# Intro to Rings, Fields, Polynomials: Hardware Modeling by Modulo Arithmetic

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1 Intro to Rings, Fields, Polynomials: Hardware Modeling by Modulo Arithmetic Priyank Kalla Associate Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah Lecture: Sep 22-24, 2014

2 Agenda for Today Wish to build a polynomial algebra model for hardware Modulo arithmetic model is versatile: can represent both bit-level and word-level constraints To build the algebraic/modulo arithmetic model: Rings, Fields, Modulo arithmetic Polynomials, Polynomial functions, Polynomial Rings Ideals, Varieties, and Gröbner Bases Decision procedures in verification P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

3 Motivation for Algebraic Computation Modeling for bit-precise algebraic computation Arithmetic RTLs: functions over k-bit-vectors k-bit-vector integers (mod 2 k ) = Z 2 k k-bit-vector Galois (Finite) field F 2 k For many of these applications SAT/SMT fail miserably! Computer Algebra and Algebraic Geometry + SAT/SMT Model: Circuits as polynomial functions f : Z 2 k Z 2 k, f : F 2 k F 2 k P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

4 Ring algebra All we need is an algebraic object where we can add, multiply, divide. These objects are Rings and Fields. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

5 Groups, (G,0,+) An Abelian group is a set G and a binary operation + satisfying: Closure: For every a,b G,a+b G. Associativity: For every a,b,c G,a+(b +c) = (a+b)+c. Commutativity: For every a,b G,a+b = b +a. Identity: There is an identity element 0 G such that for all a G;a+0 = a. Inverse: If a G, then there is an element a 1 G such that a+a 1 = 0. Example: The set of Integers Z or Z n with + operation. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

6 Rings (R,0,1,+, ) A Commutative ring with unity is a set R and two binary operations + and, as well as two distinguished elements 0,1 R such that, R is an Abelian group with respect to addition with additive identity element 0, and the following properties are satisfied: Multiplicative Closure: For every a,b R, a b R. Multiplicative Associativity: For every a, b, c R, a (b c) = (a b) c. Multiplicative Commutativity: For every a,b R, a b = b a. Multiplicative Identity: There is an identity element 1 R such that for all a R, a 1 = a. Distributivity: For every a,b,c R, a (b +c) = a b +a c holds for all a,b,c R. Example: The set of Integers Z or Z n with +, operations. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

7 Rings Examples of rings: R,Q,C,Z Z n = {0,1,...,n 1} where +, computed +, (mod n) Modulo arithmetic: (a+b) (mod n) = (a (mod n)+b (mod n)) (mod n) (a b) (mod n) = (a (mod n) b (mod n)) (mod n) a (mod n) = (n a) (mod n) Arithmetic k-bit vectors arithmetic over Z 2 k For k = 1, Z 2 B P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

8 Rings Examples of rings: R,Q,C,Z Z n = {0,1,...,n 1} where +, computed +, (mod n) Modulo arithmetic: (a+b) (mod n) = (a (mod n)+b (mod n)) (mod n) (a b) (mod n) = (a (mod n) b (mod n)) (mod n) a (mod n) = (n a) (mod n) Arithmetic k-bit vectors arithmetic over Z 2 k For k = 1, Z 2 B But, what about division? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

9 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

10 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

11 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? Over Z, can you divide 3 4? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

12 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? Over Z, can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 8), can you divide 3 4? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

13 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? Over Z, can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 8), can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 7), can you divide 3 4? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

14 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? Over Z, can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 8), can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 7), can you divide 3 4? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

15 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? Over Z, can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 8), can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 7), can you divide 3 4? Division is multiplication by a (multiplicative) inverse! P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

16 How to define division? Over Q, can you divide 2 3 by 4 5? Over C, can you divide a+ib c+id? Over Z, can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 8), can you divide 3 4? Over Z (mod 7), can you divide 3 4? Division is multiplication by a (multiplicative) inverse! Division For an element a in a ring R, a b = a b 1. Here, b 1 R s.t. b b 1 = 1. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

17 Multiplicative Inverses Over Q: if b = 2 3, b 1 = 3 2? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

18 Multiplicative Inverses Over Q: if b = 2 3, b 1 = 3 2? Over Z: if b = 4, b 1 =? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

19 Multiplicative Inverses Over Q: if b = 2 3, b 1 = 3 2? Over Z: if b = 4, b 1 =? Over rings: inverses may not exist P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

20 Multiplicative Inverses Over Q: if b = 2 3, b 1 = 3 2? Over Z: if b = 4, b 1 =? Over rings: inverses may not exist Over Z 8 : if b = 3,b 1 =? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

21 Multiplicative Inverses Over Q: if b = 2 3, b 1 = 3 2? Over Z: if b = 4, b 1 =? Over rings: inverses may not exist Over Z 8 : if b = 3,b 1 =? Over Z 8 : if b = 6,b 1 =? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

22 Multiplicative Inverses Over Q: if b = 2 3, b 1 = 3 2? Over Z: if b = 4, b 1 =? Over rings: inverses may not exist Over Z 8 : if b = 3,b 1 =? Over Z 8 : if b = 6,b 1 =? Over Z 7 : if b = 6,b 1 =? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

23 Fields Field (F,0,1,+, ) A field F is a commutative ring with unity, where every element in F, except 0, has a multiplicative inverse: a (F {0}), â F such that a â = 1. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

24 Fields Field (F,0,1,+, ) A field F is a commutative ring with unity, where every element in F, except 0, has a multiplicative inverse: a (F {0}), â F such that a â = 1. A field is called a finite field or Galois field when F has a finite number of elements. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

25 Fields Field (F,0,1,+, ) A field F is a commutative ring with unity, where every element in F, except 0, has a multiplicative inverse: a (F {0}), â F such that a â = 1. A field is called a finite field or Galois field when F has a finite number of elements. The set Z p = Z (mod p) = {0,1,...,p 1} is a finite field, when p is a prime integer. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

26 Fields Field (F,0,1,+, ) A field F is a commutative ring with unity, where every element in F, except 0, has a multiplicative inverse: a (F {0}), â F such that a â = 1. A field is called a finite field or Galois field when F has a finite number of elements. The set Z p = Z (mod p) = {0,1,...,p 1} is a finite field, when p is a prime integer. Z n,n p is a ring but not a field. So, Z 2 k is not a field, as even numbers in Z 2 k have no inverses. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

27 Fields Field (F,0,1,+, ) A field F is a commutative ring with unity, where every element in F, except 0, has a multiplicative inverse: a (F {0}), â F such that a â = 1. A field is called a finite field or Galois field when F has a finite number of elements. The set Z p = Z (mod p) = {0,1,...,p 1} is a finite field, when p is a prime integer. Z n,n p is a ring but not a field. So, Z 2 k is not a field, as even numbers in Z 2 k have no inverses. Z 2 F 2 B {0,1} P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

28 B is arithmetic (mod 2) Boolean AND-OR-NOT can be mapped to +, (mod 2) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

29 B is arithmetic (mod 2) B F 2 : Boolean AND-OR-NOT can be mapped to +, (mod 2) a a+1 (mod 2) a b a+b +a b (mod 2) a b a b (mod 2) a b a+b (mod 2) (1) where a,b F 2 = {0,1}. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

30 Hardware Model in Z 2 Figure: = AND, = XOR. f 1 : s 0 +a 0 b 0 ; f 2 : s 1 +a 0 b 1, f 3 : s 2 +a 1 b 0 ; f 4 : s 3 +a 1 b 1, f 5 : r 0 +s 1 +s 2 ; f 6 : z 0 +s 0 +s 3, f 7 : z 1 +r 0 +s 3 P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

31 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

32 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

33 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? Yes, we can have fields of p k elements F p k P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

34 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? Yes, we can have fields of p k elements F p k These are called extension fields, we will study them later P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

35 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? Yes, we can have fields of p k elements F p k These are called extension fields, we will study them later In fact, we are interested in F 2 k (k-bit vector arithmetic) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

36 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? Yes, we can have fields of p k elements F p k These are called extension fields, we will study them later In fact, we are interested in F 2 k (k-bit vector arithmetic) Fields are unique factorization domains (UFDs) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

37 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? Yes, we can have fields of p k elements F p k These are called extension fields, we will study them later In fact, we are interested in F 2 k (k-bit vector arithmetic) Fields are unique factorization domains (UFDs) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

38 Finite Fields Z p : field of p elements, p = 2, 3, 5, 7,..., 163,... Is there a field of 4 elements F 4? Yes, we can have fields of p k elements F p k These are called extension fields, we will study them later In fact, we are interested in F 2 k (k-bit vector arithmetic) Fields are unique factorization domains (UFDs) Fermat s Little Theorem x F p, x p x = 0 P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

39 Zero Divisors Zero Divisors (ZD) For a,b R,a,b 0,a b = 0. Then a,b are zero divisors of each other. Z n,n p has zero divisors. What about Z p? Integral Domains Any set (ring) with no zero divisors: Z,R,Q,C,Z p,f 2 k. What about Z 2 k? Relationships Commutative Rings Integral Domains (no ZD) Unique Factorization Domains Fields For Hardware: Our interests non-ufd Rings (Z 2 k) and Fields F 2 k P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

40 Verification Problems and UFDs In 3-bit arithmetic Z 8 : (x 2 +6x) (mod 8) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

41 Verification Problems and UFDs In 3-bit arithmetic Z 8 : (x 2 +6x) (mod 8) Factorize according to its roots: x(x +6) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

42 Verification Problems and UFDs In 3-bit arithmetic Z 8 : (x 2 +6x) (mod 8) Factorize according to its roots: x(x +6) What about (x +2)(x +4)? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

43 Verification Problems and UFDs In 3-bit arithmetic Z 8 : (x 2 +6x) (mod 8) Factorize according to its roots: x(x +6) What about (x +2)(x +4)? Degree 2 polynomial has more roots than the degree? Roots x = 0,2,4,6? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

44 Verification Problems and UFDs In 3-bit arithmetic Z 8 : (x 2 +6x) (mod 8) Factorize according to its roots: x(x +6) What about (x +2)(x +4)? Degree 2 polynomial has more roots than the degree? Roots x = 0,2,4,6? Z 8 = non-ufd P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

45 Verification Problems and UFDs In 3-bit arithmetic Z 8 : (x 2 +6x) (mod 8) Factorize according to its roots: x(x +6) What about (x +2)(x +4)? Degree 2 polynomial has more roots than the degree? Roots x = 0,2,4,6? Z 8 = non-ufd Cannot use factorization to prove equivalence over non-ufds. P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

46 Consolidating the results so far... Over fields Z p,f 2 k,r,q,c We can add, multiply, divide No zero-divisors, can uniquely factorize a polynomial according to its roots Rings Z: integral domains, unique factorization, but no inverses Over Rings Z n,n p; e.g. n = 2 k Presence of zero divisors non-ufds, polynomial can have more zeros than its degree Cannot perform division P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

47 Polynomials Let x 1,...,x d be variables Monomial is a power product: X = x α 1 1 xα xα d d, α i Z 0 Polynomial: sum of terms f = c 1 X 1 +c 2 X 2 + +c t X t, where X i are monomials and c i are coefficients f = x 55 not a polynomial! The terms of f have to be ordered: X 1 > X 2 > > X t Term ordering for univariate polynomials is based on the degree: e.g. f = 3x x 3 +4 Multi-variate term-ordering is a lot more involved and we ll study it shortly P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

48 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

49 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

50 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

51 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

52 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? Does every non-zero element in F[x] have an inverse? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

53 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? Does every non-zero element in F[x] have an inverse? Let f = 3 2 (x2 ) Q[x], What is f 1? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

54 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? Does every non-zero element in F[x] have an inverse? Let f = 3 2 (x2 ) Q[x], What is f 1? F[x 1,x 2,...,x d ] denotes the set (ring) of all multi-variate polynomials in x 1,...,x d P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

55 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? Does every non-zero element in F[x] have an inverse? Let f = 3 2 (x2 ) Q[x], What is f 1? F[x 1,x 2,...,x d ] denotes the set (ring) of all multi-variate polynomials in x 1,...,x d R need not have coefficients over a field. E.g., Z 2 k[x 1,...,x d ]: polynomial ring with coefficients in Z 2 k P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

56 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? Does every non-zero element in F[x] have an inverse? Let f = 3 2 (x2 ) Q[x], What is f 1? F[x 1,x 2,...,x d ] denotes the set (ring) of all multi-variate polynomials in x 1,...,x d R need not have coefficients over a field. E.g., Z 2 k[x 1,...,x d ]: polynomial ring with coefficients in Z 2 k R[x 1,...,x d ] is a finite or infinite set? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

57 For symbolic computation: Polynomial Rings Let F be a field (any field: R,Q,C,Z p ) Then, R = F[x] denotes the set (ring) of all univariate polynomials in x (including constants), with coefficients in F Examples: Let R = Q[x], then x R,(x x57 ) R and so on Is F[x] really a ring or a field? Does every non-zero element in F[x] have an inverse? Let f = 3 2 (x2 ) Q[x], What is f 1? F[x 1,x 2,...,x d ] denotes the set (ring) of all multi-variate polynomials in x 1,...,x d R need not have coefficients over a field. E.g., Z 2 k[x 1,...,x d ]: polynomial ring with coefficients in Z 2 k R[x 1,...,x d ] is a finite or infinite set? Z 2 k[x 1,...,x d ] is a finite or infinite set? (It s a loaded question) P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

58 Operations in Polynomial Rings add, mult polynomials, just like you did in high-school Reduce coefficients modulo the coefficient field/ring Consider: f 1,f 2 Z 4 [x,y] f 1 = 3x +2y; f 2 = 2x +2y f 1 +f 2 = x;f 1 f 2 = 2x 2 +2xy Reduce coefficients in Z 4, i.e. (mod 4) Solve f 1 = f 2 = 0, Solutions (x,y) should be in Z 4 P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

59 Operations in Polynomial Rings add, mult polynomials, just like you did in high-school Reduce coefficients modulo the coefficient field/ring Consider: f 1,f 2 Z 4 [x,y] f 1 = 3x +2y; f 2 = 2x +2y f 1 +f 2 = x;f 1 f 2 = 2x 2 +2xy Reduce coefficients in Z 4, i.e. (mod 4) Solve f 1 = f 2 = 0, Solutions (x,y) should be in Z 4 (x,y) = {(0,0),(0,2)} P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

60 Polynomial Functions (Polyfunctions) A function is a map f : A B; where A,B are the domain and co-domain, respectively. Ex: f : R R is a function over Reals; and f : Z 2 k Z 2 k is a function over the finite integer ring Z 2 k PolyFunction Given a function f : A B, does there exist a (canonical) polynomial F that describes f? If so, f is a polynomial function. Over finite fields every function f : F p k F p k is a polynomial function. It is possible to interpolate a polynomial F from f. Not every f : Z n Z n,n p, is a polynomial function. Example1: f : Z 4 Z 4,f(0) = 0;f(1) = 1;f(2) = 0;f(3) = 1; then F = x 2 (mod 4) Example2: f : Z 4 Z 4,f(0) = 0;f(1) = 0;f(2) = 1;f(3) = 1; No polynomial F (mod 4) represents f P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

61 Zero Polynomials and Zero Functions Over Z 4 [x], F 1 = 2x 2,F 2 = 2x F 1 F 2 = 2x 2 2x = 0( x Z4) F 1 F 2 and F 1 F 2 0 (zero function) Need a unique, canonical representation of F over Z 2 k,f 2 k Over Galois fields Z p : x p = x (mod p), so (f)(x p x) 0 in Z p Over infinite fields, life is easier: Let F be an infinite field, and F F[x 1,...,x d ]. Then: F = 0 f : F n F is the zero function P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

62 Zero Polynomials and Zero Functions Over Z 4 [x], F 1 = 2x 2,F 2 = 2x F 1 F 2 = 2x 2 2x = 0( x Z4) F 1 F 2 and F 1 F 2 0 (zero function) Need a unique, canonical representation of F over Z 2 k,f 2 k Over Galois fields Z p : x p = x (mod p), so (f)(x p x) 0 in Z p Over infinite fields, life is easier: Let F be an infinite field, and F F[x 1,...,x d ]. Then: F = 0 f : F n F is the zero function Circuits are functions over Z 2 k,f 2 k. Hardware verification is a hard problem! P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

63 Ideals in Rings R = ring, Ideal J R 0 J x,y J,x +y J x J,y R,x y J Examples of Ideals:? P. Kalla (Univ. of Utah) Rings, Fields, Algebra Lecture: Sep 22-24, / 22

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