Non-consumptive use of wildlife. Non-consumptive Use. Non-consumptive Use

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1 Non-consumptive use of wildlife Non-consumptive Use Any non-hunting or non-extractive use Examples: wildlife feeding & photography, bird watching, whale watching Non-consumptive Use Sources of information Based on USFWS s series of National Surveys of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation One of the Nation's most important wildlife recreation databases (since 1955) Conducted by US Census Bureau every 5 years Sample of 85,000 households Funded by the 1937 Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act 1

2 2006 Survey Highlights Over 87 million U.S. residents 16 years old and older fished, hunted, or wildlife watched 29.9 million people fished 12.5 million hunted 71.1 million participated in at least one type of wildlife-watching activity including observing, feeding, or photographing wildlife (non-incidental activity) 2006 Survey Highlights 31% of the U.S. population fed, observed, or photographed wildlife 13% increase from 1996 to % -15% -10% + 40% Wildlife Watching Participation Rates 2

3 Pacific Region Wildlife Watching Trends: Around home Wildlife Watching Trends: Away from home

4 Wildlife watching expenditures Hunters and fishermen spent $75 billion Wildlife watchers spent $45 billion Total = $120 billion, or 1% of US gross domestic product Wildlife watching: equipment & expenses Trip-Related Expenditures Food Lodging Transportation Cars, boats, pack animals Guides Land use Fees Equipment rental Wildlife watching: equipment & expenses Equipment Binoculars, spotting scopes Cameras Backpacking equipment Special clothing Field guides & maps Tents and camping equipment Blinds 4

5 Wildlife watching: equipment & expenses Nest boxes, bird houses, feeders, baths Other Expenditures Magazines, books Land leasing and ownership Membership dues and contributions Wildlife Watching & Photography Take a class Hire a guide Join a group No trespassing Don t disturb natural behaviors keep your distance Wildlife Watching in WA 5

6 Principles of Birding Ethics of the American Birding Association Promote the welfare of birds and their environment Protect habitats, stay on trails Avoid incurring stress or danger Respect the law and the rights of others No trespassing Ensure that feeders, nest structures, and other artificial bird environments are safe Group birding requires special care Respect other recreationists "People" food is not formulated for animal consumption Feeding Wildlife When animals learn that humans can provide a cheap and easy food source, they often lose their natural fear of humans 6

7 Feeding Wildlife Feeding wildlife from vehicles Traffic hazards Costly property damage Animals dependent on human food sources Gather in abnormally large numbers Spread disease Backyard wildlife feeding keep feeders clean keep cats indoors Domestic cats... > 90 million pet cats in U.S. Free-roaming cats kill hundreds of millions small wildlife each year! Why Landscape for Wildlife? 1.Watching wildlife can be fun and relaxing 2. Provide refuge for wildlife 3.Restore habitats 4.Reduce the use of chemicals, conserve energy and water, and compost to help improve air, water and soil quality 7

8 Landscaping for Wildlife Food Plant native forbs, shrubs, and trees provides foliage, nectar, pollen, berries, seeds, and nuts Provide feeders (seeds, suet, nuts) Landscaping for Wildlife Water Natural features: ponds, lakes, rivers, springs, oceans, wetlands Human-made features: bird baths, puddling areas for butterflies, installed ponds, rain gardens Landscaping for Wildlife Cover Sheltered places to hide and take young to be safe from people, predators, and inclement weather Shrubs, thickets, brush piles, dead trees 8

9 Landscaping for Wildlife Places to raise young Nest boxes Bat boxes Dead trees Landscaping for Wildlife Sustainable gardening Mulch Reduce lawn area Rain barrels Remove invasive plants Add native plants Reduce or eliminate use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers Compost Shrubs, thickets, brush piles, dead trees Top 10 native plants for feeding WA wildlife Douglas Fir Oregon White Oak Western Serviceberry Hollyleaf Oregon-grape Blue Elderberry Salal Salmonberry Hooker s Evening Primrose Red Columbine Beach Strawberry 9

10 Ecotourism Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people (The International Ecotourism Society) Principles minimize impact build environmental and cultural awareness and respect provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts provide directfinancial benefits for conservation provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate Leave No Trace Ecotourism Most of tourism expansion in and around world s last remaining natural areas (UN Environment Programme and Conservation International) Rapid loss of unique ecosystems damages the livelihoods of some of the world s poorest people and drives unique biodiversity to extinction -Tourism provides a unique and valuable tool to addressing these challenges (Conservation International) 10

11 Ecotourism Tourists willing to pay more for responsible ecotourism Ecotourists invest more in local economy Ecotourism is growing 10% / year... Opportunity for good Ecotourism Be a responsible consumer Choose wisely are the places you go eco-certified? How are fees allocated? Not a perfect system lots of ways to have a break down Ecotourism operations come in shades of gray Don t actually invest fully in conservation or community Displacement of people Resource harvesting for subsistence Illegal poaching Carbon collection Wood Potential negative effects of wildlife watching Direct Feeding patterns social structure communication Indirect Species introductions, more roads/facilities, increased predation, increased pollution 11

12 Implications of Wildlife Watching Supplements traditional funding for wildlife, which alone is inadequate Engages the public into conservation efforts May help or hinder wildlife populations, depending on activity 12

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