Carbon free future of European cities

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1 Carbon free future of European cities EUCO2 80/50 project and hands-on experience from Oslo Irma Karjalainen Director HSY, Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority

2 +4 C global warming? World Bank says that consequences are potentially devastating: Inundation of coastal cities Increasing risks for food production and higher malnutrition rates Many dry regions becoming dryer, wet regions wetter Unprecedented heat waves in many regions Substantially exacerbated water scarcity in many regions Increased intensity of tropical cyclones

3 Global CO 2 emissions and new scenarios Gt (CO 2) Gt (CO 2) RCP ,0-6,1 C Current trend leads here RCP ,6-3,7 C 70 RCP ,0-3,0 C 50 RCP 3.0-PD 1,3-1,9 C but this is where 30 Actual 20 we want to be! emissions Gt (CO 2) RCP 8.5 4,0-6,1 C RCP 6.0 2,6-3,7 C RCP 4.5 2,0-3,0 C RCP 3.0-PD 1,3-1,9 C Source: Peters et al. 2012; Le Quéré et al. 2012; CDIAC Data; Global Carbon Project 2012

4 EUCO2 80/50 project Objective: 80 % reduction of urban greenhouse gas emissions by metropolitan regions with total population of 48 million > 10 % of the population of Europe Lead partner Hamburg METREX

5 EUCO2 80/50 project A two stage project: 1. Regional greenhouse gas inventories First comparative study with a big number of important metropolitan areas Basis for regional mitigation activities 2. Scenario workshops How to reach -80 %? Basis for a consensual mitigation strategy and political implementation

6 tco2e per capita Stage 1: regional inventories Agriculture Waste Transport Services Residential Industry Industrial Processes Energy Industry Fugitive 0

7 Stage 2: scenario workshops 350 high-level stakeholders (economy, politics, administration, science und NGOs) run 50 scenario sessions and develop roadmaps for effective and consensual mitigation GRIP scenario tool helps to visualize effects of different mitigation measures

8 Stage 2: key findings 1/3 1. Only 35% of the scenarios reached the target of an 80% reduction 2. Southern European stakeholders were less confident in mitigation chances than the rest of Europe 3. Low Carbon Electricity generation is key to mitigation % de-carbonised grid would on its own reduce European CO2 emissions by less than 25%

9 Stage 2: key findings 2/3 5. Emissions reductions in the building sector are key to mitigation 6. Increased industrial efficiency can contribute substantially to emissions reductions 7. Savings in electrical energy are necessary even with a de-carbonised grid 8. Road transport is also essential

10 Stage 2: key findings 3/3 Contribution of different sectors to overall 80 % reduction goal:

11 Results from Helsinki workshops 94 %, 87 % and 77 % reduction scenarios Sector District heating Electricity Principal emission reduction measures - Adoption of CCS-technology in all power plants, fossil fuels remain dominant - Increased use (to %) of biofuels - Nuclear waste heat suggested in one workshop -80 % - Carbon neutral Finnish grid with some CCS-coal - Wind up to 12 %, nuclear % - Local production was considered insignificant emission reduction by the year 2050

12 Results from Helsinki workshops 94 %, 87 % and 77 % reduction scenarios Sector Principal emission reduction measures Buildings - Improved energy efficiency in buildings (by 50 %) - Reduced electricity consumption - Conversion to low-emission cogeneration (CHP) - More heat pumps, no fuel oil Transport - Increased use of plug-in hybrids and EVs (electricity 50 %) - All or almost all fossil fuels replaced (biofuels 40 %) - Improved energy efficiency (by 30 %) - Mileage increases but less than population -80 % emission reduction by the year 2050 Special report: Ilmasto/EUCO2%20workshop%20report%20Helsinki.pdf

13 80 % reduction is possible! Reports and more info:

14 Sustainability in the City of Oslo

15 Environmental planning Oslo facts The Environment and Climate Action Plan Waste and waste water management Transport fuels Green Mobility

16 Oslo s GHG emissions: 2.3 t/per capita Transport/ Mobile sources 50 % Other sources 5 % Fluorinated gases and solvents 7 % Stationary sources 38 %

17 Oslo climate goals GHG emissions reduction of 50% by 2030 and climate neutral by 2050 Clear targets for a climate neutral and efficient transport system and carbon free heating Public transport to be fossil free by 2020 Oslo will reduce GHG emissions from all transport by 50 % by 2030 Fossil free district heating powered by heat from sewage and domestic waste

18 A leading international sustainable city London -60 % by 2050 from % by 2016 Freiburg -40% by 2030 from % by 2010 Hannover -40 % by 2020 from 1990 Copenhagen -50 % by 2015 from % by 2025 Oslo -50 % by 2030 from % by 2050 Helsinki -20% by 2020 carbon neutral 2050 Münster Target achieved -21 % by % by 2020 Stockholm -100% by 2050 from 1990

19 Waste and waste water management

20 Oslo s cycle-based waste management system Contruction waste re-use, recycling and energy recovery Bio fertilizer District heating Bio gas Electricity hazardous glass paper waste metal cardboad Waste-to-Energy Agency City of Oslo

21 Oslo s reuse of waste heat and waste water -the renewable energy producer Annual production Sewage and waste heat Biogas Energy to district heating Fuel for 80 buses and 140 refuse collection trucks 250 GWh, heating homes, Sludge for agriculture farmland Fertiliser 140 t = Fosfor bags of min.fertiliser, 30 kg/bag

22 Efficient sorting and re-use of domestic waste 94 % of all household waste is either energy recovered or material recycled 90 % of all inhabitants live within 300 m of a waste return point All homes included in waste sorting optical sorting Organic waste to biogas Plastic waste to new products Waste to district heating Waste to-energy Agency City of Oslo

23 From plastic wrapping to new products The national plastic recycling system: The plastic is optically sorted in Oslo, melted and transformed into new plastic products in Germany Worlds largest, and the only sorting plant with mechanical presorting process in Oslo

24 District heating

25 District heating at Oslo will be fossil free by 2016 (20 % fossil 2012) Fossil free district heating powered by heat from sewage and domestic waste and bioenergy Oslo s municipal buildings oil-free from waste incineration plants

26 Transport

27 All public transport to be fossil free by 2020 All transport GHG reduction by 50 % by 2030: Metro Trams Buses run by biogas hydrogen hybrid biodiesel bioethanol Boats - biogas Local trains

28 Oslo Electric Car Capital of the World? 2500 electric cars in the Oslo urban area, 4000 in the metropolitan region No charge at toll ring Use of public transport lanes Free parking for EV s EV s and hydrogen cars are exempt from Vehicle Import Duty and VAT Rapid charging project

29 500 public charging stations for EV s by private charging stations Foto: Mona Strande

30 The world s first public commercial car-sharing scheme with EV s. 13 electric cars at three central locations

31 Hydrogen five new buses and regional hydrogen infrastructure Oslo is creating early markets for hydrogen, 4 filling stations and 17 hydrogen fuel cell cars A hydrogen refuellng station a world first as the station is supplied by hydrogen produced from domestic waste.

32 Transport planning

33 62% of journeys on public transport system by rail Railwa y Metr o Tram

34 Is level of car traffic reducing? Improvement of public transport new metro carriages, new price structure, high frequency car traffic -3%

35 Road charging for financing transport infrastructure and reducing transport demand RING 3 ROAD 3 RINGROAD 2 RING 1 City Hall

36 Green mobility in Oslo is about attractive city for pedestrians improving public transport introduction of green vehicles and infrastructure for electro and hydrogen mobility transforming the city to be bike friendly

37 Conclusions: A great city needs a great green policy Strong political leadership Good urban governance and strong management Clear goals Civil society involvement Best practice Dedicated people, action plan and concrete actions Knowledge dissemination

38 Thank you! More information: Helsinki.pdf

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