Self-Monitoring. Applied as a Classroom support. Deb Childs, Ph.D. Tier 2 Consultant

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1 Self-Monitoring Applied as a Classroom support, Ph.D. Tier 2 Consultant

2 Session Overview What is self-monitoring? What does the research tell us? Steps for implementing self-monitoring Self-monitoring as a classroom support

3 Self-Monitoring Interventions Student self-observes and self-records target behavior Goal Setting Interventions Student creates behavior targets (goals) Self- Management Strategies Self-Evaluation Interventions Student assesses behavior against a set standard Self-Instruction Interventions Student uses self-statements to direct behavior Strategy Instruction Interventions Student follows a series of steps to complete a task autonomously

4 What is Self-Monitoring? A process of self-observation and recording of a skill. Student must be able to discriminate the occurrence of the behavior Student must have the skill in their repertoire

5 What does the Research Tell Us? Effective for ALL students K-adult (Jolivette & Ramsey, 2006) Is effective as a classroom system of behavior management (Carr & Punzo, 1993) May be used with academic and behavior skills (Shapiro & Cole, 1994)

6 What does the Research Tell Us? Is less invasive than teacher managed strategies (Fantuzzo, Polite, Cook, & Quinn, 1988) May be more effective than teacher managed strategies for some students (Shapiro, DuPaul & Bradley-Klug, 1998)

7 What does the Research Tell Us? Contributes to the acquisition of selfregulation which is the crossover skill between academics and behavior (Wery & Nietfeld, 2010)

8 Steps for Implementing Self-Monitoring 1. Identify target behavior 2. Define the target behavior 3. Collect baseline data 4. Design procedure and materials 5. Teach student to self monitor 6. Monitor progress 7. Follow up and fade

9 Self-monitoring as a Classroom Intervention Discuss goal setting with class Each student chooses a skill or behavior to improve (may need coaching from teacher) Skill is defined and written in positive terms Collect and chart baseline if available Set goals Determine when and where skill will be monitored and chart to be used to keep data Teach how to self-monitor (check for agreement) Follow up

10 1. Identify Target Behavior State in positive terms What do you want the student to do? Consider where and when the behavior occurs This will help determine the location or type of activity to monitor

11 Activity Think about a skill or activity you would like to improve Write it on a piece of paper If you feel comfortable, share it with an elbow partner

12 2. Define the Target Behavior Use the OMPUA guidelines to help you Observable, measureable, positively stated, understandable, always applicable The skill must be in the student s repertoire Self-monitoring is used for performance deficits not acquisition deficits. Include any steps associated with the skill

13 Examples of defined target behavior Respect others = Use good words, keep hands and feet to self, ask to use others belongings Be responsible = Go to class on time, bring needed items, put your things away when done Follow directions = Listen to what you are being asked to do, ask questions if you need to, begin the task

14 Examples of defined academic skills Be able to recite/write times tables 1 10 by Jan. 15 th Read 5 books a week at the 3.0 level or above and complete comprehension questions at 80% or above. Complete all homework to 80% criteria

15 Activity Write your target behavior using OMPUA guidelines List any steps associated with your target If you feel comfortable, share it with an elbow partner

16 3. Collect Baseline Data How often does the target behavior occur: Frequency counts record each time behavior occurs or look at permanent products Time sampling observing the occurrence or non-occurrence of the target behavior during a fixed amount of time 3-5 data points Graph analysis for visual evaluation.

17 Baseline warnings Look for the easiest and least time consuming way to determine approximate frequency of behavior. Do not have student collect their own baseline If you or a peer collect baseline, target student should not be aware it is being collected.

18 Do you have past records associated with your skill that allows you to collect baseline?

19 4. Design Procedure and Materials Determine when the students will selfmonitor. How will students be cued to do so? Create self-monitoring chart. Should be age appropriate List the target behavior and any steps needed to complete the skill Have an area to write goal Self monitoring chart samples

20 Student Name Self-Monitoring Daily Progress Report Date Tasks Completed Monday Ck Tasks Completed Tuesday Ck Tasks Completed Wed Ck Tasks Completed Thursday Ck Tasks Completed Friday Ck Reading Math Social Studies Science Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Out of Total for the day / Goal Parent/Guardian Signature I m proud of you today because

21 Place a check next to the items completed. Writing Assignment Checklist Name Class Date All sentences begin with a capital letter. All sentences have correct punctuation at the end. All sentences have a subject and a verb (are complete sentences) The first word of the paragraph is indented The paragraph has a topic sentence All sentences in the paragraph are on the same topic I followed instructions for the assignment I completed all parts of the assignment The goal for this writing assignment is

22 Student Name Tier 2/Self-Monitoring Daily Progress Report Date 3 = 0-1 reminder 2 = 2 reminders 1 = 3+ reminders 8:30 to Morning Break Morning Break to Lunch Lunch to Afternoon Break Afternoon Break to Dismissal Be Safe Keep hands & feet to self Teacher check Be Respectful Follow directions Teacher Check Be Responsible Use materials appropriately Teacher Check Total for the day /36 Parent/Guardian Signature I m proud of you today because

23 Activity How often will you monitor your skill? Design a simple chart you would use to monitor. Make sure it lists needed steps. Determine a goal Share with an elbow partner

24 5. Teach Students to Self-Monitor Discuss with individual students their target skill or have students discuss in pairs Allow students to set goals refer back to first lesson on goal setting Create cueing system if needed Allow time at the end of the designated period for completing chart and graphing results

25 Activity What will you use to remind yourself to selfmonitor? Phone alarm? Friend? Spouse? Sticky note on mirror?

26 6. Monitor Progress Positive feedback given for student accurately assessing and recording until teacher and student agree at least 80% of the time May use peers to check accuracy Teacher/peer check of accuracy is faded to periodic checks (1/5 average) Adult provides specific verbal feedback when target skill is displayed.

27 Activity How often will you review your progress?

28 7. Follow up and Fade Reteach or review skills as needed Review progress and celebrate success Having student graph progress allows for quick visual evaluation and may increase student rate of improvement (Harris, Graham, Reid, McElroy, & Hamby, 1994) When student is consistently using skill and attaining goal, reduce the times per week that student monitors Periodically check for maintenance

29 Activity What reinforcement or rewards will you give yourself for attaining goal?

30 Self-monitoring as a Class-wide Intervention Same steps Target skill is the same for all students Each student contributes to attaining goal

31 1. Identify Target Behavior If applied to the whole class, how would you determine target? Records of minor discipline problems Informal observations Student suggestion box or class meetings Goals of curriculum

32 2. Define the Target Skill Discuss with the entire class the importance of the skill Examples and Non-examples

33 3. Collect Baseline Have baseline on target skill collected and graphed Share with class current level of skill

34 4. Design Procedures and Create chart or graph Materials Determine time frame for data to be collected Determine which students will be in charge of charting or graphing skill Determine cueing system or when students will complete chart Set goal

35 5. Teach Students to Self-monitor Check chosen students accuracy of completing chart Reinforce for accuracy even if students did not meet goal Fade checks as soon as students are consistently accurate

36 6. Monitor Progress Check chart regularly for reinforcement and goal adjusting Reteach as needed

37 7. Follow-up and Fade When goal is met for 4 consecutive weeks begin fading frequency of checks When goal is met for 4 consecutive weeks consider changing to a new behavior

38 Class-wide Example 7 th grade class was consistently late to class: 1. Gathered baseline (67% on time) 2. Defined on time and discussed importance of skill and barriers to attaining. 3. Assigned 2 students to monitor class progress and set goal of 80% average for the week 4. Reinforced when goal attained and goal was increased until class was consistently at 99%

39 Self-Monitoring May be used in your classroom with each student working on an individual skill May be used class-wide all students working on the same skill

40 Next session Self-Monitoring: As a Tier 2 Intervention As a modification to CICO To help generalize Social Skills As a fading procedure for a Tier 2 Intervention As a Tier 3 Intervention

41 References Jolivette, K., & Ramsey, M. (2006). Students with emotional and behavioral disorders can manage their own behavior. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(2), Carr, S., & Punzo, R., (1993). The effects of self-monitoring of academic accuracy and productivity n the performance of students with behavioral disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 18(4), Shapiro, E., & Cole, C. L., (1994). Behavior change in the Classroom. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Fantuzzo, J.W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-managed interventions with elementary school students. Psychology in the Schools, 25, Shapiro, E., DuPaul, G., & Bradley-Klug, K., (1998). Self-management as a strategy to improve the classroom behavior of adolescents with ADHD. of Learning disabilities, 31(6), Wery, J., & Nietfeld,J. (2010). Supporting self-regulated learning with exceptional children. Teaching Exceptional Children 42(4), Rafferty, L. (2010) Step-by-step: Teaching students to self-monitor. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(2), Journal Harrris, K. R., Graham, S., Reid, R., McElroy, K., & Hamby, R. S. (1994). Selfmonitoring of attention versus self-monitoring of performance: Replication and cross-task comparison studies. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17,

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