THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE I. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1. INTRODUCTION A. OTTOMAN RULED FOR 600 YEARS UNTIL 1920'S B. EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE OR BYZANTINE EMPIRE C.

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1 1 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE I. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1. INTRODUCTION A. OTTOMAN RULED FOR 600 YEARS UNTIL 1920'S B. EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE OR BYZANTINE EMPIRE C. HAD ENDURED FOR 11 CENTURIES D. BUT BY MID 15TH C REDUCED TO LITTLE MORE THAN CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE ITSELF E. 8 CENTURIES AFTER TURKS EMERGED FROM THEIR HOMELAND IN STEPPELANDS OF CENTRAL ASIA F. THEY CAPTURED BYZANTINE CHRISTIAN CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE a. AFTER LONG SIEGE (1) USING GUNPOWDER SIEGE ARTILLERY (2) SIGNALING AGE OF GUNPOWDER WEAPONRY b. WITH OTTOMANS ERECTING IN 4 MONTHS THIS TREMENDOUS RUMELI HISAR FORTRESS YEAR BEFORE c. DEFEATED BYZANTINES G. SULTAN MEHMET II a. CONQUEROR OF CONSTANTINOPLE H. FOR GREEKS & TURKS EVENTS OF MAY 29, 1453 STILL ANNUALLY COMMEMORATED I. BY GREEKS AS THEIR GREATEST TRAGEDY J. BY TURKS AS THEIR MOST SHINING TRIUMPH K. GREEKS ON THAT DAY ENTERED UPON NEARLY 4 CENTURIES OF SUBJUGATION a. DURING WHICH THEIR CHURCH PROVIDED ONLY FOCUS FOR THEIR NATIONAL ASPIRATIONS L. TURKS CELEBRATED THEIR NEW EUROPEAN EMPIRE M. CHANGED CITY'S NAME FROM CONSTANTINOPLE TO ISTANBUL N. & MADE IT THEIR NEW CAPITAL a. LASTING FOR OVER 4 CENTURIES (1) O. EMPIRE AT ITS HEIGHT OF POWER & ART UNDER SULTAN SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT

2 2 a. IN 16TH C. P. EMPIRE CONSISTED OF a. IN EUROPE (1) MOST OF BALKANS (2) MOST OF AEGEAN ISLANDS (3) SLAND OF CRETE b. IN NEAR EAST (1) MODERN TURKEY (2) MESOPOTAMIA (3) AREA OF SYRIA & PALESTINE (4) PART OF PERSIA (5) PART OF ARABIA (6) ISLAND OF CYPRUS c. IN AFRICA (1) INCLUDED EGYPT (2) & MOST OF NORTH AFRICAN COAST Q. IN 17TH & 18TH CENTURIES SULTANS INFLUENCED a. BY THEIR GRAND VIZIERS b. & JANISSARIES R. IN 18TH C. BUILDINGS OF ISTANBUL DESIGNED IN BAROQUE & ROCOCO STYLES S. 19TH C FULL OF DISAGREEMENTS WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES T. BULGARIANS MOVED TOWARD ISTANBUL IN 1912 U. ISTANBUL OCCUPIED BY ENGLISH & FRENCH IN 1918 V. I1922 EMPIRE DISSOLVED W CAPITAL MOVED TO ANKARA 2. FOREIGN CONFLICTS OF OTTOMANS A. OTTOMAN EMPIRE BARRIER TO TERRITORIAL AMBITIONS OF a. AUSTRIAN HABSBURGS b. POLAND c. RUSSIA 3. STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY A. IN THEORY EMPIRE EXISTED TO ENHANCE SPREAD OF ISLAM B. ITS POPULATION, HOWEVER EXCEEDINGLY DIVERSE

3 3 II. a. BOTH ETHNICALLY & RELIGIOUSLY C. EMPIRE RULED THESE PEOPLE NOT ON TERRITORIAL a. BUT ON RELIGIOUS BASIS D. OTTOMANS CREATED UNITS a. CALLED MILLETS b. INCLUDED ALL PERSONS OF A PARTICULAR RELIGIOUS FAITH c. VARIOUS LAWS & REGULATIONS APPLIED TO THESE PEOPLE E. NON-ISLAMIC PEOPLE IN EMPIRE a. IMMIS b. THEY COULD PRACTICE THEIR RELIGION c. BUT WERE 2ND CLASS CITIZENS d. COULD NOT RISE IN SERVICE OF EMPIRE e. OR PROFIT MUCH FROM ITS SUCCESSES f. BUT THEY COULD PRACTICE THEIR RELIGION POLITICAL & SOCIAL STRUCTURES OF THE OTTOMANS 1. SULTANS 2. BUILDING PROGRAMS OF SULTANS SULTANAHMET MOSQUE OR BLUE MOSQUE A. ENORMOUS DOMED STRUCTURE B. ALSO CALLED BLUE MOSQUE BECAUSE OF ITS BLUE-GREEN TILES a. O19, O20 THOUSANDS OF THEM C. SURROUNDED BY 6 MINARETS a. ONLY MOSQUE WITH 6 D. BUILT BY ARCHITECT SINAN IN EARLY 17TH C. a. ROYAL ARCHITECT OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE AT HEIGHT OF ITS POWER b. GAINED LEGENDARY STATUS FOR HIS DESIGN OF MORE THAN 400 BUILDINGS c. MANY OF THEM OF ENORMOUS SCALE E. OPPOSITE HAGIA SOPHIA F. FROM HERE PILGRIMS BEGAN THEIR JOURNEY TO MECCA 3. SULEYMANIYE MOSQUE A. BUILT DURING REIGN OF SULEIMAN AGAIN BY ARCHITECT SINAN a. YEARS

4 4 B. INNER COURTYARD IS SURROUNDED BY 24 ANCIENT COLUMNS OF PORPHYRY, MARBLE & GRANITE a. WHICH SUPPORT 28 DOMES b. ALL THESE COLUMNS ORIGINATE FROM HIPPODROME (1) BUILT BY JUSTINIAN IN 6TH C. C. ACOUSTICS IN MOSQUE ARE MARVELOUS D. IT IS SAID THAT ARCHITECT SINAN PUT PIPES IN GROUND FROM MIHRAB (PRAYER NICHE) a. TO EVERY CORNER OF MOSQUE b. TO ENABLE PRAYER & PREACHING OF IMAM (PERSON WHO LEADS IN PRAYER) c. TO BE HEARD OUTSIDE MOSQUE AS WELL E. HERE ARE ALSO TOMBS OF SULEIMAN & HIS WIFE ROXELANA F. SELIMIYE MOSQUE AT EDIRNE TURKEY a. BUILT ALSO BY ARCHITECT SINAN IN 16TH C. (1) WHEN HE WAS 80 YEARS OLD b. BUILT DURING BY SULTAN SELIM II (1) SON & SUCCESSOR OF SULEIMAN (2) BELIEVED TO BE MASTERPIECE OF ARCHITECTS OF TIME BY G. HAGIA SOPHIA a. ORIGINALLY CATHEDRAL FOR CHRISTIANS BUILT BY JUSTINIAN IN 6TH C b. THEN CONVERTED TO MOSQUE AFTER MUSLIMS CAPTURED CONSTANTINOPLE c. & THEN CONVERTED TO MUSEUM BY ATATURK IN JANISSARIES A. CORPS OF HIGHLY TRAINED TROOPS FROM CHRISTIAN FAMILIES B. WHO FORMED ELITE CORPS IN SULTAN'S ARMY 5. EUNUCHS A. CREATED NEW SEX TO KEEP HAREM SECURE B. 3 TYPES OF CASTRATION a. SANDALI (1) CLEAN CUT b. EUNUCH

5 5 (1) PENIS REMOVED BUT STILL ABLE TO HAVE KIDS c. TESTICALS REMOVED (1) STILL ABLE TO SATISFY WOMEN & HIMSELF C. CASTRATION INCLUDED a. CRUSHING b. STRIKING c. CUTTING d. PULLING D. ONLY STRONG SURVIVED CASTRATION ORDEAL E. HIGHEST RATE OF SUCCESS PREPUBESCENT BLACK BOYS F. AS THEY REACHED MATURITY THEIR HORMONES GAVE THEM FEELINGS THEY COULDN'T VENT a. CREATING WOMEN HATERS G. CHIEF BLACK EUNUCH OF HAREM a. HAD POWER AS LINK BETWEEN SULTAN & HIS MOTHER b. LEADING TO KNOWLEDGE OF SECRETS (1) & MATTERS OF STATE c. HIS POSITION MADE HIM VERY BRIBEABLE (1) CONSEQUENCE HE BECAME RICH H. EUNUCHS INVULNERABILITY TO HAREM CHARMS a. POSITION OF POWER b. RESENTMENT OF WOMEN IN GENERAL c. MADE THEM DISLIKED d. BUT FEARED BY THE SERAGLIO I. A LETTER FROM A CHIEF EUNUCH ADMITS HE FEEDS THE WOMENS' HATRED a....i INTERFERE WITH THEIR MOST INNOCENT PLEASURES; I AM ALWAYS IN THE WAY, AN INSURMOUNTABLE OBSTACLE.. J. CHIEF EUNUCH LOOKED AFTER WOMEN K. & CARRIED OUT SULTAN'S ORDERS L. INCLUDING DEATH SENTENCES a. USUALLY BY STRANGLING OR DROWNING M. ADULT EUNUCH EASY TO SPOT a. INCLINED TO BE FAT & FLABBY

6 6 (1) FROM LITTLE EXERCISE WHILE INDULGING IN SWEETS b. THEY HAD HOURGLASS FIGURES c. HIGH VOICES d. NO FACIAL HAIR e. HAD LONGER THAN NORMAL ARMS WITH LARGE HANDS f. LOVE OF JEWELRY 6. SULTAN'S HAREM A. ISLAM RELIGION ALLOWED MEN TO MARRY 4 WIVES B. THIS LAW RESULT OF WARS C. MANY WIDOWS HAD TO BE PROVIDED FOR D. ARMY NEEDED NEW RECRUITS E. ROXELANE a. RUSSIAN WIFE OF SULEIMAN b. PERSUADED HIM TO ALLOW HER TO LIVE IN NEW TOPKAPI PALACE c. WITH HER HAREM SLAVES & EUNUCHS F. LATER IN REIGNS OF SELIM II & MURAT III a. ADDITIONS SUCH AS BEDROOMS FOR SULTANS & THEIR MOTHERS MADE G. HAREM BECAME BIG BUILDING COMPLEX WITH 400 ROOMS H. BEGINNING AT END OF 16TH C ENTIRE HAREM OF SULTANS LIVED HERE I. FEMALES INTO HAREM CALLED 'BEDROOM WOMEN' J. TODAY POSSIBLE TO SEE SMALL PART OF HAREM K. BUILDING OF WOOD WITH COURTYARD IN FRONT a. HOUSES LIVING ROOMS OF FAVORITES b. SEE SMALL MOSQUE OF BLACK EUNUCHS c. SULTAN'S MOTHER ROOMS (40 IN NUMBER) d. FESTIVAL OR THRONE HALL OF HAREM 7. SULTAN SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT (PRON. SOO-LAY-MAHN) A. KNOWN AS MAGNIFICENT OR THE LAWGIVER B RULED - OTTOMAN EMPIRE AT ITS HEIGHT a. BORN 1494 C. GREATEST OF SULTANS OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE D. GREATEST EMPIRE IN EUROPE AT TIME OF HIS DEATH E. EXTENDED EMPIRE TO ITS HEIGHT OF GLORY

7 7 F. BATTLES & CONQUESTS OF NOTE a. BELGRADE IN 1521 b. ISLAND OF RHODES FROM KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN IN 1522 c. BATTLE OF MOHACS (1) TOMB OF HUNGARIAN NATION (2) 20,000 MAN HUNGARIAN ARMY & ITS KING DESTROYED d. LAID SIEGE TO VIENNA IN 1529 (1) UNSUCCESSFUL G. CHARLES V AS HRE BEGAN COUNTERATTACK IN 1531 a. CAPTURING TUNIS IN NORTH AFRICA H. CHARLES V'S BROTHER ARCHDUKE FERDINAND OF AUSTRIA a. DIRECTED WAR AGAINST SULEIMAN (1) WHICH ENDED BY TRUCE IN 1547 (2) WITH TURKS RETAINING GREATER PART OF HUNGARY & (3) HAPSBURGS PAYING TRIBUTE FOR THEIR PART I. PHILIP II & HIS BROTHER DON JUAN OF AUSTRIA a. BATTLE OF LEPANTO b. SPANISH FLEET ALLIED WITH VENETIANS & GENOESE (1) IN HOLY LEAGUE OF PAPACY (2) DESTROYED TURKISH FLEET (3) GREATEST NAVAL BATTLE SINCE BATTLE OF ACTIUM (4) & LAST FOUGHT BY LARGE FLEETS OF OAR-DRIVEN GALLEYS c. ENDED TURKISH THREAT IN MEDITERRANEAN J. BUT IN END SULEIMAN'S NAVAL FORCES DOMINATED a. MEDITERRANEAN SEA b. RED SEA c. PERSIAN GULF 8. OTTOMAN EXPANSION A. FROM 15TH C. ONWARD B. OTTOMAN EMPIRE TRIED TO PUSH FURTHER WESTWARD IN EUROPE C. EMPIRE MADE ITS GREATEST MILITARY INVASION INTO EUROPE IN 1683 a. UNSUCCESSFULLY BESIEGED VIENNA D. MANY CHRISTIANS IN BALKANS & ON AEGEAN ISLANDS CONVERTED TO ISLAM

8 8 E. MANY OF THESE PEOPLE HAD EARLIER BEEN FORCED TO CONVERT TO ROMAN CATHOLICISM BY VENETIANS F. & WELCOMED TURKS & FAITH AS VEHICLES FOR POLITICAL LIBERATION G. MUCH OF ISLAMIC PRESENCE IN BALKANS TODAY a. DATES TO THESE CONVERSIONS H. BY LAST THIRD OF 17TH C I. OTTOMANS OVEREXTENDED THEMSELVES a. POLITICALLY b. ECONOMICALLY c. & MILITARILY J. FROM MID 16TH C OTTOMAN RULERS SPENT SO MUCH TIME AT WAR a. THEY COULD NOT ATTEND TO MEETINGS OF GOVERNMENTAL BODIES IN CONSTANTINOPLE K. AS TIME PASSED POLITICAL GROUPS IN CAPITAL a. RESISTED ANY SUBSTANTIAL STRENGTHENING OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT b. OR ROLE OF SULTAN L. RIVALRIES FOR POWER AMONG ARMY LEADERS & NOBLES M. AS WELL AS THEIR FLAGRANT EFFORTS TO ENRICH THEMSELVES N. WEAKENED EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT O. IN OTHER PROVINCES SUCH AS a. TRANSYLVANIA b. WALLACHIA c. MOLDAVIA (1) ALL PARTS OF MODERN ROMANIA d. EMPIRE DEPENDED ON GOODWILL OF LOCAL RULERS (1) WHO PAID TRIBUTE (2) BUT NEVER SUBMITTED THEMSELVES FULLY TO IMPERIAL POWER P. EMPIRE'S ECONOMY WEAK Q. ITS EXPORTS PRIMARILY RAW MATERIALS R. ACTUAL CONDUCT OF MOST OF ITS TRADE a. AD BEEN TURNED OVER TO REPRESENTATIVES OF OTHER NATIONS S. BY EARLY 18TH C WEAKNESS OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE a. MEANT POLITICAL VACUUM WOULD GROW DURING NEXT 2 CENTURIES

9 9 III. (1) INTO SOUTHEASTERN PERIMETER OF EUROPE b. VARIOUS EUROPEAN POWERS WHO HAD (1) CREATED STRONG ARMIES & BUREAUCRACIES (2) WOULD BEGIN TO PROBE (3) & EVENTUALLY DISMEMBER OTTOMAN EMPIRE T. IN 1699 TURKS CONCLUDED TREATY WITH THEIR LONGTIME HABSBURG ENEMY a. SURRENDERED ALL PRETENSIONS OF CONTROL OVER (1) HUNGARY (2) TRANSYLVANIA (3) CROATIA (4) SLAVONIA U. FROM THIS TIME ONWARD RUSSIA ALSO ATTEMPTED TO EXTEND ITS TERRITORY & INFLUENCED a. AT EXPENSE OF EMPIRE V. BY EARLY 19TH C. MANY OF PEOPLES a. WHO LIVED IN BALKANS b. & AROUND BLACK SEA c. WOULD SEEK TO CREATE THEIR OWN NATIONAL STATES W. RETREAT & DECAY OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE X. & SCRAMBLE OF OTHER STATES & REGIONAL PEOPLES TO ASSUME CONTROL OF SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE Y. WOULD CAUSE POLITICAL & ETHNIC TURMOIL a. FROM 18TH C TO OUR OWN DAY ART OF THE OTTOMANS 1. GENERAL REMARKS A. WHEN WE THINK OF OTTOMAN OR TURKISH ART B. WE THINK OF a. CARPETS b. VELVETS c. ZNIK CERAMICS (BLUE & WHITE ONES) 2. CALLIGRAPHY A. BUT CALLIGRAPHY IS HIGHEST FORM OF ART B. OTTOMANS OBSESSED WITH WRITTEN AUTHORITY

10 10 IV. C. FROM 7TH C. WHEN KORAN WRITTEN DOWN a. DIRECT TRANSMISSION OF WORD OF GOD D. CALLIGRAPHY HAS BENE A MORAL & SPIRITUAL ART a. RATHER THAN DECORATIVE ONE E. CALLIGRAPHERS AKIN TO HOLY MEN OR INTELLECTUALS F. GREAT OTTOMAN CALLIGRAPHER SHAYKH HAMDULLAH a. O REVERED THAT SULTAN WOULD HOLD HIS INKPOT WHILE HE WROTE G. SOME OF MOST BEAUTIFUL CALLIGRAPHY IS TO BE FOUND a. IN ILLUMINATED KORANS RELIGION & SOCIETY IN THE OTTOMAN WORLD 1. GENERAL REMARKS A. OTTOMAN RULING ELITES SUNNI MUSLIMS B. TTOMAN SULTANS HAD CLAIMED TITLE OF CALIPH (DEFENDER OF THE FAITH) a. SINCE EARLY 16TH C C. SO THEORETICALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR GUIDING FLOCK D. & MAINTAINING ISLAMIC LAW E. IN PRACTICE SULTAN ASSIGNED SUCH DUTIES TO a. SUPREME RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY (1) WHO ADMINISTERED LAW (2) & MAINTAINED SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS FOR EDUCATING MUSLIMS F. MOST TURKIC-SPEAKING PEOPLE a. LIKE THEIR RULERS WERE SUNNIN MUSLIMS G. BUT SOME TRIBAL COMMUNITIES ATTRACTED TO SUFISM H. GOVERNMENT TOLERATED SUCH ACTIVITIES SO AS LONG AS THEIR PRACTITIONERS REMAINED LOYAL TO EMPIRE I. BUT IT WAS UNREST AMONG THESE GROUPS a. OME OF WHO CONVERTED TO SH'ITE VERSION OF ISLAMIC DOCTRINE J. THAT LED TO WAR AGAINST SAFAVIDS IN EARLY 16TH C. K. OTTOMAN SYSTEM RELATIVELY TOLERANT OF NON-MUSLIMS a. WHO FORMED SIGNIFICANT MINORITY WITHIN EMPIRE L. NON-MUSLIMS COMPELLED TO a. PAY HEAD TAX (1) BECAUSE OF THEIR EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE

11 11 b. BUT WERE PERMITTED TO PRACTICE THEIR RELIGION c. & CONVERT TO ISLAM d. ALTHOUGH MUSLIMS PROHIBITED FROM ADOPTING ANOTHER FAITH M. MOST OF POPULATION IN EUROPEAN AREAS OF EMPIRE REMAINED CHRISTIAN N. BUT IN SOME AREAS a. SUCH AS BOSNIA b. SUBSTANTIAL NUMBERS CONVERTED TO MUSLIM FAITH 2. WHIRLING DERVISHES A. SUFIS a. MUSLIMS FOLLOWING THE PRINCIPALS OF SPECIAL FORM OF ISLAMIC MYSTICISM B. GREAT SUFI MYSTIC POET JALAL AD-DIN RUMI a. TOMB OF JALAL b. WHO DIED IN 1273 AD. c. FOUNDED MEVLEVI SUFI BROTHERHOOD d. KNOWN FOR ITS ECSTATIC WHIRLING DANCE C. HENCE TERM WHIRLING DERVISHES D. GROUP OF WHIRLING DERVISHES a. KONYA TURKEY E. THIS SUFI ORDER AT KONYA TURKEY & MANY OTHERS IN AFRICA & ASIA HAVE SURVIVED DESPITE EFFORTS BY STATE AUTHORITIES & ISLAMIC REFORMERS TO ELIMINATE SUFI PRACTICES OVER PAST 2 CENTURIES F. THROUGH BODY MOVEMENTS, BREATHING EXERCISES, SINGING & CHANTING, SUFIS DULLED EVERYDAY SENSES SO AS TO REACH HIGHER LANE OF SPIRITUAL REALITY G. SUFI MASTER OFTEN SOURCE OF SPECIAL POWER OVER HIS DISCIPLES H. DEGREE TO WHICH MYSTICAL BELIEFS & PRACTICES WERE ACCEPTABLE EXPRESSION OF ISLAM a. REMAINED PROBLEMATIC UNTIL GREAT INTELLECTUAL AND SUFI, (1) AL-GHAZALI (D A.D.) (a) E EFFECTED A SYNTHESIS I. RAPID SPREAD OF ISLAM IN ASIA & AFRICA OWED MUCH TO PROSELYTIZING EFFORTS OF SUFI MISSIONARIES

12 12 V. POSITION OF WOMEN IN OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1. GENERAL REMARKS A. TECHNICALLY WOMEN SUBJECT TO SAME DISABILITIES AFFLICTED THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN OTHER MUSLIM SOCIEITIES B. BUT THEIR POSITION AMELIORATED TO SOME DEGREE BY VARIOUS FACTORS C. MUSLIM WOMEN PERMITTED TO OWN & INHERIT PROPERTY a. INCLUDING THEIR DOWRIES D. THEY COULD NOT BE FORCED INTO MARRIAGE E. & IN CERTAIN CASES PERMITTED TO SEEK A DIVORCE F. WOMEN OFTEN EXERCISED CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE IN PALACE G. FEW INSTANCES EVEN SERVED AS SENIOR OFFICIALS a. SUCH AS GOVERNORS OF PROVINCES H. RELATIVELY TOLERANT ATTITUDE TOWARDS WOMEN IN OTTOMAN-HELD TERRITORIES a. HAS BEEN ASCRIBED BY SOME TO TURKISH TRIBAL TRADITIONS b. HAD MORE EGALITARIAN VIEW OF SEX ROLES THAN SEDENTARY SOCIETIES c. TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HISTORY

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