1 Intervals Harmony Chords and Scales Workbook
2 Introduction In writing this book I was able to make many discoveries for myself both in methods of teaching and basic use of music theory. In every discipline it is never a waste of time to review the basics. I begin this book with the basics of Chords and Scales and progress through their uses in various music styles from Country to Blues to Rock to Jazz. The only difference from a theoretical standpoint is often very subtle and is more about leaving out rather than putting in. I start with the most basic of building blocks. Intervals. Understanding intervals and being able to hear the intervals is an absolute must to progress in m Music.
3 Chapter 1 Intervals The basic building blocks of all music are called Intervals. Intervals are the distance between notes. When I say Distance I am referring to the change in pitch from one note to the next. Take a low note. Sing to your self a note in a deep voice. Now sing a high note. Between the two notes is the distance I am referring to. There is an interval between the two notes. Some pairs of notes are very close together and other pairs are far apart such as the example above. An interval is between two notes.. So an example would be A = 1 E = 5 or a Interval of 5 also known as a 5th. Intervals come in different qualities and size. If the notes are sounded successively, it is a melodic interval. If sounded simultaneously, then it is a harmonic interval. To visualize the distance of notes, picture keys on a piano. Each interval is created by a series of half steps and whole steps. The graphic above shows on a piano the difference between a half step And whole step.
4 On a guitar the difference looks like this: Half Step One Fret Distance Whole Step Two Fret Distance Here is a listing of the intervals for one octave. Pay special attention to the physical relationship between the notes. The same relationships are all over the Fretboard. What I mean by this is that you can slide these diagrams up the Fretboard and also up to the next string (except for that darn B String, where some of the positions change a half fret). Unison Same Note Minor 2 nd 1 Half Step Major 2 nd 1 Whole Step
5 Minor 3 rd 3 Half Steps Major 3 rd 4 Half Steps 4th 5 Half Steps Diminshed 5 th 6 Half Steps 5 th 7 Half Steps
6 Minor 6 th 8 Half Steps Major 6 th 9 Half Steps Minor 7th 10 Half Steps Major 7th 11 Half Steps Octave
7 12 Half Steps These are the first 12 Tones. Again you can start anywhere on the E or A string and the pattern is the same. This is a key principle in understanding the marvelous practical layout of the guitar. It was in fact a perfect system until. Someone decided that the 2 nd String should be B. If you notice starting at the Thickest string E the next 3 strings A D G Are each a 4 th apart (5 half steps). That is why when you tune the guitar you press Down the 5 th Fret. But the B string is only a 3 rd up from the G string. This changes all the intervals 1 Fret. We Will discuss this more in chapter 2.
8 All of the Notes in the Key of C Major Color explanation: Each Octave gets lighter. Low C = Red / Middle C = Orange / High C = Yellow. Other notes in scale: first Octave Green / Second Octave Light Blue Note the Blue section. If you take C on the E string 8 th Fret as the 1 or root and apply the Intervals: Major 2nd Major 3rd Fourth Fifth Major 6th Major 7th Octave (D) (E) (F) (G) (A) (B) (C) You have the Major scale. Find the C on the A string at the 3 rd fret. Circled in RED You see the same exact pattern! Now find the C on the B string 1 st fret Circled in YELLOW You see the same exact pattern!
9 It is important that you see these reoccurring patterns all over the guitar they are important roadmaps for your playing and creativity. We ll start with the basics, and right after that I ll show you a couple of really powerful exercises that will help put it all together for you. So, first, let s look at all the repeating ways we can play the same intervals on the Guitar. I ll use the Key of C major to show you the detailed information, and then also spell out the same interval relationships for all of the remaining C-A-G-E-D Keys of A, G, E, and D. Major 2 nd Intervals in the Key of C (Notes C to D) E B This example shows two ways to play a major G nd Interval from the Root C on the sixth string D (Low E String). A E E B Two ways to play a Major 2 nd from root C on the G fifth string (A String). D A E E B Two ways to play Major 2 nd from root C on fourth G string (D String). D A E E B Two ways to play Major 2 nd from root C on third G string (G string). D A E E B One way to play Major 2 nd from root C on second G string (B String). D A E -----
10 E B One way to play major 2 nd from root C on first G string (High E String). D A E Here are the Major 2 nd Intervals in the Key of A (Notes A to B): E B G D A E E B G D A E Major 2 nd Intervals in the Key of G (Notes G to A) E B G D A E Major 2 nd Intervals for the Key of E (Notes E to F#) E B G D A E Major 2 nd Intervals in the Key of D (Notes D to E) E B G D A E
11 E B G D A E (Major 2 nd Intervals in D - Continued) Major 3 rd Intervals in the Key of C (Notes C-E) E B Two ways to play Major 3 rd interval from root C G on sixth string (Low E String). D A E E B Two ways to play Major 3 rd interval from root C G on fifth string (A String). D A E E B Two ways to play Major 3 rd interval from root C G on fourth string (D String). D A E E B Three ways to play Major 3 rd interval from G Root C on third string (G String). D A E E B Two ways to play Major 3 rd interval from root C G on second string (B String). D A E
12 E B One way to play Major 3 rd interval from root C on G first string (High E String). D A E Here are the Major 3 rd Intervals in the Key of A (Notes A to C#): E B G D A E Major 3 rd Intervals in the Key of G (Notes G to B): E B G D A E Major 3 rd Intervals in the Key of E (Notes E to G#): E B G D A E Major 3 rd Intervals in the Key of D (Notes D to F#): E B G D A E
13 Perfect Fourth Intervals in the Key of C (Notes C-F) E B One way to play Perfect 4 th interval from root C on G sixth string (Low E String). D A E E B One way to play Perfect 4 th interval from root C on G fifth string (A String). D A E E B One way to play Perfect 4 th interval from root C on G fourth string (D String). D A E E B Two ways to play Perfect 4 th G third string (G String). D A E interval from root C E B One way to play Perfect 4 th interval from root C on G second string (B String). D A E Here are the Perfect Fourth Intervals in the Key of A (Notes A-D): E B G D A E
14 Perfect Fourth Intervals in the Key of G (Notes G-C): E B G D A E Perfect Fourth Intervals in the Key of E (Notes E-A): E B G D A E Perfect Fourth Intervals in the Key of D (Notes D-G): E B G D A E Perfect Fifth Intervals in the Key of C (Notes C-G) E B G D A E Three ways to play Perfect 5th interval from root C on sixth string (Low E String). E B Two ways to play Perfect 5 th interval from G root C on fifth string (A String). D A E E B Two ways to play Perfect 5 th interval
15 G D A E from root C on fourth string (D String). E B Two ways to play Perfect 5 th interval G from root C on third string (G String). D A E E B One way to play Perfect 5 th interval from G Root C on second string (B String). D A E Here are the Perfect Fifth Intervals in the Key of A (Notes A-E): E B G D A E Perfect Fifth Intervals in the Key of G (Notes G-D): E B G D A E E B G D A E
16 Perfect Fifth Intervals in the Key of E (Notes E-B): E B G D A E th s in Key of E Continued E B G D A E Perfect Fifth Intervals in the Key of D (Notes D-A): E B G D A E E B G D A E Major Sixth Intervals in the Key of C (C-A) E B Two ways to play Major 6 th interval from G root C on sixth string (Low E String). D A E E B G D A E Two ways to play Major sixth interval from root C on fifth string (A String).
17 E B G D A E E B G D A E Two ways to play Major sixth interval root C on third string (D String). Two ways to play Major sixth interval from root C on third string (G String). E B G D A E One way to play Major sixth interval from root C on second string (B String). Here are the Major Sixth Intervals in the Key of A (Notes A-F#): E B G D A E Major Sixth Intervals in the Key of G (Notes G-E): E B G D A E E B G D A E
18 Major Sixth Intervals in the Key of E (Notes E-C#): E B G D A E Major Sixth Intervals in the Key of D (Notes D-B): E B G D A E E B G D A E Major Seventh Intervals in the Key of C (C-B) E B G D A E Three ways to play Major 7 th interval from root C on sixth string (Low E String).
19 E B Two ways to play Major 7 th interval from G root C on fifth string (A String). D A E E B Two ways to play Major 7 th interval from G root C on fourth string (D String). D A E E B One way to play Major 7 th interval from root C on G third string (G String). D A E Here are the Major Seventh Intervals in the Key of A (Notes A-G#): E B G D A E Major Seventh Intervals in the Key of G (Notes G-F#): E B G D A E
20 Major Seventh Intervals in the Key of E (Notes E-D#): E B G D A E Major Seventh Intervals in the Key of D (Notes D-C#): E B G D A E The goal is to integrate an automatic awareness of these intervals and where to find them on the guitar. Be patient, and keep working them until you can visualize them without a guitar in your hands. This will open up new worlds to your guitar playing.
21 O.K., that is simple enough. Let s get to work and really pound these shapes into our memory. On the following page s are easy exercises to help you commit these patterns to memory. This exercise will familiarize you with the first 5 intervals: C Major At the 8th fret E string: E B G D A E At the 3 rd Fret A String: E B G D A E At the 1 st Fret E B G D A E You can play this an Octave higher at the 13 th Fret: (Sorry for the small type but it is the only way I could get it to fit) E B G D A E The pattern above (13 th fret) I use all the time in soloing. Remember these patterns can be moved up the neck or down depending on what key you are playing.
22 Now - here are some great exercises for getting all the intervals ingrained into your fingers and brain. Be sure to go as slow as you need to play it correctly. Speed will come with accuracy and repetition. This is also a great exercise fo r your picking hand. Concentrating on strict alternating up and down strokes with your picking hand will turn this phrase into a classically influenced pedal-point exercise (in this case, use the same finger on the fretting hand for every Root C note) and in time, great speeds are possible. You can also pick every note as a down stroke, for a heavier, more accented modern rock feel. C Major Scale at 8 th fret: B G D A E Same concept up one Octave: E B G D A E Now, let s put it together, by going thru 2 full octaves from our Root: E B G D A E E B G D A E
23 You can expand this exercise to all 12 major keys. You should also apply this concept to the minor scale - and again, go thru all 12 minor keys. Finally, for real deep integration of the intervals of the Major scale, I recommend singing the notes as you play them. This is done by applying the technique famously known from the Movie The Sound of Music, where we sing - Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do to represent the intervals. Interval: Root Major Second Major Third Perfect Fourth Perfect Fifth Major Sixth Major Seventh Octave Singing Note: Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do In the beginning, it is best to just to sing the intervals to only one octave of one scale. Pick a major scale comfortable for your voice. You can expand this to other octaves and keys when you are ready. Always use just Do, Re, Mi to sing all notes regardless of key or octave. End of Intervals End of Chapter 1.
24 Chapter 2: Harmony and Intervals What is harmony? The simple definition of harmony is two pitches (notes) played together. Taking the intervals we can make the harmonies of western music. Minor 2 nd Major 2 nd Minor 3 rd Major 3 rd Fourth Diminished 5 th Fifth Minor 6 th Major 6 th Minor 7 th Major 7 th Octave Most Dissonant Least Dissonant A harmony is two or more tones played simultaneously. Just as there are 12 tones and intervals there are 13 possible two note harmonies in each octave.. Unison C C Minor 2 nd C C# Major 2 nd C D Minor 3 rd C E flat Major 3rd C E Fourth (Perfect) C F Diminished 5 th C G flat Fifth (Perfect) C G Minor 6 th C A flat Major 6 th C A Minor or Dominant 7 th C B flat Major 7 th C B Octave C C
25 Each harmony has its own unique sound created by the amount of tension the two notes produce. When three or more notes are played simultaneously they are called a chord On the guitar each note is a frequency of vibrations of the string. Scales and Melodies can be played in harmony. The formula is very easy to remember. Let s say we want to play the C scale in thirds: The lower note will be the Root note and the higher note will be played a 3 rd above. The first line of notes starts on the C and plays the C scale. The second (top) line starts on the E and then plays the C scale from E to E. It must be understood that all of these harmonies are NOT Major 3rds. The scale when harmonized in this fashion creates the following set of harmonies: 1. Major 3rd C - E 2. Minor 3rd D - F 3. Minor 3rd E - G 4. Major 3rd F - A 2. Major 3rd G - B 6. Minor 3rd A - C 7. Minor 3rd B - D
26 Here is a Tab of the C Scale in thirds: This scale uses only two strings - but shows an example of the major and minor harmonies: E B G D A E Ma Mi Mi Ma Ma Mi Mi MA=Major Harmony MI=Minor Harmony See the following diagram for the forms for each harmony. I would recommend using the 1 st and 2nd fingers for the major - And the 1 st and 3 rd fingers for the minor. Major 3 rd Minor 3rd
27 This tab uses several strings to play the same notes and harmonies as our prior example. Assimilating both fingerings will give you power and options for your guitar playing. E B G D A E Note when the Minor 3 rd harmony is played on the G and B strings The form switches. This is because the strings are a major 3 rd apart. G B. The rest of the strings are a 4 th apart. This is a very important distinction to make and memorize when playing the guitar. Remember, the guitar only has 12 notes these notes just keep repeating in different octaves and positions across the Fretboard. So, a key to becoming a good guitar player is an ability to recognize, apply, and create from all of these repeating relationships. Central to this is your ability to know and play the same thing in more than one way. That s why we are constantly showing you more than one way to play these fundamental examples. Let s make a comparison to clarify our point. Let s say there is an accident in the city or town you live, and traffic is completely stopped for hours, and you really need to get somewhere. Well it would be sure nice if there was another route available to get you to your destination. It would be even nicer if you knew exactly where this other route is, and how to navigate it. Then, even on good days, you can be in control of which way you want to travel in order to get to same place. The Guitar has multiple ways of playing the same thing for almost everything, and by learning these associations; you can obtain as much flexibility in your guitar playing, as you might have in the way travel about the place where you live. The greater point is - Learn the Fretboard, and practice the same ideas anywhere and everywhere you can find them on the guitar neck. The exercises and examples contained in this workbook will help you do just that!
28 Back to the Harmonies: The most Common Harmonies Used are the 3 rd 5 th and 6 th. The reason these are used more is that they sound the most harmonious and least dissonant. Let s look at 3 rd,5 th, 6 th, & 7 th Harmonies in C Major. Here is the C Scale harmonized in thirds: Root Harm C E D F E G F A G B A C B D C Major 3 rd Harmony in Tablature (2 Ways good to know both!) E B G D A E
29 C Major 3 rd Harmony (2cd wa y) E B G D A E Here is the C Scale harmonized in 5ths: Root Harm C G D A E B F C G D A E B F C Major 5ths Harmony in Tablature E B G D A E
30 Here is the C Scale harmonized in 6ths: Root Harm C A D B E C F D G E A F B G C Major 6 th Harmony in Tablature (Two ways to Play) E B G D A E
31 Here is the C Scale harmonized in Major 7ths: Root Harm C B D C E D F E G F A G B A C Major 7 th Harmony in Tablature (Two ways to Play) E B G D A E
32 Now, let s practice the individual Harmonies as they are performed on the Subliminal Series CD. Here, we will once again notate the examples in the Key of C Major, but on the CD all keys are presented, and it is highly recommended to practice all harmonies in all keys. As on the CD, play individual notes of the harmony first (one to the next) then play the harmony notes together. We want to train yourears to recognize the harmony in two ways first, as intervals played in single note succession, and then ultimately as stacked harmonies played simultaneously. First, look at the standard notation for one octave of Intervals in the Key of C. Notice the intervals are all played against the root note C.
33 So - Here is the starter Tablature to work through the intervals as you hear them on the CD. Again, the tab will only be for the Key of C to use as your guide to practice through the other ke ys. Here are the Harmonies In Tablature E B C to D Major 2 nd G D A E E B C to E Major 3 rd G D A E Harmony Harmony E B C to F - Perfect Fourth Harmony G D A E E B C to G Perfect Fifth Harmony G D A E E B C to A Minor Sixth Harmony G D A E E B C to B Major Seventh Harmony G D A E
34 CHORDS The most common harmonies are the 5 th and 3 rd (Major or Minor). In fact when creating chords or Triads (3 note chords) the Root 3 rd and Fifth are used. The C Major Chord consists of C (root) E (3 rd ) G (5 th ) Notes: C E G C E There are two kinds of Triads. Closed Voicing The Chord above is a CLOSED triad. The notes are all in a row Open Voicing - The Chord Below is an OPEN triad. The Notes jump Notes are: A E A C# - This is an OPEN-VOICED triad
35 It can be noted that for the guitar there are 5 Scale and Chord Forms, Which can be broken into these two groups. Closed Forms: C and G Open Forms: E A D I believe the most important theory about guitar chords and scales is commonly referred to as the CAGED system. The CAGED system is named so because it follows the Open 5 chord forms: C Major A Major G Major E Major D Major So, we need to look at the CAGED chords in detail. For every CAGED key, we have five different positions we can play the same chord. EXAMPLE: We can play a C Chord 5 different ways - at any one of the C, A, G, E, or D positions. It is important to grasp this these CAGED chords offer you a way to see the constantly reoccurring patterns of music on the Guitar - and they give you the tools for using the entire Fretboard for your creativity. Without further adieu, let s go thru each Caged Key (C,A,G,E,D) and show the 5 basic chord positions for each and every Key. One final note on these next examples -We will be using the terms closed -voicing and open voicing to describe the two types of CAGED chords. These terms differ from the traditional definitions of Open Chords and Closed Chords that you may be familiar with to describe chords. In CAGED - COLSED-VOICING chords are chords that strictly follow the numerical scale degrees in the construction of the chord from its lowest pitched note to its highest pitched note. These Chords are what we call CLOSED-VOICING triads. The notes are all in a row OPEN-VOICING chords are not restricted by following the numerical order of scale degrees. The Notes jump All Following Examples show the 2 types of Closed-Voiced Chords on the first staff, and the 3 types of Open-Voiced Chords on the second staff.
36 Key Of C Major CAGED Chord Forms
37 Key Of A Major - CAGED Chord Forms
38 Key Of G Major - CAGED Chord Forms
39 Key Of E Major - CAGED Chord Forms
40 Key Of D Major - CAGED Chord Forms
41 Chord Progressions: A chord progression is a harmonic sequence. Generally the chords used in a progression are triads or triads with extensions. In music theory chords are often denoted in Roman numerals. The 1 Chord = I or the number one in Roman Numerals Also when a chord is Major it is denoted by uppercase. When a Chord is minor the letter is lower case. So the Major scale in Roman numerals looks like this: I ii iii IV V vi vii The Root Chord or I Chord is major The 2 nd chord or ii chord is minor The 3rd chord or iii chord is minor The 4th chord or IV chord is Major The 5th chord or V chord is Major The 6th chord or ii chord is minor The 7th chord or ii chord is minor When a chord progression is shown as: I IV V I The progression is: 1 Chord - 4 Chord - 5 Chord - 1 Chord In the Key of C C Major F Major G Major C Major The Numerals represent the relationship To the root chord.
42 Here are some classic Chord Progressions that are found in all different genre of music such as Classical, Rock, Jazz, Blues, Country, Blues Grass and many others western styles of Music. The Most Basic Progression: I IV V I Or I V IV I Here are Examples of the I IV - V I Progression: Key of C
43 Key of A Key of G
44 Key of E Key of D
45 Key of B Flat Key of A Flat
46 Some songs that use the I - IV - V - I progressions are: Johnny B. Goode Wild Thing Louie Louie Red House Tore Down La Bamba (verse) Like A Rolling Stone (Chorus) I Love Rock n Roll (Chorus) Here are Examples of the I V - IV I Progression Key of C
47 Key of A Key of G
48 Key of E Key of D
49 Key of B Flat Key of A Flat
50 Another Very Often Used Progression is the And Examples of this would be. Afternoon in Paris How High The Moon Lazybird Bluesette Recordame Joyspring Stablemates Along Came Betty Giant Steps Here are Examples of the ii - V - I Progression Key of C
51 Key of A Key of G
52 Key of E Key of D
53 Key of B Flat Key of A Flat
54 OK So, the ii-v-i is the Jazz turnaround almost every single Jazz tune uses this route to get back to the I chord. But, we need to fill in one more chord in this progression to really show you the full progression that every Jazz player must know. The I-vi-ii-V is the JAZZ Progression - And, in Jazz it most common to use and/or accentuate all progressions by adding extensions to the chords.we will begin with 7 th chords. Extensions are the notes harmonized above the Triad. Dominant 7 th Chord = Usually called the Dominant or Flat 7 th Chord. This is the 7 th note of the Dominant V scale - Also known as the mixolydian Mode. Your regular Triad would be Now we add the flat 7 th Here is your Open C Chord Here we add the 7 th. The Dominant 7 th Chord is associated with Rock and Blues The Dominant 7 th chord wants to resolve back to the I chord. The Major 7 th Chord uses the 7 th note of the Major scale. The Major 7 is the sweetest chord and has a very pure sound when compared to the Dominant 7 th which has a rougher sound or more dissonant sound.
55 So lets look at the I-vi-ii-V Jazz Progression with Major/Minor/Dominant 7 th Extensions in all of the CAGED Keys. Key of C Key of A
56 Key of G Key of E
57 Key of D Key of B Flat
58 Key of A Flat
59 Chapter 3. Harmony and Intervals Soloing over Chords Using Harmony and Melody Let s discuss how you can approach your guitar solos. To demonstrate, we ll use a progression from the prior pages in this book as the example to solo over. Let s begin with our I-V-IV-I progression in the key of G Major. Progression in the Key of G So, since we are in the Key of G Every note in the G major scale will work for soloing. E B G D A E
60 Every note in the G Major Pentatonic scale will also work over this progression. E B G D A E At this point, we need to remember the Relative Major/Minor relationship existing for all keys. This relationship states that the Relative Minor for any Major Key can be accomplished by moving 3 half-steps downward from our Major root (in this case the 3 rd fret). Arriving 3 half-steps down from G (any and every G on the Fretboard), we are always at an E note. This E note is the root of our Relative Minor Key to the Major Key of G. This means that all the notes in E Minor are the same as all the notes in G Major and therefore ALL NOTES in the E Minor & E Minor Pentatonic scale will work over our progression too. E Minor at open position E B G D A E E Minor Pentatonic at Open Position E B G D A E These E Minor scales will allow you to change the order of the very same notes you play in G major. This is important and powerful information used by every working guitar player. You do not have to learn new notes just a new context or approach for using the notes you already know.
61 This relationship is fundamental to understanding the connections on the Fretboard that can make you a better player. Can you sense how powerful the information of the Relative Major/ Minor relationship is? It s like knowing where the out of bounds markers are on a sporting field, and then being confident that all of your movements taking place inside those boundaries are in fair play. So it is very important you understand that the Relative Major/Minor concept, gives you a big playing field of allowable, usable notes to play in confidence because they are correctly in key. Once you understand that, and start using it to your advantage, you will begin to see finer, more detailed possibilities that exist inside this playing field of notes. This is similar to the process of an athlete first understanding the general rules and boundaries of the playing field or sport, and then moving on to understanding, implementing, and utilizing finer details within the larger structure. So it is with music - knowing just your Major and Minor Diatonic and Pentatonic Scales, and how they relate via the concept of The Relative Major/Minor Relationship will give you so much to work with, and form the basis for more detailed understanding to follow. Which leads to our next point. There are a lot of other ways to create your solos (or lead harmonies) against this progression. We could use Modes: A Dorian mode (A,B,C,D,E,F#,G,A octave) will work nicely against the whole progression. We could use Arpeggios, Scales, and Modes - and change them with each chord, instead of playing over the progression with a single scale or mode. Example 1: Over the G Major chord, we can play a G Major Arpeggio (G,B,D) Over the D Major chord, we can play a D Major Arpeggio (D,F#,A)
62 Over the C Major chord, we can play a C Major Arpeggio (C,E,G) Over the final G chord, we can play a G Major 7 th Arpeggio (G,B,D,F#). Let s cover one more approach to playing over this same progression using even more choices. Example 2: Over the first G Major chord, we can play an E Minor Arpeggio (E,G,B) Over the D Major chord, this time, let s play the A Dorian scale (A,B,C,D,E,F#,G,A) Over the C Major chord, let s use the E Minor Arpeggio again (E,G,B) Finally, over the last G Major chord, let s play the A Dorian Scale again (A,B,C,D,E,F#,G,A) So you can see your choices for Melody and Harmony in your lead playing are extensive. There is a whole world of useful approaches to soloing, and these examples are just to introduce you to the possibilities. We will be covering them in more depth and greater variety at the guitar5day.com website, and in the soon to be released Amazing Guitar 3.0 DVD Course. Until then, Keep Practicing!!! We also want your questions and comments And stay tuned for Amazing Guitar 3.0 coming soon.