Air and Weather FOSS kit

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1 Air and Weather FOSS kit 2. E. 1 Understand patterns of weather and factors that affect weather. 2.E.1.1 Summarize how energy from the sun serves as a source of light that warms the land, air and water. 2.E.1.2 Summarize weather conditions using qualitative and quantitative measures to describe: Temperature Wind direction Wind speed Precipitation 2.E.1.3 Compare weather patterns that occur over time and relate observable patterns to time of day and time of year. 2.E.1.4 Recognize the tools that scientists use for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons. 4 Investigations: Exploring air and pressure; measuring weather; wind explorations; long term weather explorations Purpose: Develop curiosity about air and weather. Enough materials for 2 classes of 32 students in each kit Air and weather journal for each student; important assessment component Letter to parents Investigation 1 Exploring Air; Part 1 Air is There 2.E.1.2 Observe properties by observing how air interacts with different objects Materials: balloon pumps, round balloons, zip bags, flex straws, cotton balls, plastic foam balls, feathers You provide: scissors, scrap paper Cut flex straws in half and save the flexible end for this activity What is air? What can it do? Introduce the bag contents; find out all they can about air by using their materials in the bag Rules: nobody blows the balloon in their mouth use balloon air pump; cannot let go of balloon; do not use straw to blow into other peoples faces Cleanup: Foam balls and feathers go back in the kit; students may keep the rest Draw or write what they know about air already 1

2 Word bank: Air Gas Wind Breeze Blowing Invisible Matter What we learned: air can push other things; air is invisible; air is gas; Investigation 1; Part 2: Air Under Water 2.E.1.2 Materials: vials, plastic foam balls, basin You provide: water, paper towels cut in ¼ s, scissors What can you learn about air and water using vials Add ball; where is ball when you push it down with flask? Bottom Where is ball when you tip it? Floats on water Challenged to keep a paper towel dry when it is stuffed in the vial Record what was learned in journals; summarize what was learned Word bank: wet, water, bubbles, dry, vial Content: Air fills the vial, Air can make bubbles Investigation 1; Part 3 Parachutes 2.E.1.2 Construct and fly parachutes String, paperclips, sticky dots (5 per student, tape Scissors, lightweight napkins 45 cm pieces of string (4 per student) Open napkin; place one sting in each corner and attach with sticky dots; gather string; hold together with sticky dot; attach paperclip to end; experiment What is keeping it up? For the parachute to fall, it must push the air out of the way 2

3 A parachute falls slowly because the air pushes against it Air resistance slows the parachute down Investigation 1 Part 4 Pushing on Air 2.E.1.2 Syringes; flexible tubing from kit Use new tools to find out what they can about air (alone for 10 minutes); then let them work as a partner Pressure Compress Does the amount of air changes as you compress the syringes Water Paper towel Submerge Syringe Plunger Barrel Tubing Compress Pressure System Investigation 1; Part 5 Air and Water Fountain 2.E.1.2 Materials: syringes, rubber stoppers, plastic tubing, short plastic pipes, long plastic pipes, vials, bottles, food coloring. You provide pitcher for water, paper towels for spills 2-3 drops food coloring to a liter of water Plastic pipes go through holes in rubber stopper; stopper loosely in bottle and adjust so that the long plastic pipe touches the bottom, then firmly push to the bottom; add flexible tubing to the top of each pipe; add syringe to the end of each piece of flexible tubing Review compress and pressure; experiment with bottle system; then add ½ syringe water to one of the syringes without stopper; then add stopper and explore Investigation 1 Part 6 Balloon rockets 2.E.1.2 How far will the balloon go? 3

4 Materials: oblong balloons (1 per student), 4 jumbo straws, 4-4 liter bags, 1-1 liter bag, transparent tape, duct tape, fishing line, balloon pumps. You provide permanent marker, scissors, chairs Propel escaping air pushes the balloon along the flight line Part 1 flight chamber set up (2 chairs with fishing line stretched between, fishing line with straw attached to large baggie); each student tests their balloon in the flight chamber Part 2 teacher fills small baggie with air; asks students how far it will go (won t move because baggie is not elastic to push the air out) Part 3 Students take labeled balloons full of air outside, release them and see how far they will travel Investigation 2; Part 1 Weather calendars 2.E.1.3 Materials 2 class calendars; roll of transparent tape You provide: vis a vis pen, envelopes, scissors, pencils, crayons; write dates in on blank calendar using water based pen Make copies of weather condition masters; store symbols in labeled cups or envelopes Brainstorm list of words that describe the weather; meteorologist is responsible for placing the appropriate symbol on the day s weather chart; model a journal entry for the day. Investigation 2 Part 2: Measuring Temperature 2.E.1.2, 2.E basins, both thermometers; you provide crayons, glue stick, ruler, transparent tape, scissors, red construction paper; use colored paper to show temperature ranges; cover one side of the working thermometer; make copies of thermometer picture F Color code thermometer picture as done on demonstration thermometer, cut out center AIMS Thermometer template Meteorologist tool kit each page has a pocket to store the instrument Thermometer is placed in hot and cold water; students watch the red liquid go up and down; go outside and read temperature, using large thermometer to show hot, cold etc. ; back inside to look at the temp in the room and compare to outside; make demonstration thermometer; each day meteorologist measures outdoor temp and brings inside to demo thermometer Investigation 2 Part3: Watching Clouds 2.E.1.4 Poster, A guide to the sky, sticky dots1d Cirrus, 4d Stratus, 5d Cumulus; student copies cloud types Go outside with cloud sheet and identify types Investigation 2 Part 4: Measuring Weather 2.E.1.2, 2.E.1.4 A guide to the sky; natural sources of water; rain gauge; introduce Investigation 2 Observing Weather Part 3 Watching Clouds 1.E.1.2, 2.E.1.4 Materials: sticky dots, cloud poster; cloud pictures 4

5 Use sticky dots to highlight the 3 basic types of clouds use cloud pictures to go over types; take kids outside to observe clouds Investigation 2 Observing Weather Part 4 Measuring Rain 2.E E.1.4 A guide to the sky; natural sources of water; rain gauge; put tape over one side (metric or customary) Can make a rain gauge from a 2 liter bottle and rocks Investigation 3-Wind Explorations Bubbles in the Wind 2.E.1.2, 2.E.1.4 Bubble wands, tubs, detergent, 2L bottle with cap; measuring cup; spoon; corn syrup or glycerin (add corn syrup or glycerin last); swirl gently What is inside and outside a bubble? Air Use bubbles to watch were the wind is going Where is wind fastest, slowest, how does it move around corners and walls Investigation 3 Part 2 Wind Explorations 1.E.1.2, 2.E.1.4 Wooden base, cardboard square with hole in center, 4 cups, jumbo straw, super jumbo straw Fan or hair dryer, permanent marker, scissors Make class anemometer by putting one cup into each of the slots on the cardboard (cut lip of cup first) Cut 1 cm slit in the end of jumbo straw; insert straw into hole in cardboard, spread ends, tape in place Cut 5cm from end of super jumbo straw; insert into wood base, insert straw into super jumbo straw; make black mark as reference point on one of the cups Introduce wind scale poster Anemometer is introduced as a device that measures wind speed Inside using fan or hair dryer, count the number of times the anemometer goes around in 10 seconds; then go outside and measure wind speed; back in class, record wind speed and air temperature in journals Investigation 3, Part 3 Pinwheels 2.E.1.2, 2.E.1.4 Materials hole punchers, jumbo straws, super jumbo straws cut in half, rolls of transparent tape 5

6 You provide crayons or markers, scissors, fan or hairdryer. Make copies of pinwheel sheet for students; students cut the pattern out and thread a jumbo straw through all of the holes; cut straw at one end, fold back and tape Is a pinwheel a good tool to see if there is wind? Investigation 3, Part 4 Wind Vanes 2.E.1.2, 2.E.1.4 Materials wooden block, super jumbo straws, some cut in half, jumbo straws, hole punchers, rolls of transparent tape You provide fan or hairdryer, scissors, compass (4 th grade magnetism or 5 th grade weather kits), 12 cm strips cut from poster board, cut pointers and tails for wind vane (mark 5 cm on one end of 12 cm piece of poster board. Cut from 5 cm mark to corner. Turn over and Mark 10 cm, cut from the 10 cm mark to the point, flip paper, mark 10 cm and cut, keep going until you have enough triangles for each student. Cut triangles in half to make pointer and tail for wind vane. Punch hole in middle of super jumbo straw; make vertical slits in each end in line with the straw; make a cut into the end of a jumbo straw; other end of jumbo straw inserted into end of super jumbo straw and tape in place; insert pointer in one end, tail in the other and tape in place; insert jumbo straw into super jumbo straw (for class, use wood block to hold straws) Use one hand as a rest, the other hand to hold the straw straight up and down outside what is the same about all of them? All point in the same direction moves from point to the tail points the direction the air is coming from Investigation 3 Part 5 Kites 2.E.1.2 Make kits, use class anemometer and wind vane to guide flying kits Materials: crepe paper cut into strips, hole punchers, jumbo straws, string, tape You provide: fan, crayons, scissors Patterns for 2 kits are in teachers guide; pattern 1 is easier. Has 2 strings and does not require straws Kit 2 need straws, one string fold according to numbered direction on template Discuss how kits fly; demonstrate how to make a kit; practice inside with artificial wind; take kids outside on a windy day with anemometer and wind vane; challenge to keep kite flying without running Content from Investigation 3, parts 1-5 Wind is moving air 6

7 Meteorologists use several tools to observe the wind. A wind scale describes the strength of the wind. Anemometers measure the speed of the wind. Wind vanes are used to observe the direction of the wind. Investigation 4 Looking for Change Part 1 Weather Graphs 2.E.1.4, 2.E.1.3 Look for changes of weather; organize information gathered on the class weather chart over the past month Duplicate a copy of Weather record; attach symbols of class weather record and duplicate one for each student; 1-2 copies of graph; students cut symbols apart and construct graph of weather; make predictions of next month; easy to see information when organized on a graph Investigation 4 Looking for Change Part 2 Comparing the Seasons 2.E.1.4, 2.E.1.3 Monitor temperature, weather and rainfall on seasonal charts throughout the year Use rain gauge made from 2 liter bottle (same instrument without funnel works well for snow) Glue 2-3 copies of the weather graph end-to-end; cut strip from category sheet and attach to the bottom row; Label graph conditions ; Temperature record made in the same way; rainfall gauge should also have strips of blue construction paper and tape/scissors near the chart Ongoing investigation: Observe sun moving across sky. Look at newspaper weather and ask why there are high and low temperatures given for each day. Each day at specified time, class meteorologist makes an X on temperature graph and conditions graph; if rain, take blue strip of paper, hold against rain gauge and cut a strip to the size necessary to represent the height of rain in the gauge; placed temporarily on the today column, later being moved to the total for season; keep graph for each season; compare graphs for each season. Look for temperatures and conditions that are characteristic for each season Investigation 4 Looking for Change Part 3 Night Sky This is not a part of the Essential Standards for grade 2. I would omit this portion of the kit. 7

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