1 Journal of Tropical Agriculture 47 (1-2) : 62-66, Short communication Morphological keys for four Australian Acacia species grown in Kerala, India M. Neethu Lakshmi and S. Gopakumar* Department of Forest Management and Utilization, College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, KAU PO, Thrissur , Kerala, India. Received 25 June 2009; received in revised form 30 October 2009; accepted 17 November Abstract Several species of phyllodinous acacias have been introduced to Kerala, India. Examples include Willd., A. auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth, A. crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth and A. aulacocarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth, which are used for raising social forestry plantations and afforestation of degraded lands. Although morphological variations abound among these species, the similarity of the phyllodes often confuses the planter. Morphological keys to identify the four species are presented. Keywords: Australian acacias, taxonomy, morphological variations, identification key. The genus Acacia (Mimosoideae, Fabaceae) with over 1350 species is native to Australia. The botanic garden networks, acclimatisation societies, and private enthusiasts have moved large quantities of its seeds for scientific, decorative, and economic goals to different parts of the world (Cronk and Fuller, 1996). The earliest documented transfers of Australian acacias to other continents occurred in the late 1700s with British and French exploration of the Australian coast (Christian and Rangana, 2008). Numerous Australian wattles are now grown around the Mediterranean basin, as well as in California, South Africa, Madagascar, India, Brazil, and Hawaii (Richardson and Cambray, 2003). There is also recorded information on the early introductions of A. Cunn. ex Benth (first introduced in 1946, in West Bengal) and A. mangium Willd. (in the 1980s) to India (Rai, 1995). Indeed, phyllodinous Acacia species have been taken up for planting in all types of ecosystems in India (Kodira and Kushalappa, 1991) including the degraded forest tracts. In Kerala (southern India), A. auriculiformis and A. mangium are popular because of their fast growth and superior wood qualities and there is a growing market for furniture, doorframes, window frames and cabinets made of these (Shukla et al., 1990; Shanavas and Kumar, 2006). The high calorific values also make them excellent fuel woods (Shanavas and Kumar, 2003). In the genus Acacia, especially in the phyllode group, considerable morphological, ecological and biological variations exist. Beckett (1993) documented the variations in leaf and phyllode morphology of 35 wattle species. McDonald and Maslin (2000) reported differences in pod dehiscence of A. aulacocarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth and A. crassicarpa. Susilawati and Setiadi (2003) illustrated the seed morphological variations of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis. Despite morphological differences, all phyllodinous acacias look strikingly similar to the untrained eye. User friendly taxonomic keys will therefore be handy in identifying the right species for planting (Maslin, 2002). Hence, an attempt was made to profile the basic morphological variations of the four potentially important phyllodinous Acacias grown in Kerala, India (A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. crassicarpa, and A. aulacocarpa) and to develop taxonomic keys for these species. The experimental material consisted of ten trees each of *Author for correspondence: Phone Extn 219; Fax ;
2 M. Neethu Lakshmi and S. Gopakumar 63 the four species grown at Vellanikkara, Thrissur, India, since Samples of phyllodes, inflorescences, fruits, and seeds were collected from the lower, middle and top branches of the canopy of each tree. Morphological characteristics like bark colour, shape of rhytidome (outer bark), branch angle relative to main stem (measured using a protractor), internode length of twigs on the lowest branch, phyllode characteristics (shape, size, phyllode arrangement, venation, leaf surface characteristics and leaf texture), inflorescence characteristics (type, colour, position, length and number of whorls), fruit characters (shape, length and width, and number of seeds per pod), seed morphology (shape, length, width, and presence of furrow), and funicle characters (shape, colour, and length) were observed with the help of Labomed Stereozoom Microscope and DigiPro Image Analyzer software. Seed weight (weight of 1000 seeds) was recorded, besides shape, length, and width of seeds. Presence or absence of furrows on the seeds was observed using a Labomed Stereozoom Microscope and DigiPro Image Analyzer software (10 x). Morphology Although prominent variations could not be observed in the bark colour of the four species, shape of the rhytidome or outer bark varied widely. In A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa, rhytidome was square in shape (Fig. 1) whereas in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, it was rectangular. In all the four species, branches were arranged on the stem at acute angles. Internode length was highest in A. crassicarpa and lowest in A. mangium. Phyllodes of the four species showed notable variations. While phyllodes of A. auriculiformis and A. crassicarpa were sickle shaped, the phyllode of A. aulacocarpa was longer and pointed. A. mangium phyllode looked more like an entire leaf (Fig. 2). In all the four species, phyllodes were arranged alternately and the veins emerged from the base, running parallel to each other before finally converging near the tip. In A. mangium, there were four nerves on the dorsal side of the phyllode, which could be prominently felt by touch. All the other three species had only three prominent nerves. Phyllodes of A. crassicarpa, A. aulacocarpa, and A. auriculiformis were smooth textured whereas the presence of four prominent nerves in the phyllode of A. mangium made it rough. A. crassicarpa had thicker and greyish phyllodes which were very distinct from all other species (Fig. 2). Inflorescence type in all the four species was spike. Flowers of A. aulacocarpa and A. auriculiformis were yellow in colour. A. crassicarpa had greenish yellow florets whereas A. mangium had creamy white florets. In all the four species, number of whorls was four, namely, calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium justifying its inclusion in polypetalae, and stamens were numerous. Fruit characteristics of the four species varied substantially. A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, possessed highly coiled pods whereas A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa had flat and uncoiled pods (Fig. 3). Size of the pod and number of seeds per pod also varied considerably. The average length of uncoiled pod (Table 2) was highest in A. crassicarpa, followed by A. aulacocarpa. Coiled pods of A. auriculiformis was longer than that of A. mangium. Pods of A. aulacocarpa were wider than that of A. crassicarpa (Table 2; Fig. 3). Between the other two species, A. auriculiformis had wider pods compared to those of A. mangium. On an average, the number of seeds did not vary widely in the four species (Table 2). Seeds of A. crassicarpa were distinct from those of other species due to the presence of a prominent protrusion in the middle portion. There were also considerable size variations among the seeds of these four species (Table 2; Fig. 4). Characteristics of the funicle are a useful tool in distinguishing the four species. A. auriculiformis was distinct from all other species as it had curved funicle enclosing more than half of the seed. Funicles of other three species were coiled but did not cover the seeds (Fig. 5). Colour of the funicle was greyish white in A. aulacocarpa, creamy white in A. crassicarpa, reddish orange in A. auriculiformis, and orange in A. mangium (Fig. 5). Length of funicle also varied widely (Table 2), with the highest values for A. aulacocarpa and lowest for A. mangium.
3 Morphological keys for four Australian Acacia species grown in Kerala, India 64 Table 1. Morphological profile of four Australian Acacia species in Kerala, India. Characteristics Species A. auriculiformis A. crassicarpa A. mangium Bark colour greyish brown greyish brown greyish brown greyish brown Shape of rhytidome square rectangular square rectangular Branching pattern (angle) acute acute acute acute Internode length (cm) Phyllode arrangement alternate alternate alternate alternate Length of phyllode (cm) Width of phyllode (cm) Phyllode texture smooth smooth smooth rough with prominent nerves Shape of phyllode long and pointed sickle shaped sickle shaped looks like an entire leaf Type of inflorescence spike spike spike spike Position of inflorescence phyllode axils phyllode axils phyllode axils phyllode axils Colour of florets yellow yellow greenish yellow creamy white Length of inflorescence (cm) Average number of florets per inflorescence Number of whorls four four four four Table 2. Seed characteristics of four Australian Acacia species in Kerala, India. Characteristics Species A. auriculiformis A. crassicarpa A. mangium Shape of pod flat coiled flat coiled Average length of pod (cm) Average width of pod (cm) Average number of seeds per pod Average length of seed (mm) Average width of seed (mm) Colour of funicle greyish white reddish orange creamy white orange Weight of 1000 seeds (g) Length of funicle (mm) 7.52 curved and covers more than half of seed Keys to morphological characters : rhytidome, square; phyllode, long (~16.5 cm) and pointed among all the four species; pod, flat and uncoiled; funicle, greyish white in colour. : rhytidome, rectangular in shape; phyllode, short (~12.6 cm), sickle- shaped; pod, highly coiled; funicle, curved and enclosed more than half of the seed, reddish orange in colour. : rhytidome, square in shape; length of internode, long (~3.3 cm) which means that leaves are arranged more compactly on the branchlets; phyllode, thick with greyish tint and sickle-shaped; flower, greenish yellow in colour; pod, flat and uncoiled; prominent protrusion in the middle of the seed; funicle, creamy white in colour. : rhytidome, rectangular in shape; length of internode, short (~1.5 cm; leaves most
4 M. Neethu Lakshmi and S. Gopakumar 65 Figure 1. Bark colour and rhytidome shape of four Acacia species grown in Kerala, India. Figure 2. Phyllode shapes of (A), A. auriculiformis (B), A. crassicarpa (C), and A. mangium (D) grown in Kerala, India. Figure 3. Fruit characteristics of four Acacia species grown in Kerala, India. Figure 4. Seeds of four Acacia species under field of view of image analyzer (10 x magnification) grown in Kerala, India. Figure 5. Funicle characteristics of four Acacia species grown in Kerala, India.
5 Morphological keys for four Australian Acacia species grown in Kerala, India 66 spaciously arranged); phyllode, broad (~5.4 cm) and looked more like an entire leaf, rough textured due to the presence of four nerves on the dorsal side of the phyllode, which can be prominently felt by touch; flower, creamy white in colour; pod, highly coiled; funicle, orange in colour. References Beckett, K.A Some Australian wattles in cultivation. Plantsman, 15(3): Christian, A.K. and Rangana, H Acacia exchanges: Wattles, thorn trees, and the study of plant movements. Geoforum, 39 (3): Cronk, Q.C.B. and Fuller, J.L Plant Invaders, Chapman and Hall, London, 241p. Kodira, A. and Kushalappa, C.G Performance of in India. ACIRP Proceedings Series. No. 35, pp Maslin, B.R The role and relevance of taxonomy in the conservation and utilisation of Australian acacias. Conserv. Sci., 4(3): 1 9. McDonald, M.W and Maslin, B.R Taxonomic revision of the salwoods: Cunn. ex Benth. and its allies (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: section Juliflorae). Aust. Syst. Bot., 13(1): Rai, S.N Note on trial of Australian acacias in Karnataka. Indian For., 121(5): Richardson, D.M. and Cambray, J.A Vectors and pathways of biological invasions in South Africa past, present and future. In: Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton, J.T. (eds), Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies, Island Press, Washington, pp Shanavas, A. and Kumar, B.M Fuelwood characteristics of tree species in the homegardens of Kerala, India. Agroforest. Syst., 58: Shanavas, A. and Kumar, B.M Physical and mechanical properties of three agroforestry tree species from Kerala, India. J. Trop. Agric., 44 (1-2): Shukla, N.K., Lal, M., Singh, R.S., and Khanduri, A.K Physical and mechanical properties of Acacia auriculiformis, Fernandoa adenophylla and Melia azaderach. J. Timber Dev. Assoc. India, 36 (2): Susilawati, S. and Setiadi, D Preliminary research on natural hybrid of and A. auriculiformis in Wonogiri, Central Java. In: Advances in genetic improvement of tropical tree species. Proceedings of the international conference, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, pp Todaria, N.P., Saklani, K.P., and Sachan, M.S Variation in pod and seed characteristics of Acacia catechu (Willd.) in Garhwal Himalayas. Indian For., 130(1):
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