Fountas-Pinnell Level J Nonfiction. by Stephanie Cohen

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1 LESSON 20 TEACHER S GUIDE by Stephanie Cohen Fountas-Pinnell Level J Nonfiction Selection Summary Emperor penguins are the largest penguins. Emperor penguin parents raise their chicks cooperatively. While the mother goes off to feed, the father shelters the egg until it hatches. After the mother returns, the father can feed. Then both care for the chick. Number of Words: 597 Characteristics of the Text Genre Nonfi ction Text Structure Focused on a single topic: Emperor penguins Underlying sequence-of-events text structure Content Emperor penguins Life cycle of Emperor penguins Text assumes that students know that penguins are fl ightless birds Themes and Ideas Emperor penguin parents work as a team to raise their young. Emperor penguins endure hardships to protect their young. Language and Simple, clear language Literary Features Meaning provided through integration of photos with text Sentence Complexity A mix of short and more complex sentences Vocabulary Target vocabulary words highlighted in text Words related to penguins that are not defi ned in text: krill, sheds, waterproof feathers Words Terms and proper nouns that may be diffi cult to decode, such as Emperor penguins, rockhoppers, chinstraps, macaronis, Antarctica, Equator Illustrations Photographs closely linked with the text Map showing where penguins live Book and Print Features Nine pages of text; photos or a graphic on all pages Fun Fact text boxes Captions that add to text information; some long captions with two sentences Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

2 by Stephanie Cohen Build Background Help students use their knowledge of penguins to visualize the book. Build interest by asking questions such as the following: What kind of animal is a penguin? How is a penguin different from other birds? Read the title and author and talk about the cover illustration. Explain that Emperor penguins are the world s largest penguin, and that they have an interesting way of caring for their young. Introduce the Text Guide students through the text, noting important ideas and nonfiction features. Help with unfamiliar language so they can read the text successfully. Give special attention to target vocabulary. Here are some suggestions: Page 2: Explain that penguins live at the bottom of the world, in Antarctica, and that the seasons are reversed there. Suggested language: Turn to page 2. The text says that in June, the region, or area, where penguins live is very cold. June may be summer in North America, but in the region of Antarctica, it s winter. Look at the photo. What do you see sitting on the feet of the penguin on the right? Why do you think the penguin holds its chick on its feet? Page 3: Direct attention to the Fun Fact box. Explain that boxes like this give extra facts about the topic. What facts about penguins does this box tell you? Page 6: Remind students that captions can give clues about information in the text. What does the caption on page 6 tell you? Why is this information unexpected? Does it surprise you to learn that the father penguin doesn t eat? Page 7: Have students look at the photo on the page and read the caption. How do the photo and caption on this page help you understand the meaning of the word gliding? Why would sliding on ice or snow help a penguin go faster? Now turn back to the beginning and read to fi nd out about Emperor penguins. climate the average weather in a particular place, p. 4 colony a group of people or the same kind of animals living together, p. 6 constant not changing, p. 9 gliding moving smoothly, with little effort, p. 7 layer one thickness of something, p. 4 overheated too hot to be safe, p. 4 region a large section of, p. 2 shelter to protect or hide, p. 5 unexpected happening without warning, p. 6 wilderness a wild area of land where very few people live, p. 5 2 Lesson 20:

3 Read As students read, observe them carefully. Guide them as needed, using language that supports their problem-solving ability. Remind students to use the Infer/Predict Strategy figure out more about the selection., and to use clues to Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite students to share their personal responses to the book. Suggested language: What surprised you the most about the lives of Emperor penguins? What more would you like to know about these huge birds? Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help students understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text Emperor penguins are the largest penguin. Emperor penguin parents work as a team to take care of eggs and chicks. Emperor penguin fathers do not eat until the egg hatches. Animal parents will risk their own lives to raise their young. Without the help of both parents, an Emperor penguin chick could not survive. Even the biggest animals need protection when they are babies Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Captions help to explain the photos. The photos contain a lot of visual information. The Fun Fact boxes contain interesting information about penguins. Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite students to choose a passage from the text and demonstrate phrased fl uent reading. Remind them to pay attention to punctuation, pausing at commas and periods. Comprehension Based on your observations of the students reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind students to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Guide students to read and work with contractions with is and not: it s-it is, won t-will not, can t-cannot. Provide additional examples, such as hasn t, shouldn t, he s, and who s. 3 Lesson 20:

4 Writing about Reading Vocabulary Practice Have students complete the Vocabulary questions on BLM Responding Have students complete the vocabulary activities on page 11. Remind them to answer the Word Teaser on page 12. (Answer: overheater) Reading Nonfiction Nonfiction Features: Map Remind students that nonfiction has many features to help readers find and understand important information. Maps are one of these features. Explain that a map can show a small area or the entire world, as on page 5. The labels on a map give the names of places on the map. Point out that the box on the left of the map on page 5 is called a map key. The map key explains what symbols or colors on the map stand for. In this book, the red square shows that areas in red on the map are where penguins live. Have students look again at the map on page 5. Ask what continent is hidden by the Fun Fact box (North America). Have students identify other continents where penguins do not live (Europe, Asia). Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the Text Have students write a response to the prompt on page 6. Assessment Prompts In the fi rst paragraph on page 5, which word used as a verb can also be a noun that means a place to live or take cover in? In paragraph 2 on page 6, fi nd the word that means almost the same as group. Tell one word that best describes Emperor penguin fathers. Use evidence from the book to support your answer. 4 Lesson 20:

5 Read directions to students. English Language Development Reading Support Give English learners a preview of the text by holding a brief small-group discussion with them before reading the text with the entire group. Cognates Use English/Spanish cognates such as these to aid students understanding of the target vocabulary words: climate-clima, colony-colonia, constant-constante, regionregión. Oral Language Development Check student comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches your students English proficiency level. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the student. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: What kind of penguins is this book about? Speaker 2: Emperor penguins Speaker 1: Are Emperor penguins large or small birds? Speaker 2: They are large birds. Speaker 1: Which parent takes care of the egg until it hatches? Speaker 2: The father penguin takes care of the egg. Speaker 1: What do the mother penguins do while the fathers care for the eggs? Speaker 2: The mother penguins go off to find food. Speaker 1: What has to happen to a chick before it can go into the water to find its own food? Speaker 2: The chick has to shed its fluffy feathers and grow waterproof feathers. 3_246239RTXEAN_L16-20TV.indd Page Sec3:3 2/28/09 4:53:01 AM elhi /Volumes/118/HS00117/work%0/indd%0/Target_Vocabulary/3_246239RTXEAN_U4L16-20TV Name Write words and ideas that go with the word climate in the web. Then create your own webs for the remaining Target Vocabulary words. Possible responses shown. Vocabulary Date Lesson 20 BLACKLINE MASTER 20.1 climate colony constant gliding layer overheated region shelter unexpected wilderness weather rainy climate desert cold. All rights reserved. 3, Unit 4: Extreme Nature 5 Lesson 20:

6 Name Date Thinking Beyond the Text Think about the questions below. Then write your answer in one or two paragraphs. Penguins are birds, but they are unable to fly. Their wings are more like flippers and they use them to swim. Look at the photos of the penguins on the cover and on page 3. How do you think penguins use their flippers to help them swim underwater? How is this like the way people swim? 6 Lesson 20:

7 Name Date Lesson 20 BLACKLINE MASTER 20.1 Write words and ideas that go with the word climate in the web. Then create your own webs for the remaining Target Vocabulary words. Vocabulary climate colony constant gliding layer overheated region shelter unexpected wilderness climate 7 Lesson 20:

8 Student Date Lesson 20 BLACKLINE MASTER LEVEL J Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 2 It is June in Antarctica. The region is very cold. The sun won t shine much for months. But the Emperor penguins are busy. It is time for the penguin mothers to lay their eggs. The penguin fathers will help care for the eggs. 3 The Emperor penguin is the largest penguin. It can grow to be four feet tall. That s as tall as a six-year-old child. 4 During the summer, penguins eat a lot. By the time winter arrives, they have a thick layer of fat. It keeps them warm in this cold climate. The penguins feathers help keep them warm, too, but not overheated. Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/ ) % Total Self- Corrections Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat 0 Insertion the 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 20:

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