1 Environmental problems and responses Second lecture in Engineering responsibilities Spring 2003 Jette Egelund Holgaard, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg Univers
2 Themes Environmental problems - concretised to electronic products Environmental regulation - concretised to EU regulation Environmental market strategies and tools
3 How to define an environmental problem? An environmental problem is any change of the state in the physical environment which is brought about by human interference with the physical environment, and has effects which society deems unacceptable in the light of its shared norms (Blowers and Glasbergen, 1995) Henrik Riisgaard, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University
4 Global environmental problems Global warming Ozone layer depletion Use of non-renewable ressources
5 Global warming Definition: Greenhouse gases as Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), Methane (CH 4 ) and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) allow radiation from the sun to reach the earth s surface but absorb the longer wavelength radiation re-emitted from the earth surface. (Barry & Frankland, 2002) Problems: sea-level rise, migration of climatic zones.
6 Ozone layer depletion Definition: The ozone layer is a thin layer of the gas O 3 in the stratosphere, km above the earth s surface. It prevents up to 99% of the sun s ultraviolet B radiation. Gases as CFC is causing the ozone layer to deplete. (Barry & Frankland, 2002): Problems: Skin cancer, impact on the immune system, damages on plants.
7 Use of non-renewable resources Definition: Two types of non-renewable sources can be distinguished, those that are recyclable (e.g. metals) and those which are not e.g. fossil duels, radioactive isotopes) (Barry & Frankland, 2002). Problems: lack of non-renewable resources can lead to international conflicts
8 Local and regional problems Air pollution Obnoxious smell Energy Water Raw materials Working environment Products - Distribution - Use - Disposal Wastewater Solid waste Toxic waste Risks
9 Air-pollution Definition: Air pollution results from excessive concentrations of various gases (Sulphur dioxid SO 2, carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxides No x, organic compounds (VOC) or aerosols (liquid or solid airborne particulate matter (PM)). (Barry & Frankland, 2002). Problems: acid rain and photochemical smog and health risks
10 Waste water Definition: Water discharges from industrial production to the recipient (streams, lakes or seas). The waste water cause the a higher level of organic substances and nitrogen dioxide and phosphorus (DEPA, 1999) Problems: Change in the growth conditions at the recipient (e.g. a higher degree of alga, causing a lack of oxygen).
11 Toxic waste Definition: By-products containing (Barry & Frankland, 2002): discontinued products as those made of PCBs (a persistent organic pollutant) used products containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium etc. used chemicals such as solvents or acids chemical created as by-products such as dioxin Problems: Toxic to humans and ecosystems and often persistent
12 The product-chain Extrac -tion Distribution Production Use Dispo -sal Product-development Product development
13 Distribution of products Definition: Transportation of goods in any business to B to B, B to C, or C to B (B= business, C = consumer) Problems:CO 2 -emission, substances injurious to health, emissions of nitrogenoxide (NO x ) and sulphur-dioxide (SO 2 ), noise pollution, use of areas to make roads, damages on buildings and problems related to the working environmental for the chauffeurs. (Remmen & Holgaard, 1999)
14 Consumption of products Definition: The process in which the product is maintained and used (not processed) with a given purpose. Potential problems: Consumption of non-renewable resources, and emissions with local and/or more global effects. Risks of non-intended use of a given product increasing the environmental impact.
15 End of use Definition: End of use can take place by recycling, incinerating and/or land fill. Problems: landfill can lead to percolation of toxic substances to the soil and groundwater and incineration leads to air-pollution. Also recycling leads to air-pollution, however nonrenewable ressources are preserved.
16 Electronic products in general (1 Characteristic: Production of printed circuits and transformers has a particular high environmental impact from their production. Problem: The production includes chemical processes whereas toxic substances are passed on to waste or other products further down the product chain.
17 Electronic products in general (2 Characteristic: Electronic products are highly complex concerning the type and composition of materials. Problem: Thereby the product is more difficult to separate in preparation for recycling or reuse of components.
18 Electronic products in general (3 Characteristic: Electronic products have a considerable energy consumption in use - not in the least considering the stand-by function. Problem: This energy consumption is most likely build on non-renewable resources
19 Electronic products in general (4 Characteristic: Several consumer electronic products have a relatively short life - all though they are still functioning. Problem: This increases the amount of waste, and it is hard to document the environmental impact from the products in detail.
20 Electronic products in general (5 Characteristic: The electronic industry has a relatively high export/import rate, and the product chain consists of many and very geographically diffused links. Problem: This increases the amount of transportation, and the perspective on environmental impact and improvement has to be global.
21 Themes Environmental problems - concretised to electronic products Environmental regulation - concretised to EU regulation Company strategies and tools
22 Carla Smink, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University Bottom-line of environmental regulations Bottom-line of environmental Regulations (demands on companies) Product (public environmental regulations + self-regulation + market regulations) Process (public environmental regulations + self-regulation) End-of-pipe ( pure public environmental regulations) (Smink, 2002: 247) Mixes of environmental regulations
23 Principles in public regulation Technology-based standards specify the method (Smink, 2002). Best available technology (BAT) Performance-based standards specify the limits (Smink, 2002). Permits based on limit values (e.g x mg y per litre waste-water) Principles - substitution, polluter pays, precautionary, green accounts.
24 Principles in self regulation OECD, 1996: Under self-regulation industry unilaterally commits itself to improving its performance in the area of environmental protection. Smink, 2002: Goverment and industry jointly prepare the regulatory or standard activities and goverment plays an oversight role.
25 Principles in market regulation Smink, 2002 defines market regulation as: The ways, in which market actors exert pressure on companies with regard to their environmental performance E.g: Setting environmental demands to suppliers.
26 Business network Financial institutions Suppliers Customers Consumers Financial institutions Consultants EU Regulation networ Standardising or Authoritie Business as E Consumers Authorities Company (Søndergård et at., 1997:301) Knowledge network Consultants Suppliers Authorities Colleagues Business associations Standardising org. Business ass. Colleagues Suppliers Customers Carla Smink, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg Universit
27 EU initiatives related to electronics WEEE: Waste from electrical and electronic products (January, 2003) RoHS: restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (January, 2003) EEE: Impact on the Environment from electrical and electronic products. (date not set)
28 Themes Environmental problems - concretised to electronic products Environmental regulation - concretised to EU regulation Company strategies and tools
29 Environmental strategies Global Sustainability Life Cycle Management Learningproces Environmental Management Input / Output Local Arne Remmen, Jette Egelund Holgaard, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg Universi
30 Input-output strategy Focusing on dilution Focusing on end-of-pipe strategies
31 Environmental management Management review Environmental policy Checking and corrective action - Monitoring and measurement -Corrective and prevention actions - Audit Environmental planning -Legal requeirments -Objectives and targets - Actionplan Implemetation and operation - Structure and responsibility - Training, awareness and competence -Communication & documentation
32 Environmental management -standards The international standard ISO European management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMAS covers demand for a public statement EMAS is more explicit in the demand for continuous improvements of the companies environmental performance.
33 Lifecycle thinking Lifecycle thinking Strategies and politics IPP Lifecycle perspective - LCM - Eco-design Life cycle assesment - ISO ISO 14020
34 Integrated product policy European Union concept: All products cause environmental degradation in some way, whether from their manufacturing, use or disposal. Integrated Product Policy (IPP) seeks to minimise these by looking at all phases of a products life-cycle and taking action where it is most effective.
35 Lifecycle management Internal External Technical/ material Cleaner production Lifecycle assessment LCM Social/organisational Environmental management Co-operation in the productchain and relevant networks
36 Tischner, 2000: Eco-design Eco-design means environmentally conscious product development and design The term Eco-design directly expresses the fact that Ecology and Economy must be jointed REMARK: That means that all demands on a product is taken in consideration - price, performance, quality, durability, functionality, health, safety and environment.
37 Examples of guidelines Design for reuse Reduce hazardous substances Environmental concept Reduce the amount of materials Use an environmentally friendly d ti Minimize the environmental impact in Use renewable resources Use environmentally friendly packaging Increase the lifetime Environmentally friendly deliveries and di t ib ti Environmentally friendly depositing of not recyclable t
38 Life cycle assessment Evaluation Comparing the results to other potential products Planning - Setting goals -Choosing methods Documentation Presenting an overall picture of the environmental impact from the product Collection of data - Contacts to suppliers - Measurements - Use of tables Data processing - From amounts to impacts - Normalisation for comparing different impacts Trine Pipi Kræmer, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University
39 Sustainable development Social concern Environmental concern Economic concern
40 Documentation Third part audit - certification/registration Green accounts / environmental statements Environmental declarations or labels for example the European flower and the Nordic swan Also TCO & Energy-star for electronics
41 Group exercise You manage a relatively small company (50 employees) producing printed circuits. Which environmental demands can you expect from external actors. Try to make a quick assessment of the environmental problems related to your products in a lifecycle perspective. Consider the prerequisites for different environmental strategies and the possible outcomes.
Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed
Lecture 2. What are air pollutants: preliminary review Objectives: 1. Air pollution definitions. 2. Air pollution classifications. 3. Major air pollutants: introduction. Readings: Turco: p. 3-7, 111-112;
GREEN PROCUREMENT POLICY GUIDANCE Paper Forest destruction and loss of biodiversity Energy and water consumption during production Emissions to air and water during pulp and paper production Chemical consumption
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question1 Read the following article from the Fremont Gazette and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify and describe TWO water-related environmental
John Good Ltd Environmental Handbook November 2009 1 1 INTRODUCTION 3 1.1 What is the Environment All About 3 1.2 Environmental Issues 3 Pollution 3 Water Pollution 3 Smog 4 Acid Rain 4 Solid Waste 4 Resource
Nordic Ecolabelling Steps 2001 Contents Introduction 3 1. The philosophical foundations of ecolabelling 4 The Vision 4 The road towards sustainability 4 2. Nordic Ecolabelling s strategy 6 The formulation
Lecture Class Monday and Wednesday 3:30-4:45 pm KAP 163 Discussion Class Monday 5:00-5:50 pm KAP 163 Professor Office KAP 260 Phone 213-740-0592 Email Office Hours Class Webpage Teaching Assistant Office
ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June 24 2010 What are the Major Greenhouse Gases? Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N 2, 78%), oxygen (O 2, 21%), and argon (Ar, 0.9%)
Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville 1. Introduction to Environmental Science (5 days) Describe the three categories into which most environmental problems fall Explain how the
Paper plays a vital role in human communications and people are using more paper than ever. Papermaking is essentially based on renewable and Paper plays a vital role in human communications. Paper products
FAQs ON AIR POLLUTION The Energy and Resources Institute An imprint of The Energy and Resources Institute The Energy and Resources Institute, 2014 First published in 2014 by The Energy and Resources Institute
Project Support to the Establishment of Environmental and Energy Clubs in Primary Schools within Kosovo Topic Presentation Environmental Protection September, 2010, Pristina Funded by: US Embassy, Pristina
Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment Summary In 2012, air pollution from European industrial facilities cost at least EUR 59 billion (and up to EUR
SGS Environmental Monitoring Services Source Emission Testing PRINCIPLE Stack testing is performed to measure emissions to the atmosphere from stacks or ducts Emissions include particulate matter, waste
Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts Julian Chow United Nations Statistics Division 1 st Sub-Regional Course on SEEA 23-27 September 2013 Malaysia SEEA Conceptual Framework Outside territory
ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCT DECLARATION In accordance with EN 15804 and ISO 14025 Isover FireProtect 150, 60 mm calc. Date of calculation : May 2014 Version : 1.3 General information Manufacturer: Saint-Gobain
ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: OCTOBER 6, 2015 In the News India submits climate action plan Will have 40% renewable
UNEP GLOBAL JUDGES PROGRAMME APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW BY NATIONAL COURTS AND TRIBUNALS PRESENTATION 2 MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION A) Major environmental issues B) Responses
Name Date Class d i a g n o s t i c t e s t 3 G g r a d e 6 Directions: Use the diagram below to answer question 1. 1. What might be the most serious effect of having a farm in the location shown in the
Available online at www.ilcpa.pl International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 2 (2014) 53-57 ISSN 2299-3843 Characterization of chemical processes involved in ozone depletion Enim Enim Asira
The chemistry of air pollution Contents Air is very important as it provides oxygen and other gases that are essential to all life on Earth. It consists of a mixture of invisible gases that surround the
Sustainability of construction materials and products CE marking, EPD tools, quality issues Margareta Wahlström ReUse workshop, March 19, 2014 2 Outline of presentation Targets use of terms Construction
Global Warming Prevention through Energy Conservation The takes an active part in semiconductor industry initiatives to help prevent global warming. We also work continuously to conserve energy in a number
MAJOR TYPES OF AIR POLLUTANTS AND THEIR GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION INTRODUCTION In this lesson, students will study types of air pollutants and use maps to explore how they are distributed throughout the world.
Contact: Environment and Green Technologies Department Phone: 01-7272480 Email: email@example.com www.envirocentre.ie Enterprise Ireland August 08 (152) Eco-labels GreenTech Support Eco-labels
Environmental Product Declaration A clean energy solution from cradle to grave Offshore wind power plant employing SWT-6.0-154 siemens.com / wind 2 Assessing the performance of a wind power plant The environmental
History of Chlorofluorocarbons 1928 : Chlorofluorocarbons () were invented. were developed as ideal gases used as refrigerants for refrigerators. Because of their special characteristics, inflammability
TABLET DETERGENTS Towards A More Sustainable Future Unilever Supports Sustainable Development of Detergents with Tablets THE CONTRIBUTION OF TABLETS Unilever is committed to meeting the needs of customers
Course Description (전체 개설 교과목 개요) Advanced Treatment of Hazardous Wastes(1) This course is concerned with the management of hazardous materials and wastes in depth. We will deal with the physico-chemical
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:
B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all
What Is Integrated Solid Waste Management? This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid waste, identifies the important issues you should consider when planning for solid waste management,
THE STATUS OF AIR POLLUTION IN ZIMBABWE Barnabas Chipindu, Dept of Physics, University of Zimbabwe. INTRODUCTION Air Pollution is the introduction of substances or surplus energy as waste products of human
1 GLBAL WARMING Greenhouse CARBN DIXIDE C 2 contains C= bonds gases WATER VAPUR 2 contains - bonds METANE C 4 contains C- bonds The Greenhouse of a given gas is dependent on its... atmospheric concentration
Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle Heather McGraw, Mandy Williams, Suzanne Heinzel, and Cristen Whorl, Give SIUE Permission to Put Our Presentation on E-reserve at Lovejoy Library. What is Nitrogen?
CABLOFIL 's environmental commitments Sustainable development, once the preserve of legislators and governments, has become a fact of life for all stakeholders within society. Today s project managers,
AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B Stratospheric ozone, found roughly 11-16 miles above sea level keeps about 95% of the sun s harmful UV radiation
White Paper Life Cycle Assessment and Product Carbon Footprint Fujitsu ESPRIMO E9900 Desktop PC Climate change is one of the most important global challenges that society of the 21st century faces. According
Worksheet A Environmental Problems Vocabulary Can you talk about Environmental issues in English? With a partner, try to explain the terms in the diagram below. Why are the words divided into two groups
Fujitsu Group s Environmental Management: Outline of Environmental Protection Program (Stage IV) V Hideru Yamaguchi (Manuscript received March 9, 2005) Environmental activities are an important element
GE6351- Environmental Science and Engineering Unit I Environment, Ecosystems and Biodiversity 1 (i) Describe the types, characteristics features, structures and functions of (1) Forest ecosystem (2) Aquatic
Core Idea ESS3 Vocabulary Earth and Human Activity How do Earth s surface processes and human activities affect each other? Earth human activities planetary systems resource renewable or replaceable Natural
Institut Bauen und Umwelt e.v. Institute Construction and Environment Sustainability of construction products Associations EPDs a solution? About IBU Who is IBU? IBU is an international initiative of building
1 st six weeks 1 Identify questions and problems that can be answered through scientific investigation. 2 Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer questions about the world by creating hypotheses;
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE ESCI 101 - INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Prepared By: Rajiv Narula, Ph.D. SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND CRIMINAL
Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Launch of IPCC Inventory Software 2006 IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Side-Event, SB 36 Sessions, Bonn 16 May 2012, Aim to introduce
Chapter 15 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Figure 15-1 1. Use Figure 15-1. A daily measurement of toxic emissions in Maine measures 0.070
Climate Change: A Theme to Teach Across the Science Disciplines Sunshine State Stards & Benchmarks that Help Students Underst Climate Change K-2 Compare describe changing patterns in nature that repeat
Everything you always wanted to know about Waste-to-Energy Contents 4 What is Waste-to-Energy? 6 How does it work? 8 Waste-to-Energy is clean. How does it compare to other sectors? 9 Myths versus Reality
AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they
Dr Hüdai Kara, Managing Director REW 2011 İstanbul, 10 Haziran 2011 About Metsims Ecolabel YDD Maintanence Product carbon footprint Energy use Corporate carbon footprint Economical Operation EPD Raw materials
CA1. The greenhouse effect and global warming. Vicky Wong Page 1 of 7 The greenhouse effect and global warming The sun produces radiation mainly in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and infrared (IR)
. 50 Corporation 2015 Annual Report translation.1 Key Accounts in the Past Two Years.1.1 Key Suppliers 2014 2015 purchase (%) with Unit NT$ thousands purchase (%) with 1 Cowin Worldwide Corp. 12,878,95
Grade Level: 4th grade and up Activity Time: 30 60 min. Subject Area: Science-Climate Change Objectives: Students will: Understand the greenhouse effect. Understand the role greenhouse gases play within
Science Conservation and Pollution It is not necessary to carry out all the activities contained in this unit. Please see Teachers Notes for explanations, additional activities, and tips and suggestions.
Welcome Introduction Welcome to the H1 software This version of the database tool accompanies the IPPC Guidance version H1v6 July 2003. This software tool is for use with the IPPC guidance note H1 "Environmental
6.0 Predicted nvironmental Impacts 6. Stages and Impacts Considered An nvironmental Impact Analysis has been carried out whereby all the possible environmental, socio economic and health & safety aspects
Contents About the guide...1 What is in the guide?... 2 Overview of sustainability issues...3 Process flow...4 Value chain issues... 4 Risk rating of sustainability issues in the process flow...6 Metal
C1 Crude Oil Quiz 1. What is combustion? A reaction between oxygen and a fuel that releases energy. 2. Which pollutant gases are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels? Particulates, carbon dioxide,
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 47-53, Article ID: IJARET_07_01_006 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?jtype=ijaret&vtype=7&itype=1
A union guideline for reducing carbon emissions at your workplaces ITUC OBJECTIVE : To empower workers and union delegates in the fight against climate change, calling on concrete actions that could be
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ON COTTON AND VISCOSE FIBRES FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION Janka Dibdiakova, Volkmar Timmermann Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute (NFLI) Ås, Norway COST FP1205 Innovative applications
Environmental Supply Chain Management - a guide to Danish Companies The guide is prepared by the Danish Ethical Trading Initiative (DIEH) in cooperation with COWI and the Danish Federation of Small and
Renewable Biomass Biomass Basics Biomass Renewable Energy from Plants and Animals Biomass is organic material made from plants and animals. Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. Plants absorb the
Environmental Science: A Global Perspective All the flowers of all the tomorrows are in the seeds of today. Chinese Proverb Shout Out Think about 5 major environmental problems that we are facing today
Q. The diagram shows two thermometers. The bulb of each thermometer is covered with a piece of wet cotton wool. One of the thermometers is placed in the draught from a fan. The graph shows how the temperature
IMPLEMENTING ISO 14001:2004 www.aecos.co.uk What is an Environmental Management System? A systematic framework to manage the immediate and long term environmental impacts of an organisation s products,
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (a) Assume that the city council chooses the first option. Describe TWO problems that result from removing the contaminated soil from the brownfield.
Solar Panels: A Clean and Efficient Alternative in Energy Production TWR2009- Project Assignment 1 November 7, 2011 1 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Market Drivers... 3 The Solution: Renewable Natural
STATISTICAL RELEASE: 21 DECEMBER 2016 EMISSIONS OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE UK, 1970 TO 2015 There has been a long term decrease in the emissions of all of the air pollutants covered by this statistical release
BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES (BAT) AND BEST ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES (BEP): THE CASE OF ARTICLE 8 OF THE MINAMATA CONVENTION ON MERCURY Okonkwo OJ Department of Environmental, Water & Earth Sciences, Faculty
Sustainable Manufacturing Seminar Designing to Sustain the Economy, Environment and Society Sustainable Product Standards (case-study) The Eco-efficiency Evaluation of BASF s Greenville Thermal Oxidizer
Environmental protection and products Protection of the environment enjoys high priority at Siemens. To best fulfill our responsibilities in this field, we are pursuing a holistic approach: Our focus is
Sustainable procurement A working definition QGCPO Department of Housing and Public Works Sustainable procurement: An overview Page 2 of 7 Sustainable procurement One of the three foundational objectives
Steel reinforcement products for concrete Company Website: Pre-certification No.: Celsa Steel service ab www.celsa-steelservice.com S-EP-00305 Validity: 2012-12-31 CPC, name: 4126, drawn and folded products
Big Idea: Energy exists in different forms and can change form one form to another but energy is always conserved. Unit 2 Lesson 4 Effects of Energy Transfer Essential Question: How does the use of energy