# Physical Science Refresher. Self Study Physical Science Refresher

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1 Self Study Physical Science Refresher

2 Table of Contents 1. Three phases of matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases 2. The effect of heat and pressure on the phases of matter a) expanding and contracting 3. Changing Phase 4. Chemical properties of natural gas

3 Section 1 Three Phases of Matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases

4 Properties of the three phases: solid, liquid and gas. Matter is found in three phases: solid, liquid and gas. The best way to understand how each phase behaves is to look at what s going on at the molecular level. 3

5 Properties of the three phases: solid, liquid and gas. Physical Science Refresher In solids, the molecules are rigid and packed together. There is very little space between molecules, so adding pressure does not change the volume. The molecules are locked into place they don t slide around, so solids hold their shape, regardless of the container. 4

6 Properties of the three phases: solid, liquid and gas. Physical Science Refresher In liquids, the molecules are close together, but not locked into place. Pressure does not change the volume very much, because there is not much space between the molecules. The molecules can slide freely, allowing liquids to take the shape of a container. (Pour a liquid into a cup and it takes the shape of the cup.) 5

7 Properties of the three phases: solid, liquid and gas. Physical Science Refresher Gas molecules move freely. There is a lot of empty space between molecules, so adding pressure decreases the volume. Since the molecules move freely, they can fill the shape of their containers. Note: You might hear the term vapor. Vapor and gas mean the same thing. 6

8 Fast Fact Density is a measure of how much matter is in a given volume. It is expressed as weight/ volume (e.g., pounds per gallon or pounds per cubic foot). For example: A gallon of water weighs 8 pounds A gallon of oil weighs 7.2 pounds So water has a greater density than oil. 7

9 Trick Question! Which weighs more: a pound of feathers or a pound of lead? 8

10 Trick Question! Answer: They both weigh the same one pound. Feathers, however, are much less dense than lead. You would need a large volume of feathers, but just a small volume of lead to make up a pound. 9

11 Section 2 The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Matter

12 Temperature and Volume--Metals Most substances expand when heated, as shown with this metal ball and ring. 1 Ball goes through ring. 2 eat ball. 3 eated ball has expanded, no longer goes through the ring. 11

13 Temperature and Volume--Liquids As liquids are heated they expand. This property explains how thermometers work. As the heat increases, the water in the tube expands and marks a higher temperature. 12

14 Temperature, Temperature and Volume Volume and Pressure--Gases Gases change volume due to changes in pressure. When the pressure is increased, the volume of a gas decreases, if the temperature remains the same. 13

15 Ideal Gas Law The relationship between temperature, volume and pressure is described in the ideal gas law. The Pressure (P) x the (V) = the number of atoms (n) x a constant (R) x the temperature (T). 14

16 Ideal Gas Law Changing any one of the conditions brings changes to other conditions. What this means in practical terms is, changes to pressure, temperature and volume are related. We have already seen that changing the pressure changes the volume but what happens if we change the pressure but keep the volume constant? 15

17 Ideal Gas Law If we reduce the pressure and keep the volume constant, the temperature goes down. This is the principle behind refrigeration. Compressed gas goes through an expansion valve and it s temperature drops. 16

18 Section 3 Phase Changes

19 Phase Changes Most substances can be solid, liquid or gas, depending on the temperature and pressure. For example, water can be a solid (ice), a liquid (water), or a gas (steam). 18

20 Melting and Boiling point Low Temperature igh Melting point Boiling point At normal pressure, the temperature at which: A solid changes to a liquid is the melting point. A liquid changes to a gas is the boiling point 19

21 Melting and Boiling point Low Temperature igh Melting point is also the freezing point. Boiling point also the condensation point Going the other way a gas changes to a liquid at the condensation point. A liquid changes to a solid at the freezing point. Generally, the melting point and freezing point are the same, just as the boiling point and condensation point are the same. 20

22 Fast Fact Low Temperature igh The melting point (and the freezing point) of water is 32 o F The boiling point (and condensation point) of water is 212 o F 21

23 Liquefied Natural Gas The condensation point of natural gas is 256 o F. This means that natural gas, when cooled to 256 o F, changes to a liquid. We refer to temperatures this cold as cryogenic. 22

24 Storing LNG As a liquid, natural gas shrinks to 600 times less than its original volume, making it easier to store

25 Section 4 Chemical Properties of Natural Gas

26 What is Natural Gas? C In its purest form, natural gas is almost pure methane. Methane is a molecule made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms, and is referred to as C 4. 25

27 ow Does Natural Gas Burn? C O O Chemically, combustion, or burning, is when a substance combines with oxygen (found in the air as O 2). For combustion to occur, you need fuel (such as methane), oxygen, and heat. 26

28 ow Does Natural Gas Burn? Before- One gas molecule and two oxygen molecules C 4 + 2O 2 After One carbon dioxide molecule and two water molecules CO C O C O O O O O O O 27

29 Summary You have now completed the physical science refresher presentation. You have reviewed: 1. Three phases of matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases 2. The effect of heat and pressure on the phases of matter 3. Phase Changes 4. Chemical properties of natural gas Check your understanding by taking the Quiz.

30 Practice Quiz Self Study Physical Science Refresher PRACTICE QUIZ 29

31 Practice Quiz 1. Match the phase of matter to the description. Phase Solid Liquid Gas Description a. Molecules are close together but slide freely b. Freely-moving molecules fill their container c. Molecules are packed together; holds its own shape 30

32 Practice Quiz 2. In this phase of matter, changing the pressure changes the volume. a. Solid b. Liquid c. Gas 31

33 Practice Quiz 3. If 5 ounces of water are poured into an 8 ounce glass, what is the volume of the water in the glass? a. 5 ounces b. 8 ounces 32

34 Practice Quiz 4. What is the density of a block of ice that has a volume of 4 cubic feet and a weight of 228 pounds? a. 57 pounds per cubic foot b. 228 pounds per cubic foot c. 114 pounds per cubic foot d. 7.2 pounds per cubic foot 33

35 Practice Quiz 5. Most substances expand when they are heated. a. True b. False 34

36 Practice Quiz 6. When the pressure on a gas increases, its volume. a. Increases b. Decreases c. Stays the same 35

37 Practice Quiz 7. Reducing the pressure of a gas while keeping the volume constant warms the gas. a. True b. False 36

38 Practice Quiz 8. The boiling point of natural gas is -256 degrees F. At -260 degrees F, at normal pressure, natural gas is a. a. Solid b. Liquid c. Gas 37

39 Practice Quiz 9. In its purest form, natural gas is almost pure methane. a. True b. False C 38

40 Practice Quiz 10. Complete combustion of natural gas forms (check all that apply): a. Oxygen b. Methane C c. Carbon dioxide d. Water e. ydrogen O2 39

41 Practice Quiz 11. Extremely cold temperatures are called. 40

42 Practice Quiz 12. The temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas is called the. 41

43 Practice Quiz 13. The Ideal Gas Law describes the relationship between, and. 42

44 Physical Practice Science Refresher Quiz Answer Key Self Study Physical Science Refresher PRACTICE QUIZ Answer Key 43

45 Physical Practice Science Refresher Quiz Answer Key 1. Solid c. Molecules are packed together; holds its own shape Liquid a. Molecules are close together but slide freely Gas b. Freely-moving molecules fill their container 2. c 3. a 4. a 5. a 6. b 7. b 8. b 9. a 10. c and d 11. Cryogenic 12. Boiling point 13. Pressure, temperature and volume 44

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