1 Environmental problems and responses Second lecture in Engineering responsibilities Spring 2003 Jette Egelund Holgaard, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg Univers
2 Themes Environmental problems - concretised to electronic products Environmental regulation - concretised to EU regulation Environmental market strategies and tools
3 How to define an environmental problem? An environmental problem is any change of the state in the physical environment which is brought about by human interference with the physical environment, and has effects which society deems unacceptable in the light of its shared norms (Blowers and Glasbergen, 1995) Henrik Riisgaard, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University
4 Global environmental problems Global warming Ozone layer depletion Use of non-renewable ressources
5 Global warming Definition: Greenhouse gases as Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), Methane (CH 4 ) and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) allow radiation from the sun to reach the earth s surface but absorb the longer wavelength radiation re-emitted from the earth surface. (Barry & Frankland, 2002) Problems: sea-level rise, migration of climatic zones.
6 Ozone layer depletion Definition: The ozone layer is a thin layer of the gas O 3 in the stratosphere, km above the earth s surface. It prevents up to 99% of the sun s ultraviolet B radiation. Gases as CFC is causing the ozone layer to deplete. (Barry & Frankland, 2002): Problems: Skin cancer, impact on the immune system, damages on plants.
7 Use of non-renewable resources Definition: Two types of non-renewable sources can be distinguished, those that are recyclable (e.g. metals) and those which are not e.g. fossil duels, radioactive isotopes) (Barry & Frankland, 2002). Problems: lack of non-renewable resources can lead to international conflicts
8 Local and regional problems Air pollution Obnoxious smell Energy Water Raw materials Working environment Products - Distribution - Use - Disposal Wastewater Solid waste Toxic waste Risks
9 Air-pollution Definition: Air pollution results from excessive concentrations of various gases (Sulphur dioxid SO 2, carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxides No x, organic compounds (VOC) or aerosols (liquid or solid airborne particulate matter (PM)). (Barry & Frankland, 2002). Problems: acid rain and photochemical smog and health risks
10 Waste water Definition: Water discharges from industrial production to the recipient (streams, lakes or seas). The waste water cause the a higher level of organic substances and nitrogen dioxide and phosphorus (DEPA, 1999) Problems: Change in the growth conditions at the recipient (e.g. a higher degree of alga, causing a lack of oxygen).
11 Toxic waste Definition: By-products containing (Barry & Frankland, 2002): discontinued products as those made of PCBs (a persistent organic pollutant) used products containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium etc. used chemicals such as solvents or acids chemical created as by-products such as dioxin Problems: Toxic to humans and ecosystems and often persistent
12 The product-chain Extrac -tion Distribution Production Use Dispo -sal Product-development Product development
13 Distribution of products Definition: Transportation of goods in any business to B to B, B to C, or C to B (B= business, C = consumer) Problems:CO 2 -emission, substances injurious to health, emissions of nitrogenoxide (NO x ) and sulphur-dioxide (SO 2 ), noise pollution, use of areas to make roads, damages on buildings and problems related to the working environmental for the chauffeurs. (Remmen & Holgaard, 1999)
14 Consumption of products Definition: The process in which the product is maintained and used (not processed) with a given purpose. Potential problems: Consumption of non-renewable resources, and emissions with local and/or more global effects. Risks of non-intended use of a given product increasing the environmental impact.
15 End of use Definition: End of use can take place by recycling, incinerating and/or land fill. Problems: landfill can lead to percolation of toxic substances to the soil and groundwater and incineration leads to air-pollution. Also recycling leads to air-pollution, however nonrenewable ressources are preserved.
16 Electronic products in general (1 Characteristic: Production of printed circuits and transformers has a particular high environmental impact from their production. Problem: The production includes chemical processes whereas toxic substances are passed on to waste or other products further down the product chain.
17 Electronic products in general (2 Characteristic: Electronic products are highly complex concerning the type and composition of materials. Problem: Thereby the product is more difficult to separate in preparation for recycling or reuse of components.
18 Electronic products in general (3 Characteristic: Electronic products have a considerable energy consumption in use - not in the least considering the stand-by function. Problem: This energy consumption is most likely build on non-renewable resources
19 Electronic products in general (4 Characteristic: Several consumer electronic products have a relatively short life - all though they are still functioning. Problem: This increases the amount of waste, and it is hard to document the environmental impact from the products in detail.
20 Electronic products in general (5 Characteristic: The electronic industry has a relatively high export/import rate, and the product chain consists of many and very geographically diffused links. Problem: This increases the amount of transportation, and the perspective on environmental impact and improvement has to be global.
21 Themes Environmental problems - concretised to electronic products Environmental regulation - concretised to EU regulation Company strategies and tools
22 Carla Smink, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University Bottom-line of environmental regulations Bottom-line of environmental Regulations (demands on companies) Product (public environmental regulations + self-regulation + market regulations) Process (public environmental regulations + self-regulation) End-of-pipe ( pure public environmental regulations) (Smink, 2002: 247) Mixes of environmental regulations
23 Principles in public regulation Technology-based standards specify the method (Smink, 2002). Best available technology (BAT) Performance-based standards specify the limits (Smink, 2002). Permits based on limit values (e.g x mg y per litre waste-water) Principles - substitution, polluter pays, precautionary, green accounts.
24 Principles in self regulation OECD, 1996: Under self-regulation industry unilaterally commits itself to improving its performance in the area of environmental protection. Smink, 2002: Goverment and industry jointly prepare the regulatory or standard activities and goverment plays an oversight role.
25 Principles in market regulation Smink, 2002 defines market regulation as: The ways, in which market actors exert pressure on companies with regard to their environmental performance E.g: Setting environmental demands to suppliers.
26 Business network Financial institutions Suppliers Customers Consumers Financial institutions Consultants EU Regulation networ Standardising or Authoritie Business as E Consumers Authorities Company (Søndergård et at., 1997:301) Knowledge network Consultants Suppliers Authorities Colleagues Business associations Standardising org. Business ass. Colleagues Suppliers Customers Carla Smink, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg Universit
27 EU initiatives related to electronics WEEE: Waste from electrical and electronic products (January, 2003) RoHS: restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (January, 2003) EEE: Impact on the Environment from electrical and electronic products. (date not set)
28 Themes Environmental problems - concretised to electronic products Environmental regulation - concretised to EU regulation Company strategies and tools
29 Environmental strategies Global Sustainability Life Cycle Management Learningproces Environmental Management Input / Output Local Arne Remmen, Jette Egelund Holgaard, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg Universi
30 Input-output strategy Focusing on dilution Focusing on end-of-pipe strategies
31 Environmental management Management review Environmental policy Checking and corrective action - Monitoring and measurement -Corrective and prevention actions - Audit Environmental planning -Legal requeirments -Objectives and targets - Actionplan Implemetation and operation - Structure and responsibility - Training, awareness and competence -Communication & documentation
32 Environmental management -standards The international standard ISO European management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMAS covers demand for a public statement EMAS is more explicit in the demand for continuous improvements of the companies environmental performance.
33 Lifecycle thinking Lifecycle thinking Strategies and politics IPP Lifecycle perspective - LCM - Eco-design Life cycle assesment - ISO ISO 14020
34 Integrated product policy European Union concept: All products cause environmental degradation in some way, whether from their manufacturing, use or disposal. Integrated Product Policy (IPP) seeks to minimise these by looking at all phases of a products life-cycle and taking action where it is most effective.
35 Lifecycle management Internal External Technical/ material Cleaner production Lifecycle assessment LCM Social/organisational Environmental management Co-operation in the productchain and relevant networks
36 Tischner, 2000: Eco-design Eco-design means environmentally conscious product development and design The term Eco-design directly expresses the fact that Ecology and Economy must be jointed REMARK: That means that all demands on a product is taken in consideration - price, performance, quality, durability, functionality, health, safety and environment.
37 Examples of guidelines Design for reuse Reduce hazardous substances Environmental concept Reduce the amount of materials Use an environmentally friendly d ti Minimize the environmental impact in Use renewable resources Use environmentally friendly packaging Increase the lifetime Environmentally friendly deliveries and di t ib ti Environmentally friendly depositing of not recyclable t
38 Life cycle assessment Evaluation Comparing the results to other potential products Planning - Setting goals -Choosing methods Documentation Presenting an overall picture of the environmental impact from the product Collection of data - Contacts to suppliers - Measurements - Use of tables Data processing - From amounts to impacts - Normalisation for comparing different impacts Trine Pipi Kræmer, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University
39 Sustainable development Social concern Environmental concern Economic concern
40 Documentation Third part audit - certification/registration Green accounts / environmental statements Environmental declarations or labels for example the European flower and the Nordic swan Also TCO & Energy-star for electronics
41 Group exercise You manage a relatively small company (50 employees) producing printed circuits. Which environmental demands can you expect from external actors. Try to make a quick assessment of the environmental problems related to your products in a lifecycle perspective. Consider the prerequisites for different environmental strategies and the possible outcomes.
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