=-3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3 Spin: m s -1/2, +1/2 Ions and their Electron Configurations: Metals: Give up electrons and become positive cations Nonmetals: Accept electrons and become negative anions Main group atoms give up or accept electrons toward the goal of establishing a core (noble gas) electron configuration. Metals will first lose the valence p electrons before the valence s electrons. Transition metals and Inner Transition metals first lose the largest s electrons, then the d electrons and for inner transitions last are the f electrons. Example 7: Predict the ground state short electron configuration for each. Ba Ba +2 I I -1

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE You should be familiar with the wavelike properties of light: frequency ( ), wavelength ( ), and energy (E) as well as

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

The Evolution of the Atom

The Evolution of the Atom 1808: Dalton s model of the atom was the billiard ball model. He thought the atom was a solid, indivisible sphere. Atoms of each element were identical in mass and their properties.

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

History of the Atomic Model. Bohr s Model of the Atom

Bohr s Model of the Atom Niels Bohr (93) was the first to propose that the periodicity in the properties of the elements might be explained by the electronic structure of the atom Democritus (400 B.C.)

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

Chapter 38C - Atomic Physics. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 38C - Atomic Physics A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to:

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

History of Atomic Theory

History of Atomic Theory Alchemy ~ Before 400 B.C. Experiment: Pseudoscience concerned with: Changing metal to gold Finding an eternal life elixir Aristotle Beliefs: All matter was made up of a combination

The Electronic Structures of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation

The Electronic Structures of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation The wavelength of electromagnetic radiation has the symbol λ. Wavelength is the distance from the top (crest) of one wave to the top of the

Quantum Mechanics I Physics 325. Importance of Hydrogen Atom

Quantum Mechanics I Physics 35 Atomic spectra and Atom Models Importance of Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen is the simplest atom The quantum numbers used to characterize the allowed states of hydrogen can also

Chapter 11 Atoms, Energy and Electron Configurations Objectives

Objectives 1. To review Rutherford s model of the atom 2. To explore the nature of electromagnetic radiation 3. To see how atoms emit light A. Rutherford s Atom.but there is a problem here!! Using Rutherford

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure A problem arose in Rutherford s nuclear model. A nucleus and electron attract each other; to remain apart the electron must move. The energy of the electron

Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom

Chapter 6 In This Chapter Physical and chemical properties of compounds are influenced by the structure of the molecules that they consist of. Chemical structure depends, in turn, on how electrons are

Chapter 5. Mendeleev s Periodic Table

Chapter 5 Perodicity and Atomic Structure Mendeleev s Periodic Table In the 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev proposed that the properties of the chemical elements repeat at regular intervals when arranged in order

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 10-1 10-10 10-8 4 to 7x10-7 10-4 10-1 10 10 4 gamma

CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM

CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM Problems: 1, 5, 7,11,13,15,17,19,21,25, 37,39,41,61,67,69,71,73, 77ab,79ab,81,83,87,89 1981 - STM (scanning tunneling microscope) used to "see" atoms STM Images - Web sites:

8/29/2011. The Greek Philosophers. Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table. Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) J. J. Thomson. Thomson s Experiment

Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table The Greek Philosophers Democritus believed that all matter is made up of tiny particles that could not be divided Aristotle -- thought that matter was made of only

CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom

CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom 4.1 The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford 4.2 Rutherford Scattering 4.3 The Classic Atomic Model 4.4 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 4.5 Successes and Failures

Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Physics

Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Physics Properties of Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons (The Main Constituents of Ordinary Matter) Mass Electrons have a mass of 9.11 10-31 kg. The mass of a proton

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers

1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1. Which statement regarding the gold foil experiment is false? (a) It was performed by Rutherford and his research group early in the 20 th century. (b) Most of

Practice questions for Ch. 7

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Practice questions for Ch. 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When ignited, a uranium compound burns with a green

Chapter 10. Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

Chapter 10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 10.1 A brief history 10.1 A brief history atoms proposed by Greek philosopher Dalton s model of atom Thomson s model Rutherford s model there remain

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms 1. Electromagnetic radiation travels through vacuum at a speed of m/s. (a). 6.626 x 26 (b). 4186 (c). 3.00 x 8 (d). It depends on wavelength Explanation: The speed

Atomic structure The product of frequency and wavelength for all forms of electromagnetic radiation (light) is a constant, the speed of light c.

Chapter 5: Electrons in Atoms Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) Light has the properties of both waves and particles. Light waves carry energy through space. wavelength (λ) meters frequency (ν) Hz (s -1

AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons! 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light. 6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons. Chapter 6 Homework

AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons! Chapter 6 Homework 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light pg 253 #3, 4, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 29 The electronic structure of an atom refers to the arrangement of

Quantum Atom: Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, and Periodicity

Quantum Atom: Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, and Periodicity Equations: λν = c E = hν E = hν energy of photon difference of energy levels λ = h/p p = mu (momentum and particle wavelength) debroglie

Name Honors Chemistry / /

Name Honors Chemistry / / History of the Atom Democritus 470-380 B.C. Democritus was known as the "Laughing Philosopher" because of his joyous spirit. First to suggest the idea of atoms (atomos - Greek

Aristotle. Lived 384 B.C. to 348 B.C. in ancient Greece. Proposed matter was made of 4 elements, earth, air, water, and fire

Aristotle Lived 384 B.C. to 348 B.C. in ancient Greece Proposed matter was made of 4 elements, earth, air, water, and fire Each of those were also described as being a combination of either cold or hot

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory

Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory Rutherford s Atom The concept of a nuclear atom (charged electrons moving around the nucleus) resulted from Ernest Rutherford s experiments. Question left unanswered: how

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 5.111 Lecture Summary

Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn.

Light and radiation Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn. Infrared (IR) light is used in

Topic 1. Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties

Topic 1 1-1 Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties Atomic Structure 1-2 History Rutherford s experiments Bohr model > Interpretation of hydrogen atom spectra Wave - particle duality Wave mechanics Heisenberg

Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total

Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total 1. Calculate the energy in joules of a photon of red light that has a frequency

nm cm meters VISIBLE UVB UVA Near IR 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 nm

Unit 5 Chapter 13 Electrons in the Atom Electrons in the Atom (Chapter 13) & The Periodic Table/Trends (Chapter 14) Niels Bohr s Model Recall the Evolution of the Atom He had a question: Why don t the

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

CHAPTER 4 PRE-TEST Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms In the space provided, write the letter of the term that best completes each sentence or best answers each question. 1. Which of the following orbital

Diffraction. Interference 4/29/15

Chapter 29: Light Waves Interference Light waves interfere with each other They can be said to be in phase or out of phase with each other In phase: amplitudes reinforce each other Our of phase: amplitudes

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER

SUBAREA I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER COMPETENCY 1.0 UNDERSTAND THE VARIOUS MODELS OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE, THE PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM THEORY, AND THE PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS OF SUBATOMIC

AIM: Models of the Atom DO NOW:

AIM: Models of the Atom DO NOW: HW: ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER MAKE A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOM. INCLUDE: 1. DALTON S MODEL, J. J. THOMPSON S MODEL, RUTHERFORD MODEL, BOHR MODEL,

Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL

Name _Key AP Chemistry Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL Electromagnetic Radiation Model 1: Characteristics of Waves The figure above represents part of a wave. The entire wave can be

Outline. Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table. Review. Arranging Electrons in Atoms. Fireworks. Atomic Spectra

Outline William L Masterton Cecile N. Hurley Edward J. Neth cengage.com/chemistry/masterton Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Light, photon energies and atomic spectra The hydrogen

Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapters 9 and 10 Aims: To examine the Quantum Theory, to understand the electronic structure of elements, To explain the periodic table

COLLEGE PHYSICS. Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS

COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS Quantization: Planck s Hypothesis An ideal blackbody absorbs all incoming radiation and re-emits it in a spectrum that depends only on temperature.

Electromagnetic radiation (Maxwell, 1864) (nature of light) Composed of perpendicular electric field and magnetic field

7 Atomic Structure and Periodicity Electromagnetic radiation (Maxwell, 1864) (nature of light) Composed of perpendicular electric field and magnetic field Electric field (E) (wavelength) t Magnetic field

Atomic Theory. Unit 3 Development of the Atomic Theory. H. Cannon, C. Clapper and T. Guillot Klein High School

Atomic Theory Unit 3 Development of the Atomic Theory 1. Where is the mass of the atom concentrated? In the nucleus 2. What is located in the nucleus? Neutrons and protons 3. What is the negative particle

CHM1 Exam 4 Review. Topics. 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2.

Topics 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2. Atomic symbols Mass number (protons + neutrons) 4+ charge 126C atomic number (# protons)

Chapter 7. Electron Structure of the Atom. Chapter 7 Topics

Chapter 7 Electron Structure of the Atom Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chapter 7 Topics 1. Electromagnetic radiation 2. The Bohr model of

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework. Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework Name Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass 1. Dalton's atomic theory explained the observation that the percentage by mass of the elements

13- What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the subshell 3d? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 2

Assignment 06 A 1- What is the energy in joules of an electron undergoing a transition from n = 3 to n = 5 in a Bohr hydrogen atom? a) -3.48 x 10-17 J b) 2.18 x 10-19 J c) 1.55 x 10-19 J d) -2.56 x 10-19

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1: The Atom Free Response CW/HW

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1: The Atom Free Response CW/HW Name Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass Classwork: 1. Exactly twice as much oxygen is required to react with 1 gram

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic number Bohr model Cation Compound Electron Electron Configuration Element Excited state Ground state

CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 6.9 What are the basic SI units for? (a) the wavelength of light meters, although colors are usually reported in 3 digit

The structure of atoms

The structure of atoms Atomic models The Rutherford experiment Bohr's theory of the hidrogen atom The Frank-Hertz experiment Atomic models arly ideas One of the most intriguing questions, to which already

Final Semester 1 Review Sheet

Final Semester 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1&3 What is Chemistry Matter Mass Weight Scientific method o Observation Observation vs. inference (know the difference) Qualitative data Quantitative data o Hypothesis

Activity 17 Electromagnetic Radiation Why? Electromagnetic radiation, which also is called light, is an amazing phenomenon. It carries energy and has characteristics of both particles and waves. We can

Chapter 7: Electrons in Atoms. Electromagnetic Radiation

Chapter 7: Electrons in Atoms Dr. Chris Kozak Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada 1 Electromagnetic Radiation Electric and magnetic fields propagate as waves through empty space or through a medium.

Early Ideas of the Atom

Atoms the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction. - electrically neutral - spherical - positively charged nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged

VARIOUS MODELS OF THE ATOM. Rutherford's Planetary Model. of the Atom

VARIOUS MODELS OF THE ATOM Rutherford's Planetary Model of the Atom By 1911 the components of the atom had been discovered. The atom consisted of subatomic particles called protons and electrons. However,

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory

Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations

3.2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. Section Review Answers

CD-ROM) Section Review Answers Student Textbook page 130 1. (a) Thomson's model of the atom focussed on the electrons. Rutherford's model focussed on the nucleus. Thomson viewed the atom as a positively

Level 3 Achievement Scale

Unit 1: Atoms Level 3 Achievement Scale Can state the key results of the experiments associated with Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Chadwick, and Bohr and what this lead each to conclude. Can explain that

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Grade Level/Subject Chemistry Stage 1: Desired Results Enduring Understanding Topic 1: Elements and the Periodic Table: The placement of elements on the periodic table

The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

[Document title] [Document subtitle] Chemistry Revision Notes By Johnathan Reynolds

[Document title] [Document subtitle] Chemistry Revision Notes By Johnathan Reynolds Leaving Certificate Chemistry (Higher & Ordinary Level) Points to note about the Chemistry examination: 1. Higher & Ordinary

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

Unit 2: Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry

Chemistry AP Unit : Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Unit : Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Chapter 7: Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1: Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic (EM)

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory

*STUDENT* *STUDENT* Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET Unit 2: Atomic Theory 1 *STUDENT* UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY *STUDENT* VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic

Wave Function, ψ. Chapter 28 Atomic Physics. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Line Spectrum

Wave Function, ψ Chapter 28 Atomic Physics The Hydrogen Atom The Bohr Model Electron Waves in the Atom The value of Ψ 2 for a particular object at a certain place and time is proportional to the probability

Practice Problems (Set #1) Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation. 1. Why don't we notice the wave nature of matter in our everyday experience?

Practice Problems (Set #1) Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation 1. Why don't we notice the wave nature of matter in our everyday experience? Since matter has huge mass, the wavelength will be very large

Atomic Emission Spectra (Teacher Demonstration)

SKILL FOCUS Analyzing and interpreting Communicating results Atomic Emission Spectra (Teacher Demonstration) When a high voltage current is passed through a glass tube that contains hydrogen gas at low

Emission of Light & Atomic Models 1

Emission of Light & Atomic Models 1 Objective At the end of this activity you should be able to: o Explain what photons are, and be able to calculate their energies given either their frequency or wavelength.

Early History of Atomic Theories

ATOMIC THEORY Early History of Atomic Theories Greek Philosophers Proposed that all matter was made up of four basic particles: Air Earth Fire Water Empedocles Democritus Proposed that matter was made

Atomic Structure Timeline

Atomic Structure Timeline Use the following information to fill out your foldable. You will be responsible for the information found on this PowerPoint presentation. Democritus (400 B.C.) Proposed that

CHAPTER 12 ATOMS ONE MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWER. Ans: Electrons were discovered by J.J Thomason in the year 1897.

CHAPTER 12 ATOMS ONE MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWER 1. Who discovered electrons? Ans: Electrons were discovered by J.J Thomason in the year 1897. 2. What is the electric charge on an atom? Ans: At atom of

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

The Nature of Light. As a particle

The Nature of Light Light is radiant energy. Travels very fast 300,000 km/sec! Can be described either as a wave or as a particle traveling through space. As a wave A small disturbance in an electric field

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure 4.1 The Nuclear Atom J. J. Thomson found electrons in atoms (1897) by extracting them from a gaseous discharge and bending them in magnetic fields. This let him find their charge/mass

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13. Electrons in Atoms

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13 Electrons in Atoms Goals : To gain an understanding of : 1. Atoms and their structure. 2. The development of the atomic theory. 3. The quantum mechanical model of the atom. 4.

Experiment 13 ~ Diffraction, Wavelength, and Atomic Line Spectra

Experiment 13 ~ Diffraction, Wavelength, and Atomic Line Spectra Part 1 1.1. Atomic Line Spectra. In this experiment, we will look at the diffraction of light, and how wavelengths can be calculated from

AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity Free Response Questions KEY page 1

AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity ree Response Questions KEY page 1 1980 a) points 1s s p 6 3s 3p 6 4s 3d 10 4p 3 b) points for the two electrons in the 4s: 4, 0, 0, +1/ and 4, 0, 0, - 1/ for the three

DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS

DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.

Welcome to Chemistry!

Welcome to Chemistry! Introduction Lecturer: Dr Adrian George (Chemistry room 224; adrian.george@sydney.edu.au) General administration and course structure Tutorials and tutorial quizzes (3 quizzes 15%

WAVES AND PARTICLES. (v) i.e (vi) The potential difference required to bring an electron of wavelength to rest

WAVES AND PARTICLES 1. De Broglie wavelength associated with the charges particles (i) The energy of a charged particle accelerated through potential difference q = charge on the particel (ii) Momentum

CHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom

CHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom Waves and Light Paradoxes in Classical Physics Planck, Einstein, and Bohr Waves, Particles, and the Schrödinger equation The Hydrogen Atom Questions

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented in the margin. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the

Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals Objectives

Objectives 1. To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals 2. To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical model of the atom 3. To learn about electron spin A. Electron Location

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?

3 Modern Atomic Theory

CHAPTER 4 3 Modern Atomic Theory SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How are electrons organized in an atom? Can the exact location of an electron be determined?

Elements may combine in more than one proportion to form more than one compound. Examples...

1 UNIT 5 - ATOMIC THEORY: THE NUCLEAR MODEL OF THE ATOM 2 3 Dalton s Atomic Theory 1) Each element is made up of tiny, individual particles called atoms. 2) Atoms are indivisible; they cannot be created

The Beginnings of Atomic Theory

Atoms Section 1 The Beginnings of Atomic Theory Who came up with the first theory of atoms? In the fourth century BCE, the Greek philosopher Democritus suggested that the universe was made of indivisible

Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Practice Review (the questions on the test are NOT the same as the review questions)

Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Review: things you will need to know 1. Atomic Theories: Know all the scientists in order. What did they discover? What experiment did they use? 2. Development of the periodic