9 Energy management. 9:1 General. BFS 2011:26 BBR Oct. 9:11 Scope of application

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1 BFS 2011:26 9 Energy management This section contains the provisions and general recommendations for Chapter 3, Article 14 and Chapter 3 the first paragraph of Article 15 of PBF. Section 9:9 contains provisions and general recommendations for Chapter 8 paragraph 7 of PBL. 9:1 General Buildings shall be designed in such a way that energy use is limited by low heat losses, low cooling demands, efficient use of heat and cooling and efficient use of electricity. Rules on ventilation are contained in Section 6:25, on light conditions in Section 6:32, on thermal comfort in Section 6:42 and moisture control in Section 6:53. 9:11 Scope of application These rules apply to all buildings except greenhouses or similar buildings that could not be used for their intended purpose if these requirements had to be met, buildings or parts of buildings only used for short periods, buildings that do not require heating or comfort cooling for the major part of the year, and buildings where no space is intended to be heated to more than 10 ºC and where the need for energy for comfort cooling, hot water and building property energy is low. The requirements in Sections 9:2, 9:3 and 9:4 need not be met for buildings where waste heat from industrial processes within the building covers a major part of the heating requirement. This shall be verified by means of a special investigation. The requirements in Sections 9:2, 9:3 and 9:4, that are applicable to electrical heating, apply to buildings with an area exceeding 50 m 2 (A temp ). For smaller buildings, the requirements for buildings using a heating source other than electrical heating, apply. 1

2 BFS 2011:x 9:12 Definitions A f Total area for windows, doors, gates, etc. (m 2 ), calculated using the external frame dimensions. A temp The building's energy use The building's property energy The building's specific energy use Average thermal transmittance U m The area enclosed by the inside of the building envelope of all storeys including cellars and attics for temperature-controlled spaces, intended to be heated to more than 10 ºC,. The area occupied by interior walls, openings for stairs, shafts, etc., are included. The area for garages, within residential buildings or other building premises other than garages, are not included. The energy which, in normal use during a reference year, needs to be supplied to a building (often referred to as purchased energy ) for heating, comfort cooling, hot tap water and the building's property energy. If underfloor heating, towel dryers or other devices for heating are installed, their energy use is also included. The part of the electrical energy used for building services nessesarry for the use of the building, where the electricity consuming unit is in, under or affixed to the exterior of the building. This includes permanently installed lighting of common spaces and utility rooms. It also includes energy used in heating cables, pumps, fans, motors, control and monitoring equipment and the like. Externally locally placed devices that supply the building, such as pumps and fans for free cooling, are also included. Appliances intended for use other than for the building, such as engine and compartment heaters for vehicles, battery chargers for external users, lighting in gardens and walkways, are not included. The building's energy use divided by A temp expressed in kwh/m 2 and year. Domestic energy is not included. Neither is operational energy, used in addition to the building's basic operation adapted requirements, for heat, hot water and ventilation. The average thermal transmittance (W/m 2 K) for building envelope including thermal bridges as determined by SS-EN ISO 13789:2007 and SS (2) and calculated using the formula below, U m n m ( UA i i lk k j) i 1 k 1 j 1 A om p 2

3 BFS 2011:26 where U i A i k l k χ j A om Thermal transmittance for a single part of the building envelope (W/m 2 K). The surface area of the single part i of the building envelope facing the heated indoor air (m 2 ). For windows, doors, gates and the like, A i is calculated using the external frame dimensions. Thermal transmittance for the linear thermal bridge k (W/mK). The length in relation to the heated indoor air of the linear thermal bridge k (m). Thermal transmittance for the point shaped thermal bridge j (W/K). Total surface area of the building envelope facing the heated indoor air (m 2 ). The building envelope refers to those structural elements that separate heated parts of dwellings or non-residential premises from the outdoor, the ground or partially heated spaces. Design value for outdoor winter temperature DVUT Electric heating Energy for comfort cooling Domestic energy The temperature, for the representative location, as shown in the 1-day value in "n-day mean air temperature" in accordance with SS-EN ISO The temperature may be increased if the building's time constant is greater than 24 hours. The increase is shown in the standard's reported temperatures for 2, 3 or 4 days. The building's time constant, measured in days, is used for selecting the corresponding table value (n-day). The temperature increase due to a time constant higher than 96 hours can be determined through a special investigation. Heating with electricity, where the installed power rating for heating is greater than 10 W/m 2 (A temp ). Examples are ground, sea or air heat pump, direct electric heating, hydronic electric heating, air-based electric heating, electric underfloor heating, electric water heaters and the like. Electrical power in solid fuel installations that is installed to provide temporary backup is not included if the solid fuel installation is designed for continuous operation. The cooling or the amount of energy supplied to the building used to reduce the indoor temperature for human comfort. Cooling energy that is extracted directly from the environment (known as free cooling) is not included. Electricity or other form of energy consumed for domestic purposes. Examples of this are electricity consumption for dishwashers, washing machines, dryers (also in shared laundry rooms), stoves, fridges, freezers, and other household appliances and lighting, computers, TVs and other consumer electronics and the like. 3

4 BFS 2011:x Indoor temperature Installed power rating for heating Climate zone I Climate zone II Climate zone III Reference year Reference year correction Specific fan power (SFP) Operational energy Temperature intended to be maintained indoors when the building is in use. The maximum total power rating that can be used by the electrical heating appliances for heating that is needed to maintain the intended indoor climate, hot water production and ventilation in the building when there is a peak power requirement. The maximum output power requirement can be calculated at DVUT and hot tap water use of at least 0.5 kw per apartment, unless a higher load condition is known at the design stage. Counties of Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Jämtland. Counties of Västernorrland, Gävleborg, Dalarna and Värmland. Counties of Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Kronoberg, Kalmar, Östergötland, Södermanland, Örebro, Västmanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Skåne, Halland, Blekinge and Gotland. The average value of the outdoor climate (e.g. temperature) for an extended period of time (e.g. 30 years). Correction of the measured energy use of the building based on the difference between the reference year at the local spot and the actual climate during the period for which the energy use of the building is being verified. The sum of power rating for all fans in the ventilation system divided by the maximum flow of either supply air or extract air, kw/(m 3 /s). Electricity or other form of energy, used for other than dwelling purposes, in premises. Examples of this include process energy, lighting, computers, copiers, TVs, showcase refrigerators/freezers, machinery and other appliances for the operation as well as stoves, refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, washing machines, dryers, other household appliances and the like. 4

5 BFS 2011:26 9:2 Dwellings Dwellings shall be designed to ensure the building's specific energy use, the installed electric power rating for heating, and the average thermal transmittance (U m ) of the building envelope (A om ), do not exceed the values given in Tables 9:2a and 9:2b. Table 9:2a Dwellings that have a heating method other than electric heating Climate zone I II III The building's specific energy use (kwh per m 2 A temp and year) Average thermal transmittance (W/m 2 K) (BFS 2011:xx) Table 9:2 b Dwellings with electric heating Climate zone I II III The building s specific energy use [kwh per m 2 A temp and year] Installed power rating for heating [kw] supplement when A temp is greater than 130 m 2 Average thermal transmittance [W/m 2 K] (A temp 130) (A temp 130) (A temp 130) More electrical energy and a higher electric power rating than specified in Table 9:2b are acceptable if special circumstances exist. 5

6 BFS 2011:x Examples of special circumstances where more electrical energy and a higher electric power rating can be justified are if geological or other conditions do not permit the installation of a heat pump and no other forms of heating such as district heating or biofuel are possible, or if the requirement for specific energy use is not possible to meet due to culturally and historically justified restrictions. However, in such condition, the values in Table 9:2b should not be exceeded by more than 20 %. If a building is supplied with heat or cold from another nearby building (or appliance), the heating source and cooling source (e.g. coolers or free cooling) for the receiving building is considered to be the same as for the supplying building, provided that the buildings are part of the same property or the buildings have the same owner. The same applies to properties within the same building for threedimensional property registration. If the building has a heating source other than electric heating, the electric energy to the electrical coolers for comfort cooling is to be multiplied by a factor of 3 when determining the building's specific energy use. The building's specific energy use may be reduced by the energy from solar panels or solar cells located on the main building, outhouse or building site, to the extent that the building can make use of the energy. For buildings containing both dwellings and premises the requirement for U m, specific energy use and installed electric power rating for heating are calculated in proportion to floor area (A temp ). The requirements in Section 9:2 should be verified by calculating the predicted specific energy use of the building and average thermal transmittance at the design stage, and by measuring specific energy use in the finished building. Furthermore, for electrically heated buildings the installed power rating for heating should be calculated at the design stage and be verified in the finished building through the summation of power ratings. With respect to these requirements, the inspection plan should be drawn up to ensure the final certificate can be confirmed before measuring, and the building thereby can be put in use. When calculating the building s predicted specific energy use, appropriate safety margins should be applied to ensure the requirement for the building s specific energy use is met when the building is put in use. Calculations should be carried out based on the climate of the location, the intended indoor temperature, and normal consumption of domestic hot water and airing. If the indoor temperature is unknown at the design stage, 22 C can be used as the average indoor temperature for dwellings when performing energy and power calculation. Special rules on thermal comfort are contained in Section 6:42. Measurements of the building's energy use can be carried out in accordance with Section 9:71. The building's energy use should be measured over a continuous period of 12 months, completed at the latest 24 months after the building is put in use. Reference year correction and any correction for deviations from the planned use of the building (indoor temperature, domestic hot water use, airing, etc.) should be included in a special investigation. 6

7 BFS 2011:26 Verification of the building's specific energy use can be coordinated with an energy certification according to the Act (2006:985) on the energy certification of buildings. 9:21 Building envelope's airtightness The building envelope's airtightness shall be sufficient so that the requirements for the building s specific energy use and installed electric power rating for heating are met. Additional rules on the building envelope's airtightness from a moisture and ventilation aspect are detailed in Sections 6:255 and 6:531 Airtightness. Rules for airtightness against fire spread are contained in Section 5 Fire protection. 9:3 Non-residential premises Premises shall be designed to ensure the building's specific energy use, the installed electric power rating for heating, and the average thermal transmittance (U m ) for the building enveolpe (A om ), do not exceed the values given in Tables 9:3a and 9:3b. Table 9:3a Premises that have a heating method other than electric heating Climate zone I II III The building s specific energy use [kwh per m 2 A temp and year] + supplement when the supply air flow for extended hygienic reasons is greater than 0.35 l/s per m 2 in temperature-controlled spaces. Where q average is the average specific flow of supply air during the heating season and no more than 1.00 [l/s per m 2 ] must be taken into consideration in this calculation. Average thermal transmittance [W/m 2 K] (BFS 2011:xx). 110(q average -0.35) 90(q average -0.35) 70(q average -0.35) Table 9:3b Premises with electric heating Climate zone I II III The building s specific energy use [kwh per m 2 A temp and year]

8 BFS 2011:x 8 Climate zone I II III + supplement when the 65(q average -0.35) 55(q average -0.35) 45(q average -0.35) supply air flow for extended hygienic reasons is greater than 0.35 l/s per m 2 in temperature-controlled spaces. Where q average is the average specific flow of supply air during the heating season and no more than 1.00 [l/s per m 2 ] must be taken into consideration in this calculation. Installed power rating for heating [kw] supplement where A temp 0.035(A temp - 130) 0.030(A temp - 130) 0.025(A temp - 130) is greater than 130 m 2 + supplement when the 0.030(q-0.35)A temp 0.026(q-0.35)A temp 0.022(q-0.35)A temp supply air flow for extended continuous hygienic reasons is greater than 0.35 l/s per m 2 in temperature-controlled spaces. Where q is the maximum specific flow of supply air at DVUT. Average thermal transmittance [W/m 2 K] More electrical energy and higher electric power rating than that specified in Table 9:3b is acceptable if special circumstances can be indicated. Examples of special circumstances where more electrical energy and a higher electric power rating can be justified are if geological or other conditions do not permit the installation of a heat pump and no other forms of heating such as district heating or biofuel are possible, or if the requirement for specific energy use is not possible to meet due to culturally and historically justified restrictions. However, in such condition, the values in Table 9:3b should not be exceeded by more than 20 %. If a building is supplied with heat or cold from another nearby building (or appliance), the heating source and cooling source (e.g. coolers or free cooling) for the receiving building is considered to be the same as for the supplying building, provided that the buildings are part of the same property or the buildings have the same owner. The same applies to properties within the same building for threedimensional property registration. If the building has a heating source other than electric heating, the electric energy to the electrical coolers for comfort cooling is to be multiplied by a factor of 3 when determining the building's specific energy use. The building s specific energy use may be reduced by the energy from solar panels or solar cells located on the main building, outhouse or building site, to the extent that the building can make use of the energy.

9 BFS 2011:26 For buildings containing both dwellings and premises the requirement for U m, specific energy use and installed electric power rating for heating are calculated in proportion to floor area (A temp ). The requirements in Section 9:3 should be verified by calculating the predicted specific energy use of the building and average thermal transmittance at the design stage, and by measuring specific energy use in the finished building. Furthermore, for electrically heated buildings the installed power rating for heating should be calculated at the design stage and be verified in the finished building through the summation of power ratings. With respect to these requirements, the inspection plan should be drawn up to ensure the final certificate can be confirmed before measuring, and the building thereby can be put in use. When calculating the building s predicted specific energy use the appropriate safety margins should be applied to ensure the requirement for the building s specific energy use is met when the building is put in use. Calculations should be carried out based on the climate of the location, intended indoor temperature, normal consumption of domestic hot water, airing and additional heat from processes within the premises. Measurements of the building's energy use can be carried out in accordance with Section 9:71. The building s energy use should be measured over a continuous period of 12 months, completed at the latest 24 months after the building is put in use. Reference year correction and any correction for deviations from the planned use of the building (indoor temperature, domestic hot water use, airing, heat recovery from the processes in the room, etc.) should be included in a special investigation. Verification of the building's specific energy use can be coordinated with an energy certification according to the Act (2006:985) on the energy certification of buildings. 9:31 Building envelope's airtightness The building envelope's airtightness shall be sufficient so that the requirements for the building s specific energy use and installed power rating for heating are met. Additional rules on the building envelope's airtightness from a moisture and ventilation aspect are detailed in Sections 6:255 and 6:531 Airtightness. Rules for airtightness against fire spread are contained in Section 5 Fire protection. 9:4 Alternative requirements on the building s energy use As an alternative to the requirements in Sections 9:2 and 9:3 for buildings where the floor area A temp does not exceed 100 m 2, the window and door area A f does not exceed 0.20 A temp, and no cooling requirement exists, the following requirements for building thermal insulation, building envelope air tightness and heat recovery may be selected instead. The highest thermal transmittance (U i ) must, for the parts of the building envelope (A om ), not exceed the values specified in Table 9:4. 9

10 BFS 2011:x Table 9:4 U i [W/m 2 K] U i Building with heating method other than electric heating Building with electric heating where A temp is m 2 U roof U wall U floor U window U door For buildings with electric heating where A temp does not exceed 50 m 2 the requirements are applied for buildings with a heating method other than electric heating. The installed power rating for heating is limited up to 5.5 kw for a building with electric heating where A temp is m 2. The building envelope shall be sufficiently air tight that the average air leakage rate at + 50 Pa pressure difference does not exceed 0.6 l/s m 2. Therewith, the area A om shall be used. A method for determining air leakage is contained in SS-EN If the building floor area A temp exceeds 60 m 2 the building shall be fitted with a device for heat recovery from ventilation air or with a heat pump. With regard to distribution losses and prevalent driving energy, the building should be provided with appropriately designed ventilation heat exchanger to transfer heat from the extract air to the supply air with minimum 70 % temperature efficiency, or a heat pump which produces corresponding savings. 9:5 HVAC systems 9:51 Heating and cooling installations Heating and cooling installations in buildings shall be designed in such a way that they provide adequate efficiency during normal operation. The installations should be designed in such a way that calibration, testing, inspection, supervision, servicing and exchange can be easily effected and adequate efficiency maintained. For certain boilers, the regulations given in the provisions and general recommendations on efficiency requirements for new boilers heated by liquid or gaseous fuels of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (BFS 2011:11), apply. See also Sections 6:741 and 6:742. Heating and cooling installations and installations for domestic hot water heating should be designed and insulated to ensure energy losses are limited. See also Section 6:62. HVAC systems should be designed, insulated and sealed to ensure energy losses are limited. See also Section 6:

11 BFS 2011:26 The need for cooling shall be minimised through design and technical measures. To reduce the demand for cooling in the building, further measures should be considered such as the selection of window size, window location, sunshading, sunlight protection glass, electric efficient lighting and equipment to reduce internal heat loads, night cooling and accumulation of cold in the building structure. See also Section 6:43. 9:52 Control and regulating systems The building shall have a control and regulation system in order to maintain good energy efficiency and thermal comfort in accordance with Section 6:42. Heating, cooling and HVAC systems shall be fitted with automatic regulation equipment to ensure the supply of heating and cooling is regulated in accordance with the power demand in relation to the outdoor and indoor climate and the intended use of the building. With regard to the regulation of the supply of heating and cooling, the building should be divided into zones, with respect to use, orientation and floor layout. Heating installations in buildings containing dwellings should be fitted with devices for automatic heat control of each room. Simultaneous heating and cooling of spaces should be avoided. 9:6 Efficient use of electricity Building services installations, which require electrical energy, such as ventilation, fixed lighting fittings, electrical heaters, circulation pumps and motors shall be designed to ensure the power requirement is limited and energy is used efficiently. Energy efficiency of the ventilation system should, at the designed airflow rate, not exceed the following values for specific fan power (SFP): SFP, kw/(m 3 /s) Extract and supply air with heat recovery: 2.0 Extract and supply air without heat recovery: 1.5 Extract air with recovery: 1.0 Extract air: 0.6 Higher SFP values may be acceptable for ventilation systems with variable air flows, air flows less than 0.2 m 3 /s or operational periods less than 800 hours per year. Fixed lighting fittings in kitchens and bathrooms should be provided with efficient light sources, such as fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps, low-energy lamps or similar devices. Fittings for outdoor lighting should be provided with efficient light sources, reflectors and optical devices, and controlled by dusk sensors, motion detectors or similar devices. Fixtures and fittings for lighting in premises should be provided with presence detection and daylight control devices where appropriate. Electric towel dryers and comfort underfloor heating should be provided with timer control or other regulating equipment. 11

12 BFS 2011:x Circulation pumps, other than for hot tap water installations, should be designed to ensure they are normally shut off when no flow is required. 9:7 Measuring systems for energy use 9:71 Measuring systems It shall be possible to continuously monitor the building s energy use by a method of measurement. The method shall ensure that the energy use of the building can be read to enable calculation of the building s energy use for the desired time period. The building s energy use, and the requirements in Sections 9:2 and 9:3 may be verified by measuring and summing up the amounts of energy (kwh) supplied to the building for heating, comfort cooling, hot tap water and the building's property energy. For extensions to a building, measurement can be made using the building's existing measuring system. In buildings that have electric heating, domestic energy and property energy, in cases where they exist, should be possible to read separately. Buildings that have a heating source other than electric heating and have electric coolers should have the ability to have separate readouts for electricity consumption for the coolers. Reading the energy measurements should be made readily available for the subscriber, in or adjacent to the building. For types of energy not expressed directly in kwh, e.g. oil and biofuels, the measured volume of fuel may be recalculated in kwh with the aid of the thermal values of the fuel type in question. 9:8 Classification of the building's energy use If the client/owner wants more stringent requirements for energy management than those in Tables 9:2a, 9:2b, 9:3a and 9:3b,these can be specified in a standard way. For a building to be considered to have low energy use, its specific energy use should be no greater than 75 % of the appropriate value, in the tables specified above. Very low energy use can be considered to be if the building's specific energy use does not exceed 50 % of the applicable table value. The same principle for classification of the building's specific energy use is detailed in SS :2011 Energy performance of buildings Part 2: Classification of energy use. The building's energy performance is expressed in the same way as in the Act (2006:985) on the energy certification for buildings. This is equivalent to the building's specific energy use in BBR. Regardless of the energy class selected, it is the client/owner that ensures that the energy class is met. The municipality's enforcement in this context only covers the requirement levels shown in Tables 9:2a, 9:2b, 9:3a and 9:3b. (BFS 2011:xx). 12

13 BFS 2011:26 9:9 Energy management requirements for alterations to buildings 9:91 General Buildings shall be designed in such a way that energy use is limited by low heat losses, low cooling demands, efficient use of heat and cooling and efficient use of electricity. Additional rules on alteration are contained in section 1:22. The requirements for energy management shall be applied to ensure the other technical property requirements can be met and to ensure the building's cultural values are not impaired and that the architectural and aesthetic values can be safeguarded. (BFS 2011:xx). To verify the requirement for energy management, unless the requirements indicated in Sections 9:2 or 9:3 on specific energy use are met, a review may be made of what measures could be taken to reduce the building's energy use. If an energy certification has been prepared in accordance with the Act (2006:985) on energy certificates, there may be proposals on measures to improve the building's energy performance. Different energy rationalisation solutions are contained in the publication 'Renovera Energismart' (Energy Smart renovation). Rules for air quality, ventilation, light conditions, thermal comfort and moisture control are contained in Section 6. Rules for the protection of buildings' cultural values are contained in Chapter 8, Articles 13 and 17 of PBL (2010:900). (BFS 2011:xx). Alterations to buildings must not result in deteriorating energy efficiency, unless there are exceptional circumstances. However, energy efficiency may deteriorate if the alteration to the building still meets the requirements in Sections 9:2 9:6. (BFS 2011:xx). Exceptional circumstances may be when there is a need to meet other technical property requirements, e.g. good indoor environment. (BFS 2011:xx). 9:911 Coordination of measures To meet the requirement for energy management, coordination needs to be applied when multiple measures are taken simultaneously in a building. After the measures are implemented, the relevant technical systems should be adapted and optimised for operation. For example, for window replacement one should normally adjust the heating or ventilation systems. (BFS 2011:xx). 13

14 BFS 2011:x 9:92 Building envelope If the building, after an alteration, does not meet the requirements in Sections 9:2 and 9:3 regarding specific energy use the following U-values shall be pursued for the alteration. (BFS 2011:xx). U i U roof 0.13 U wall 0.18 U floor 0.15 U window 1.2 U exterior door 1.2 (BFS 2011:xx). [W/m 2,K] Simple measures to improve the building's energy efficiency could be weather stripping or additional measures for windows and doors and additional insulation of the attic building floor. If the building envelope is sealed, the outdoor air supply should be ensured. When installing additional insulation the condensation point will change in the structure. Rules on how this shall be considered are contained in Sections 6:92 and 6:95. Exterior wall: Reasons to allow a higher U-value could e.g. be if only a portion of an exterior wall is affected or if it means that the usability of a balcony is significantly reduced. For technical reasons it may be inappropriate to add insulation to certain wall constructions. When applying external insulation you should consider how this affects the building's character, details such as door and window coverage, and the relationship between the façade and eaves and plinth. For example windows may be moved out to maintain the building's character. For additional interior insulation, the consequences on the building's internal cultural values need to be clarified. Windows: Windows are often of great importance for how the building is perceived and for its cultural values. Reasons for deviation from the requirement for maximum U-value could be if the windows are manufactured specifically to meet the building's aesthetic or cultural values. Original windows should only be replaced using windows that in respect of materials, proportions, division and profiling are well suited to the character of the building. Windows may also have a highly significant cultural value to the extent that they should not be replaced unless there are exceptional circumstances. Other measures to increase thermal resistance should be taken instead. Entrance door: Doors are often of great importance for how the building is perceived and its cultural values. Reasons for deviation from the requirement for maximum U-value could be if the door is manufactured specifically to meet the building's aesthetic or cultural values. Original doors should be replaced only by those that are well suited to the character of the building. Doors may also have a highly significant cultural value which means that they should not be replaced unless there are exceptional circumstances. They could, for example, be hand-made or be specially designed for a particular building. Other measures to increase thermal resistance should be taken instead. Roofs: If the attic space is not intended to be heated, its insulation can be placed in the attic building floor. For additional insulation of the attic, the 14

15 BFS 2011:26 potential for moisture damage shall be considered. Rules on this are contained in Section 6. Reasons for deviation from the U-value requirements could be if moisture problems can not be handled in a satisfactory manner, or if the requirement significantly impairs the usability of the attic space. (BFS 2011:xx). 9:93 Ventilation system HVAC systems shall be designed, insulated and sealed to ensure energy losses are limited. (BFS 2011:xx). When making alterations that alter the pressure distribution in the building, for example, when changing the heating device, you should examine the option of producing an energy-efficient ventilation-efficient solution by changing or calibrating the ventilation system. Proposals for energy efficiency measures can be contained in the minutes of the mandatory performance control of the ventilation system. (BFS 2011:xx). 9:94 Heating and cooling installations The heating installation shall be selected, designed, insulated, adjusted and calibrated to ensure the other technical property requirements can be met in an energy efficient manner. (BFS 2011:xx). The opportunities to achieve energy efficiency through change or calibration of the heating system should always be investigated. Control and monitoring systems should, when needed, be supplemented to ensure that regulation of the heat output can be selected according to particular applications and any internal heat gains. When installation, replacement or modification of the heating or cooling system is carried out, the same level as regards energy management as that defined in Section 9:5 should be pursued with regard to heating and cooling production, and control and monitoring systems. (BFS 2011:xx). The building's need for comfort cooling shall be minimised. (BFS 2011:xx). : Instead of installing cooling systems you should, if possible, choose other measures such as sun-shading and reduce internal heat loads through electrically efficient lighting and equipment. (BFS 2011:xx). 9:95 Efficient use of electricity Installations that require electrical energy, such as ventilation, fixed lighting fittings, electrical heaters, circulation pumps and motors shall be designed to ensure the power requirement is limited and energy is used efficiently. When changes are made to the ventilation system, one shall aim to have a ventilation system that does not exceed the SFP values in Table 9:95. If only the unit is replaced, one shall aim to ensure the SFPv values specified in the table below are not exceeded. (BFS 2011:xx). 15

16 BFS 2011:x Table 9:95 Maximum values for SFP (Specific fan power output for a ventilation system) and SFPv (Specific fan power output for a unit) Extract and supply air with heat recovery: Extract and supply air without heat recovery: SFP, [kw/(m 3 /s)] SFPv [kw/(m 3 /s)] Extract air with recovery: Extract air: (BFS 2011:xx). Higher SFP values may be acceptable for ventilation systems with variable air flows, air flows less than 0.2 m 3 /s or operational periods less than 800 hours per year. In the event of an alteration, the possibility of achieving more efficient electricity consumption through the replacement or addition of installations that use electrical energy should always be considered. This may relate to ventilation, fixed lighting, electric heaters and motors, and equipment such as fridges/freezers, washing machines and drying equipment. (BFS 2011:xx). 9:96 Measuring systems for energy use It shall be possible to continuously monitor the building s energy use by a method of measurement. The method shall ensure that the energy use of the building can be read to enable calculation of the building s energy use for the desired time period. (BFS 2011:26). If the building does not meet the equivalent requirements in Section 9:71 following an alteration of the installation facilities relevant to the building's energy use, one should aim to monitor their energy use on a continuous basis. The way in which the building's energy used can be measured is specified in the general recommendation in Section 9:71. (BFS 2011:26). 16

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