01 The Nature of Fluids


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1 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 1/17 01 The Nature of Fluids (Water Resources I) Dave Morgan Prepared using Lyx, and the Beamer class in L A TEX 2ε, on September 12, 2007
2 Recommended Text 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 2/17 A recommended text to accompany these notes is Applied Fluid Mechanics by Mott: Read sections: 1.3, 1.4, 1.6 (omit US units), 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.11 Study Example Problems:
3 Elementary Properties of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 3/17 Fluids can be either liquid or gas A liquid tends to ow and conform to the shape of its container Liquids are not readily compressible (for the purpose of this course, we consider them to be imcompressible) A gas tends to expand to ll the closed container it is in (or to disperse if not contained). Gases are readily compressible We shall be primarily concerned with liquids
4 Primary Units 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 4/17 SI units are used. Four primary units will be used extensively in this course: Quantity SI unit Dimension Length metre, m L Mass kilogram, kg M Time second, s T Temperature Kelvin, K θ (Current and luminosity are the two other primary SI units.)
5 Derived Units 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 5/17 Quantity SI Unit Dimensions velocity m/s LT 1 acceleration m/s 2 LT 2 force N, newton MLT 2 kg m/s 2 energy J, joule (work) N m ML 2 T 2 kg m 2 /s 2 power N m/s ML 2 T 3 J/s pressure Pa, pascal ML 1 T 2 (stress) N/m 2 kg/m/s 2
6 Derived Units: 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 6/17 Quantity SI Unit Dimensions Volume ow rate, Q m 3 /s L 3 T 1 L/s Weight ow rate, W N/s ML 1 S 2 kg/m/s 2 Mass ow rate, M kg/s MT 1 Specic weight, γ N/m 3 ML 2 T 2 Density, ρ kg/m 3 ML 3
7 Pressure 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 7/17 Pressure is given by: p = F A It is the force per unit area on a surface, where 1 N/m 2 = 1 Pa (pascal)
8 Pressure 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 7/17 Pressure is given by: p = F A It is the force per unit area on a surface, where 1 N/m 2 = 1 Pa (pascal) Blaise Pascal ( ), after whom the Pascal programming language was named, determined the following principles: 1 Pressure acts uniformly in all directions on a small volume of a uid at rest 2 In a uid conned by solid boundaries, pressure acts perpendicularly to the boundaries
9 Pascal's Laws 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 8/17 Pressure acts uniformly in all directions on a small volume of a uid at rest. The forces must balance out (i.e. Σ F x = Σ F y = 0); otherwise the volume of uid will not be in equilibrium and cannot remain at rest. Also, the volume must be suciently small that we do not have to consider the mass, and therefore the weight, of the volume of uid. If the weight is not negligible, the upward pressure on the bottom of the volume will have to be greater than the downward pressure on the top of the volume so that Σ F y = F up W F down = 0.
10 Pascal's Laws 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 9/17 In a uid conned by solid boundaries, pressure acts perpendicularly to the boundaries. Why is this true? (Consider a small volume of uid at rest against one of the boundaries? If this volume remains at rest, what are the forces that act upon it?)
11 Density 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 10/17 Density is mass per unit volume: ρ = m V
12 Density 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 10/17 Density is mass per unit volume: ρ = m V The density of water between 0 C and 15 C is close to 1000 kg/m 3. It has a maximum density at 4 C. Above 15 C, the density drops steadily to a density of 958 kg/m 3 at 100 C. (There is a table of values for the properties of water at the back of Applied Fluid Mechanics by Mott, or from numerous other sources)
13 Specic Weight 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 11/17 Specic weight is weight per unit volume: γ = w V
14 Specic Weight 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 11/17 Specic weight is weight per unit volume: γ = w V Water has a specic weight of 9.81 kn/m 3 between 0 C and 15 C.
15 Specic Weight 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 11/17 Specic weight is weight per unit volume: γ = w V Water has a specic weight of 9.81 kn/m 3 between 0 C and 15 C. Since w = mg, it follows that: γ = w V = mg V = ρg
16 Specic Gravity 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 12/17 Specic gravity is the ratio of the density (or specic weight) of a substance to the density (or specic weight) of water at 4 C. Then, the specic gravity of a substance s is given by sg = γ s γ w@4 C = ρ s ρ w@4 C
17 Specic Gravity 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 12/17 Specic gravity is the ratio of the density (or specic weight) of a substance to the density (or specic weight) of water at 4 C. Then, the specic gravity of a substance s is given by sg = γ s γ w@4 C = ρ s ρ w@4 C The density of gasoline at 25 C is 680 kg/m 3 and the density of water at 4 C is 1000 kg/m 3. Therefore, the specic gravity of gasoline at 25 C is sg= 680/1000 = 0.68.
18 Specic Gravity 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 12/17 Specic gravity is the ratio of the density (or specic weight) of a substance to the density (or specic weight) of water at 4 C. Then, the specic gravity of a substance s is given by sg = γ s γ w@4 C = ρ s ρ w@4 C The density of gasoline at 25 C is 680 kg/m 3 and the density of water at 4 C is 1000 kg/m 3. Therefore, the specic gravity of gasoline at 25 C is sg= 680/1000 = The specic weight of mercury at 25 C is kn/m 3 and the specic weight of water at 4 C is 9.81 kn/m 3 so the specic gravity of mercury at 25 C is sg = 13.54
19 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 13/17 Example Calculate the pressure produced in the oil in a closed cylinder by a piston with diameter 7.5 cm exerting a force of N
20 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 13/17 Example Calculate the pressure produced in the oil in a closed cylinder by a piston with diameter 7.5 cm exerting a force of N N 7.5 cm
21 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 13/17 Example Calculate the pressure produced in the oil in a closed cylinder by a piston with diameter 7.5 cm exerting a force of N N Solution 7.5 cm p = F A = N π(0.075) 2 /4 m 2 = Pa = 2.53 MPa
22 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 14/17 Example Calculate the weight of 1 m 3 of kerosene if it has a mass of 823 kg
23 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 14/17 Example Calculate the weight of 1 m 3 of kerosene if it has a mass of 823 kg Solution W = mg = 823 kg 9.81 m/s 2 = 8070 N Note: In general, use 5 signicant gures for interim calculations and 3 signicant gures for displayed solutions.
24 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 15/17 Example Calculate the density and the specic weight of benzene if its specic gravity is
25 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 15/17 Example Calculate the density and the specic weight of benzene if its specic gravity is Solution = ρ b ρ water@4 C ρ b = kg/m 3 = 876 kg/m = γ b γ water@4 C γ b = kn/m 3 = 8.59 kn/m 3
26 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 16/17 Example A cylindrical tank with diameter 12.0 m contains water at 20 C to a depth of 4.0 m. If the water is heated to 65 C, what is the depth of the water? (Assume that the tank dimensions remain constant and that there are no losses due to evaporation.)
27 Nature of Fluids Example A cylindrical tank with diameter 12.0 m contains water at 20 C to a depth of 4.0 m. If the water is heated to 65 C, what is the depth of the water? (Assume that the tank dimensions remain constant and that there are no losses due to evaporation.) Solution Volume at 20 C: V 20 = πd 2 h 20 4 Mass of water in the tank: = π(12.0 m)2 (4.0 m) 4 = m 3 m = ρv 20 = 998 kg/m m 3 = kg...continued 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 16/17
28 Nature of Fluids 01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 17/17 Solution (continued) V 20 = πd 2 h 20 4 = π(12.0 m)2 (4.0 m) 4 = m 3 m = ρ 20 V 20 = 998 kg/m m 3 = kg Volume at 65 C: Depth at 65 C: V 65 = m kg = = m3 3 ρ kg/m h 65 = 4V 65 πd m3 = = m π(12.0) 2 The depth at 65 C is 4.06 m
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