Matter Waves. Home Work Solutions

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1 Chapter 5 Matter Waves. Home Work s 5.1 Problem 5.10 (In the text book) An electron has a de Broglie wavelength equal to the diameter of the hydrogen atom. What is the kinetic energy of the electron? How does this energy compare with the ground-state energy of the hydrogen atom? The radius of the hydrogen atom can be taken as the radius of the first orbit or, Bohr radius a m. The de Broglie wave length of the given electron is: λ 2a m Using p h/λ, where p is the momentum of the electron, the kinetic energy K of the electron is: K p2 2m e h 2 c 2 2m e c 2 λ 2 ( ev m) (ev ) ( m) ev The energy of the ground state of the hydrogen atom is 13.6 ev, so the kinetic energy of the given electron is about times the energy of the ground state of the hydrogen atom.

2 2 CHAPTER 5. MATTER WAVES. HOME WORK SOLUTIONS 5.2 Problem 5.14 (In the text book) (a) Show that the formula for low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), when electrons are incident perpendicular to a crystal surface, may be written as sin φ nhc d 2m e c 2 K where n is the order of the maximum, d is the atomic spacing, m e is the electron mass, K is the electron s kinetic energy, and φ is the angle between the incident and diffracted beams. (b) Calculate the atomic spacing in a crystal that has consecutive diffraction maxima at φ 24.1 and φ 54.9 for 100-eV electrons. (a) For a maximum in electron diffraction from crystal planes we have: nλ d sin φ sin φ nλ d where λ is the de Broglie wave length of the electron, and λ h/p, where p is the electrons momentum. The kinetic energy of the electron K p 2 /2m e, we th get: sin φ n h d p n ( ) h d 2Kme ( ) nhc d 2Km e c 2

3 5.2. PROBLEM 5.14 (IN THE TEXT BOOK) 3 (b) The atomic spacing is; d nhc sin φ 2Km e c 2 For φ 24.1 the atomic spacing d 1 is: d 1 n (ev m) sin(24.1) (ev ) 100(eV ) m 3.00n A For φ 54.9 the atomic spacing d 1 is: d 2 (n + 1) (ev m) sin(54.9) (ev ) 100(eV ) 3.00(n + 1) m 3.00(n + 1) A for the same spacing we should have: d 1 d n 1.50(n + 1) n 1 which means the 24.1 corresponds to n 1 maximum and 54.9 corresponds to n 2 maximum.

4 4 CHAPTER 5. MATTER WAVES. HOME WORK SOLUTIONS 5.3 Problem 5.20 (In the text book) We wish to measure simultaneously the wavelength and position of a photon. Assume that the wavelength measurement gives λ 6000 A with an accuracy of one part in a million, that is, λ/λ What is the minimum uncertainty in the position of the photon? The momentum p of the photon is given by: we then get: p h λ p λ dp dλ Since, h λ 2 p h λ λ 2 p x 1 2 ( p x) min 1 2 x min 2 p 2(hδλ/λ 2 ) hλ 4π(h λ/λ) λ 4π( λ/λ) 6000 A A m

5 5.4. PROBLEM 5.30 (IN THE TEXT BOOK) Problem 5.30 (In the text book) Robert Hofistadter won the 1961 Nobel prize in physics for his pioneering work in scattering 20-GeV electrons from nuclei. (a) What is the γ factor for a 20-GeV electron, where γ (1 v 2 /c 2 ) 1 2? What is the momentum of the electron in kg m/s? (b) What is the wavelength of a 20-GeV electron and how does it compare with the size of a nucleus? (a) Using the relativistic definition of the total energy we get: E γm e c 2 γ E m e c (MeV ) 0.511(MeV ) Since the energy of the electron is very high, then, m e c 2 pc, and using the relativistic definition of the total energy, in terms of the momentum, we get: E 2 (pc) 2 + m 2 ec 4 p E c (MeV ) (J/MeV ) m/s kg m/s (b) The de Broglie wavelength of the 20 GeV electron is:

6 6 CHAPTER 5. MATTER WAVES. HOME WORK SOLUTIONS λ h p (J s) kg m/s m the size of the nucleus is about m, so the wavelength of the 20 GeV electron is about 1000 times smaller than the nucleus.

7 5.5. PROBLEM 5.34 (IN THE TEXT BOOK) Problem 5.34 (In the text book) Figure 5.1: (a) Find and sketch the spectral content of the rectangular pulse of width 2τ- shown in Figure (5.1). (b) Show that a reciprocity relation ω t π holds in this case. Take t τ and define ω similarly. (c) What range of frequencies is required to compose a pulse of width 2τ 1 µs? A pulse of width 2τ 1 ns? (a) Using Fourier integrals: g(ω) 1 2π 1 2π V (t) e iωt dt V (t) (cos ωt i sin ωt) dt V (t) sin ωt is an odd function in t so its integral vanishes, we then get: g(ω) 1 2π V (t) cos ωt dt

8 h π terest 2π ( s)( ev)( J ev) J s 8 CHAPTER 5. MATTER WAVES. HOME WORK SOLUTIONS 5 12 from Figure (5.1), V (t) V when τ < t < τ and V (t) 0 everywhere else. Also, V (t) is symmetric around t 0: V()( t cosωt isinωt) dt, V( t) sinω t is an odd function 2 τ g(ω) V cos ωt dt 2π 0 τ [ ] 12 τ ω 2 2π 2 sin ωt π V cosω ω π V sin ωτ ω sinωτ g V0 tdt V 0. π ω ( 2 ) shes leaving ( ) ( ) n below. A plot of g(ω) is shown in Figure (5.2). 12 g(ω) 2 π V, t 0 ω 2π τ π τ π τ 2π τ Figure 5.2: (b) Since the major contribution to the pulse comes from π/τ < t < +π/τ, we take ω as π/τ and since t τ, we then get: ω t π τ τ π (c) The frequency range required to compose a pulse of width 2τ 1 µs, 2 f is:

9 5.5. PROBLEM 5.34 (IN THE TEXT BOOK) 9 and for a 1 ns pulse: ω 2πf ω 2π f ω t π 2 f ω π π π t 1 t Hz 2 f 1 t Hz Notice that to make the pulse sorter, i.e. localized in a smaller time range you need a much larger frequency range.

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1. Two slits are separated by 2.00 10 5 m. They are illuminated by light of wavelength 5.60 10 7 m. If the distance from the slits to the screen is 6.00 m, what is the separation between the central bright

EQUATION OF STATE. e (E µ)/kt ± 1 h 3 dp,

EQUATION OF STATE Consider elementary cell in a phase space with a volume x y z p x p y p z = h 3, (st.1) where h = 6.63 1 7 erg s is the Planck constant, x y z is volume in ordinary space measured in