The Norwegian Power System

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1 The Norwegian Power System Presentation for Energy Science week, Tokyo 2015 Prof. Olav B. Fosso Director of the Energy Strategic Research Area NTNU Web:

2 Content Characteristics and historical development of the Norwegian power system Structural challenges and motivation for continental Europe connection Trend and motivation for a Smartgrid development 2

3 Norway - an energy nation. 3 generations of energy development: Hydro Power, Petroleum, Renewables

4 The Norwegian Power System Large availability of hydropower plants with reservoirs are fast and easy to control: low cost balancing services Quick growing use of purely battery based electric vehicles due to very good incentives (tax exempt, free parking, free use of toll roads and bus lanes etc.) Increasing penetration of distributed generation (much small hydro so far) Distribution grids need significantly upgrading Well developed electricity markets. There are multi national markets with significant volumes for day ahead, intra day and balancing with participation of producers and consumers

5 Energy in Norway Facts & History

6 Hydro Power in Norway Electricity: ~ 100% hydro power Largest in Europe, nr 6 in the world 30% of hydro power cap. In Europe (50 % of storage) Installed capacity : ~ MW Generation average,: ~ 125 TWh Consumption: ~ 124 TWh Average inflow %

7 Typical Norwegian Plant Layout Typical characteristics: Plant built inside the mountains Large seasonal reservoirs (on average ~70 % of annual inflow) Tunnel system

8 Resource demand profiles GWh/week Demand Max. inflow Mean inflow Min. inflow Problem: Optimal use of reservoirs with: stochastic precipitation, inflow, prices seasonal variations reservoirs with multiple years storage Week

9 1st: Hydro Power Year 1882 First plant in Norway and Europe in 1882 for industrial purposes (6.5 kw) Engineers educated abroad saw potential and bought rights to waterfall with foreign money New legislation in 1906 with nickname Panic Acts Foreign investors needed permission Licensing became cornerstone in hydro power politics 9

10 Hydro Power development Industry build around hydro power 10

11 2nd: Petroleum Year 1969 Oil found in North-Sea in December 1969 Much debate in Europe if government should own and develop the resources or just charge taxes Denmark privatized and surely regrets Norwegian Prime-minister understood importance of state owned company and the government took control 11

12 The Third Energy Wave Hydro Power Gave Norway modern industry Renewable, Clean, Efficient Oil Gave Norway economic freedom Not renewable and limited New renewable energy Upgrade of hydro power Onshore wind Offshore Wind & Wave energy Solar

13 3 rd : New Renewable Energy Year 2001 Action was urgent towards a sustainable solution for the future Denmark and Sweden s influence 13 Debate: is it ethical to continue with petroleum related research when it can be invested in the new renewables? What made the move to wind power?

14 Transmission development

15 What determines the prices?

16 Electricity Generation in Nordel HYDRO THERMAL 1996: Hydropower deficit: 23 TWh 2000: Hydropower surplus: 40 TWh 2001: Hydropower surplus: 18 TWh

17 Duration curves for congestions Norway Sweden (south) MW Source: Vognild, Statnett SF

18 Our possible role in a sustainable power system?

19 Price difference between Norway and Germany average week

20

21 Connecting Renewables Norway as Battery for Europe

22 Smartgrid Motivation & Trend

23 The steps toward the Smart Grid Academia Industry 2010 Norwegian Smart Grid Centre: first initiative coordinating Demo Norway 2011 Smart Grid Lighthouse: NTNU grant based Several «Living Labs» Accross Norway since Smart Grid National Laboratory: granted by the Research Council of Norway ( ) 2015 Norwegian Centre for Environmental Friendly Energy (FME): to be applied to the Research Council of Norway in 2015

24 Norwegian System Peculiarities Large part of the LV distribution system is of type 230 Volt line to line system different from the 400 Volt line to line voltage systems in most of Europe Weak grids with approx. 40% of the supply terminals weaker than the standardized EMC reference impedance giving larger voltage quality problems when connecting EVs, PVs etc. than many countries High flexibility for demand response and demand side management schemes due to large part of electricity consumption in the domestic sector used for space and water heating Well developed broadband communication to homes and increased use of fiber to home communication provided by power utilities

25 Totally: EV (03/2015) 1 EV pr 95 inhabitants (03/2015) USA: 1 EV pr 1000 inhabitants March 2015: Tesla: 85 kwh, 7659 units Nissan: 20 kwh, units Mitsubishi: 16 kwh 4950 units Storage of 1.1 GWh

26 Crowd sourced orders of Tesla

27 A lot of electricity used for heating kwh per household (average)

28 ECO HOME Real Power House: produces 23,200kWh a year requires just 7,272kW to run

29

30 The Norwegian Smart Grid Center Established in 2010 recommended by Ministry of Petroleum and Energy in its national strategy process for defining future Energy R&D in Norway. NTNU and SINTEF answered the challenge and became the locus of coordinating national research, demonstration, laboratory, education, standardisation and information activities to optimise the use of resources and avoid uncoordinated parallel activities. Currently 47 members from universities, research bodies, supply industry, transmission and distribution companies as well as infra structure providers within telecommunication.

31 The Norwegian Smartgrid Centre - A National team for technological cooperation

32 Smartgrid demos Norway Pilot Nord: Statnett Transmission: Congestion management, SVC, WAMS, PMU, demand response, TSO/DSO issues Distribution: AMS, communication technologies, new tariffs and business models, customer response (EV), information security Demo Steinkjer: NTE Høgskolen i Narvik Real time simulators Smart grid T&D emulators EV charging and energy storage Smarthouse DG National Smart grid Lab" NTNU/SINTEF Energy company: Fiber to home,, smart house services, welfare technologies Demo Lyse Smart Energy Hvaler: FEAS NCE smart, Halden Distribution: AMS, holiday houses,pv, EV, DSM Skarpnes plushouse: Agder Energi Distribution: PlusHouse, PV, heat pumps, grid interaction

33 Concluding remarks The presentation has given some highlights on the characteristics and development of the Norwegian Power System With the resource availability and industry developed we can much say that the economy is built around energy and made the prosperity we today see Experiences gained in resource development has been an asset in international collaboration However we need to face the transition to a sustainable system with less oil dependency and this is to be achieved through more international collaboration 33

34 Thanks for your attention

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