The Gold foil experiment

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1 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 The Gold foil experiment Book page Syllabus

2 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 The Gold foil experiment & history Learning Outcomes 1. Investigate the history of the discovery of the atom as we know it today First task is to create a timeline of the discovery of the atom using the timeline application.watch the video clip to learn how to use Timeline. When you are done export your timeline as jpeg photo and print it. TASKS You need to research the development of the atom as we know it today. You can use the application popplet to create a mindmap The final task is to create a poster, displaying the different individual tasks The Model of the atom Results & Processing Evidence Task 2: How do we know what is inside the atom? Why do we use models? Write an explanation on your poster. Homework: Finish the Past paper exam questions This will be handed in and marked together with your poster Task 3: Using nearpod watch the two presentation about the model of the atom. Explain Dalton s model, J.J.Thomsons model and Rutherford s model of the atom. Include photos or diagrams for each model. Include the names, masses and charge of the particles inside an atom as we know it today The factors that affect the deflection of alpha particles Task 5: Research how charge and speed affects the deflection of alpha particles by a nucleus. Why were alpha particles used and not electrons? Include your findings with a diagram on your poster. The Gold foil experiment Task 4: Explain the gold foil experiment and the outcome. What is another name for this experiment? Why? What does the observation tells us about the structure of the nucleus? There are three distinct outcomes. Name each and explain what can be concluded from the observation. Include a diagram of the experimental setup and of the outcome Answer WS 1

3 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 Starter Draw a time line about the discovery of the atom starting with the Greek Philosophers until Rutherford s model of the atom Easily Create Timelines Using the Timeline App.mp4 Watch the two applets BrainPop Atomic Model.swf Rutherford's experiment.swf The following link has some good information and a link to the applets: units.html?start=15

4 How do we know the structure of an atom? cgrahamphysics.com 2016 The big picture Have you ever wondered?

5 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 How do we know? 1910 Rutherford Geiger Marsden

6 What did scientists used to think an atom looked like? cgrahamphysics.com 2016 They knew that there must be +ve and ve charges in an atom from electrostatic effects! The Plum Pudding model: An atom is a +ve sphere with lots of ve particles positioned throughout

7 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 Geiger and Marsden tried to test this by firing α- particles at gold, to see how they bounce off: Rutherford.MOV rutherford-scattering_en.jar

8 cgrahamphysics.com Expected Plum Pudding Model Result Geiger-Marsden Result Rutherford later said, "It was almost as incredible as if you fired a fifteen-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you."

9 Models of the atom 9 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 We now know that all matter is made of atoms, but ideas about atomic structure have changed over time. The idea of atoms was first suggested in 450 BC by the Greek philosopher Democritus. In 1803, John Dalton reintroduced the idea that everything is made of atoms. He said atoms were solid spheres of matter that could not be split. Dalton also suggested that each element contained identical atoms. For example, gold is an element made up of only gold atoms.

10 JJ Thomson 10 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 In 1897, whilst studying cathode rays, JJ Thomson discovered tiny particles with a negative charge. These negative particles were given out by atoms and were much smaller than atoms. Thomson had discovered the existence of electrons. This discovery contradicted Dalton s theory that atoms were solid spheres of matter. This led Thomson to propose a new model of the atom.

11 11 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 The results The results of Geiger and Marsden s experiment were: 2. Some alpha particles were slightly deflected by the gold foil. 3. A few alpha particles were bounced back from the gold foil. 1. Most alpha particles went straight through the gold foil, without any deflection. The experiment was carried out in a vacuum, so deflection of the alpha particles must have been due to the gold foil. How can these results be explained in terms of atoms?

12 Rutherford s interpretation 12 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 Rutherford had expected all the alpha radiation to pass through the gold foil. He was surprised that some alpha particles were deflected slightly or bounced back. The plum pudding model could not explain these results, so Rutherford proposed his nuclear model of the atom. He suggested that an atom is mostly empty space with its positive charge and most of its mass in a tiny central nucleus. Electrons orbited this nucleus at a distance, like planets around the Sun.

13 The modern model 13 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 Experiments showed that Rutherford s atomic model (a tiny, positively-charged nucleus orbited by electrons) was correct. Further developments in understanding about atomic structure followed, but Rutherford s nuclear model still forms the basis of the modern model of the atom. The nucleus is where most of the mass of the atom is found. It contains protons and neutrons. The electrons orbit the nucleus in shells.

14 What are atoms made of? 14 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 Atoms are made up of three smaller particles: protons neutrons electrons The protons and neutrons exist in a dense core at the centre of the atom. This is called the nucleus. The electrons are spread out around the edge of the atom. They orbit the nucleus in layers called shells.

15 Mass and electrical charge 15 of 23 Boardworks Ltd 2011 There are two properties of protons, neutrons and electrons that are especially important: mass electrical charge. particle proton neutron electron mass 1 1 almost 0 charge The atoms of an element contain equal numbers of protons and electrons and so have no overall charge.

16 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 Factors affecting deflection Electric field Alpha particles are attracted to a negatively charged plate. This confirms that they must be positively charged as unlike charges attract. Alpha particles are helium nuclei; they contain 2 protons which gives them their positive charge. Magnetic field When a charged particle cuts through a magnetic field it experiences a force referred to as the motor effect. Alpha particles are deflected by a magnetic field confirming that they must carry a charge. The direction of deflection which can be determined by Fleming s left hand rule demonstrates that they must be positively charged.

17 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 Speed and deflection The alpha, traveling at 10% the speed of light, penetrates the atom and gets very close to the nucleus. However, the repulsion between the alpha and the atom nucleus is so great that the atom flings the alpha back out, and it does so in a hyperbolic path. Depending on various factors, this occasionally results in the alpha being turned around 90 or more. The very heavy nucleus recoils a bit from the impact, but essentially goes nowhere. The faster they hit the nucleus the faster they were repelled

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