Peace Operations and the United Nations

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1 Peace Operations and the United Nations Professor David F. Davis Director, Peace Operations Policy Program () School of Public Policy (703)

2 Topics The establishment of the United Nations Peacekeeping s path The Charter of the United Nations Current Organization What is a Peace Operation?

3 Major points in time 1 Jan 42: Roosevelt Declaration by the United Nations 7 Oct 44: Dumbarton Oaks Proposals for the establishment of general international organization 26 Jun 45: The Charter was signed by 50 States The original purpose of the United Nations was to fight our common wars.

4

5

6

7

8 Current Operations

9 Authorities

10 Chpt VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes Art 33: The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation or other peaceful means of their own choice. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

11 Chpt VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes Art 34: The Security Council may investigate any dispute in order to determine whether continuance.. Is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. Art 36: The Security Council may recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment

12 Chpt VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes Art 37: Should the parties to a dispute referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it they shall refer it to the Security Council. If the Security Council deems. It shall decide whether to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate. Art 38: Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute.

13 Chpt VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression Art 39: The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken, IAW Articles 41 and 42 to maintain or restore international peace and security. Art 41: The Security Council may decide what measures are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the UN to apply such measures. These may include interruption of economic relations and rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

14 Chpt VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression Art 42: Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the UN.

15 Chpt VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression Art 51: Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.

16 Chpt VIII: Regional Arrangements Art 53: The security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall te taken without authorization of the Security Council

17 Effort and Resource

18 DPKO

19 DFS

20 Definition Stability and Reconstruction Operations are the same as Peace Operations under the definitions used here. There are many definitions, but the one that I would like to use is: An intervention for the purpose of maintaining or restoring civil order and social justice. The purposes of a S&R Operations is to advance the national interests of the United States. These interests can be explained, as President Bush did in November of 2003, in terms of enlightened self interest. Provide peace and stability in a state, so that state is not a threat to the United States.

21 Knowing what to do Given the definition of a S&R operations, they should be designed to provide for civil order and social justice. Civil order being further defined as public safety, the rule of law, and a state monopoly of violence. Social justice being further defined as those properties of a state that provide for the individual and the individual s family. Social justice is not simply access to the courts, but includes adherence to human rights standards, representative governance, and an economic base line that supports basic human needs.

22 A Way of Thinking Civil Order Peace and Stability CHE: Complex Humanitarian Emergency CHE Social Justice Social Justice and Civil Order are not independent measures. Advancement in Social Justice may increase Civil Order, and Social Justice to a limited extent, so might Civil Order increase Social Justice in favorable circumstances.

23 A Way of Thinking Civil Order IFOR Peace and Stability Peacekeeping and Security Peace Making CHE OXFAM Peace Building Social Justice CHE: Complex Humanitarian Emergency

24 A Way of Thinking Civil Order Peace and Stability PKS CHE Social Justice PB PM Peace Support (PS) CHE: Complex Humanitarian Emergency

25 The Conceptual Model of Peace Operations (CMPO) Peace Making Peace Building Peacekeeping Peace Support 300 Functions 2000 Tasks 300 Organizations

26 CMPO Peace Operations 3 Peace Making 3.1 Peace Building 3.2 Peacekeeping 3.3 Peace Support 3.4 Non-Adjudicatory Processes Adjudicatory Processes Confidence Building Measures Status Verification Rewards Sanctions Envoiys and Special Representatives Humanitarian Assistance Refugee and Displaced Persons Human Rights Activities Self Governance Activities Economic Stability Activities Infrastructure Activities Reintegration of Former Combatants Environmental Protection Observation Force Presence Security Military Unit Movement Provide for Law and Order Demining Demobilization adn Disarmament Specific Missions Situation Awareness/Monitoring Decision Support Supervision and Synchronization Information Operations Logistics Diplomacy Rehabilitation Security Logistics

27 Conceptual Model of Peace Operations CMPO Version Jan 2002 Peace Operations Peace Making Peace Building Peace Keeping Peace Support Implementing policy and planning One example: Non -Adjudicatory Processes Adjudicatory Processes Confidence Building Measures Status Verification Rewards Sanctions Identify Envoys and Special Representatives Humanitarian Assistance/ Disaster Relief Refugee and Displaced Persons/At -Risk Population Human Rights Self Governance Economic Stability Infrastructure Reintegration of Former Combatants Environmental Protection Observation Force Presence Security Military Force/ Unit Movements Provide for Law and Order Demining Demobilization and Disarmament of Former Combatants Situation Awareness/ Monitoring Decision Support Supervision and Synchronization Information Operations Logistics Specific Missions Peace Building Task Manage, Refugees, DPs and At-Risk Population Who What organization does the task What What are the details of the task When Given the conflict continuum Where Zones of responsibility Why Under what mandate (Political/ military/economic/ humanitarian purpose)

28 Peace Operation Tasks Civ Mil PM PB PK/S Log/Admin Note that no group of functions is limited to a single actor.

29 US COIN Manual JP3 24, p5 6

30 Questions?

31 MPICE Goal Division Sector Major Mission Element Task ETM Indicator Phase Measures Sub Tasks

32

33

34 s Beginnings The Peace Operations Policy Program () was established in 1994 to explore and understand the uses of military, humanitarian, and political forces in the conduct of multinational peace operations.

35 The Sarajevo Street Corner 15 different military uniforms 5 different police uniforms 10 different versions of a three piece suit... 5 different versions of cut offs and birkenstocks All there to do good, but their knowledge of one another is nil.

36 Three Pillars Education: Offer a program of graduate-level courses, taught by an experienced and recognized faculty and expert guest lecturers, that meets the needs of the professional community, and through which students can achieve an academic degree and/or a professional certificate. Research: Conduct original, objective, rigorous research that contributes to the body of useful knowledge on peace operations, and which is reported in scholarly journals and professional publications. Practice: Engage in practical projects that produce benefits in the field while simultaneously contributing to both the education and research goals described above.

37 Education M.S. Peace Operations 1997 within the School of Public Policy (unique) 39-credit hours Currently 73 students (most part-time) Must have professional experience (representative of field) Most military folks come to program after deployment

38 Board of Advisors Ambassador Bill Farrand Mr Roy Williams Directors of Professor D.F. Davis Dr. Allison Frendak-Blume Academic Director Dr. James Narel Faculty and Staff Faculty Dr. Catherine Thurston Dr. Janine Davidson (SPP) Dr. John Gordon Ms Angelique Young, JD Mr. Jack McCarthy Senior Fellows and Affiliates Dr. Kevin Avruch, ICAR Mr. William Stuebner, ACDI/VOCA

39 US COIN Manual JP3 24, p5 3

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