Peace Operations and the United Nations

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Peace Operations and the United Nations"

Transcription

1 Peace Operations and the United Nations Professor David F. Davis Director, Peace Operations Policy Program () School of Public Policy (703)

2 Topics The establishment of the United Nations Peacekeeping s path The Charter of the United Nations Current Organization What is a Peace Operation?

3 Major points in time 1 Jan 42: Roosevelt Declaration by the United Nations 7 Oct 44: Dumbarton Oaks Proposals for the establishment of general international organization 26 Jun 45: The Charter was signed by 50 States The original purpose of the United Nations was to fight our common wars.

4

5

6

7

8 Current Operations

9 Authorities

10 Chpt VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes Art 33: The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation or other peaceful means of their own choice. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

11 Chpt VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes Art 34: The Security Council may investigate any dispute in order to determine whether continuance.. Is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. Art 36: The Security Council may recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment

12 Chpt VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes Art 37: Should the parties to a dispute referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it they shall refer it to the Security Council. If the Security Council deems. It shall decide whether to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate. Art 38: Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute.

13 Chpt VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression Art 39: The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken, IAW Articles 41 and 42 to maintain or restore international peace and security. Art 41: The Security Council may decide what measures are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the UN to apply such measures. These may include interruption of economic relations and rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

14 Chpt VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression Art 42: Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the UN.

15 Chpt VII: Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression Art 51: Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.

16 Chpt VIII: Regional Arrangements Art 53: The security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall te taken without authorization of the Security Council

17 Effort and Resource

18 DPKO

19 DFS

20 Definition Stability and Reconstruction Operations are the same as Peace Operations under the definitions used here. There are many definitions, but the one that I would like to use is: An intervention for the purpose of maintaining or restoring civil order and social justice. The purposes of a S&R Operations is to advance the national interests of the United States. These interests can be explained, as President Bush did in November of 2003, in terms of enlightened self interest. Provide peace and stability in a state, so that state is not a threat to the United States.

21 Knowing what to do Given the definition of a S&R operations, they should be designed to provide for civil order and social justice. Civil order being further defined as public safety, the rule of law, and a state monopoly of violence. Social justice being further defined as those properties of a state that provide for the individual and the individual s family. Social justice is not simply access to the courts, but includes adherence to human rights standards, representative governance, and an economic base line that supports basic human needs.

22 A Way of Thinking Civil Order Peace and Stability CHE: Complex Humanitarian Emergency CHE Social Justice Social Justice and Civil Order are not independent measures. Advancement in Social Justice may increase Civil Order, and Social Justice to a limited extent, so might Civil Order increase Social Justice in favorable circumstances.

23 A Way of Thinking Civil Order IFOR Peace and Stability Peacekeeping and Security Peace Making CHE OXFAM Peace Building Social Justice CHE: Complex Humanitarian Emergency

24 A Way of Thinking Civil Order Peace and Stability PKS CHE Social Justice PB PM Peace Support (PS) CHE: Complex Humanitarian Emergency

25 The Conceptual Model of Peace Operations (CMPO) Peace Making Peace Building Peacekeeping Peace Support 300 Functions 2000 Tasks 300 Organizations

26 CMPO Peace Operations 3 Peace Making 3.1 Peace Building 3.2 Peacekeeping 3.3 Peace Support 3.4 Non-Adjudicatory Processes Adjudicatory Processes Confidence Building Measures Status Verification Rewards Sanctions Envoiys and Special Representatives Humanitarian Assistance Refugee and Displaced Persons Human Rights Activities Self Governance Activities Economic Stability Activities Infrastructure Activities Reintegration of Former Combatants Environmental Protection Observation Force Presence Security Military Unit Movement Provide for Law and Order Demining Demobilization adn Disarmament Specific Missions Situation Awareness/Monitoring Decision Support Supervision and Synchronization Information Operations Logistics Diplomacy Rehabilitation Security Logistics

27 Conceptual Model of Peace Operations CMPO Version Jan 2002 Peace Operations Peace Making Peace Building Peace Keeping Peace Support Implementing policy and planning One example: Non -Adjudicatory Processes Adjudicatory Processes Confidence Building Measures Status Verification Rewards Sanctions Identify Envoys and Special Representatives Humanitarian Assistance/ Disaster Relief Refugee and Displaced Persons/At -Risk Population Human Rights Self Governance Economic Stability Infrastructure Reintegration of Former Combatants Environmental Protection Observation Force Presence Security Military Force/ Unit Movements Provide for Law and Order Demining Demobilization and Disarmament of Former Combatants Situation Awareness/ Monitoring Decision Support Supervision and Synchronization Information Operations Logistics Specific Missions Peace Building Task Manage, Refugees, DPs and At-Risk Population Who What organization does the task What What are the details of the task When Given the conflict continuum Where Zones of responsibility Why Under what mandate (Political/ military/economic/ humanitarian purpose)

28 Peace Operation Tasks Civ Mil PM PB PK/S Log/Admin Note that no group of functions is limited to a single actor.

29 US COIN Manual JP3 24, p5 6

30 Questions?

31 MPICE Goal Division Sector Major Mission Element Task ETM Indicator Phase Measures Sub Tasks

32

33

34 s Beginnings The Peace Operations Policy Program () was established in 1994 to explore and understand the uses of military, humanitarian, and political forces in the conduct of multinational peace operations.

35 The Sarajevo Street Corner 15 different military uniforms 5 different police uniforms 10 different versions of a three piece suit... 5 different versions of cut offs and birkenstocks All there to do good, but their knowledge of one another is nil.

36 Three Pillars Education: Offer a program of graduate-level courses, taught by an experienced and recognized faculty and expert guest lecturers, that meets the needs of the professional community, and through which students can achieve an academic degree and/or a professional certificate. Research: Conduct original, objective, rigorous research that contributes to the body of useful knowledge on peace operations, and which is reported in scholarly journals and professional publications. Practice: Engage in practical projects that produce benefits in the field while simultaneously contributing to both the education and research goals described above.

37 Education M.S. Peace Operations 1997 within the School of Public Policy (unique) 39-credit hours Currently 73 students (most part-time) Must have professional experience (representative of field) Most military folks come to program after deployment

38 Board of Advisors Ambassador Bill Farrand Mr Roy Williams Directors of Professor D.F. Davis Dr. Allison Frendak-Blume Academic Director Dr. James Narel Faculty and Staff Faculty Dr. Catherine Thurston Dr. Janine Davidson (SPP) Dr. John Gordon Ms Angelique Young, JD Mr. Jack McCarthy Senior Fellows and Affiliates Dr. Kevin Avruch, ICAR Mr. William Stuebner, ACDI/VOCA

39 US COIN Manual JP3 24, p5 3

Adopted by the Security Council at its 4830th meeting, on 19 September 2003

Adopted by the Security Council at its 4830th meeting, on 19 September 2003 United Nations S/RES/1509 (2003) Security Council Distr.: General 19 September 2003 03-52570 (E) *0352570* Resolution 1509 (2003) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4830th meeting, on 19 September

More information

Security Council. United Nations S/RES/2106 (2013) Resolution 2106 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6984th meeting, on 24 June 2013

Security Council. United Nations S/RES/2106 (2013) Resolution 2106 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6984th meeting, on 24 June 2013 United Nations S/RES/2106 (2013) Security Council Distr.: General 24 June 2013 Resolution 2106 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6984th meeting, on 24 June 2013 The Security Council, Reaffirming

More information

Adopted by the Security Council at its 5430th meeting, on 28 April 2006

Adopted by the Security Council at its 5430th meeting, on 28 April 2006 United Nations S/RES/1674 (2006) Security Council Distr.: General 28 April 2006 Resolution 1674 (2006) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5430th meeting, on 28 April 2006 The Security Council, Reaffirming

More information

U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender- Based Violence (GBV) Globally An Analysis by Women Thrive Worldwide August 2012

U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender- Based Violence (GBV) Globally An Analysis by Women Thrive Worldwide August 2012 U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender- Based Violence (GBV) Globally An Analysis by Women Thrive Worldwide August 2012 Background On August 10 th, the White House took a monumental step forward

More information

Adopted by the Security Council at its 5916th meeting, on 19 June 2008

Adopted by the Security Council at its 5916th meeting, on 19 June 2008 United Nations S/RES/1820 (2008) Security Council Distr.: General 19 June 2008 Resolution 1820 (2008) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5916th meeting, on 19 June 2008 The Security Council, Reaffirming

More information

International Legal Frameworks for Humanitarian Advocacy

International Legal Frameworks for Humanitarian Advocacy International Legal Frameworks for Humanitarian Advocacy United Nations International Legal Frameworks for Humanitarian Advocacy United Nations Geneva, 2011 Table of Contents PART I. GENERAL... 1 1. Charter

More information

General Assembly. United Nations A/CONF.217/CRP.1. The draft of the Arms Trade Treaty

General Assembly. United Nations A/CONF.217/CRP.1. The draft of the Arms Trade Treaty United Nations A/CONF.217/CRP.1 General Assembly Distr.: General 26 July 2012 Original: English United Nations Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty New York, 2-27 July 2012 The draft of the Arms Trade Treaty

More information

A/ An Introduction to PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES. Harun ur Rashid. The University Press Limited

A/ An Introduction to PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES. Harun ur Rashid. The University Press Limited SUB Hamourg A/567638 An Introduction to PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES Harun ur Rashid The University Press Limited Contents Preface xv Chapter 1 CONCEPT OF PEACE AND CONFLICT: PRESENT STATUS OF PEACE AND

More information

CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS

CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization,

More information

CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS

CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introductory Note Preamble Chapter I Purposes and Principles (Articles 1-2) Chapter II Membership (Articles 3-6) Chapter III Organs (Articles 7-8) Chapter

More information

THE UNITED NATIONS. GVT. 468/668 Instructor: Luise Druke, Ph.D. Presenters: Ksenia Yakustidi Vicky Dhima

THE UNITED NATIONS. GVT. 468/668 Instructor: Luise Druke, Ph.D. Presenters: Ksenia Yakustidi Vicky Dhima THE UNITED NATIONS GVT. 468/668 Instructor: Luise Druke, Ph.D. Presenters: Ksenia Yakustidi Vicky Dhima Overview The United Nations is an inter-governmental/ international organization founded in 1945

More information

Statement by the President of the Security Council

Statement by the President of the Security Council United Nations S/PRST/2013/4 Security Council Distr.: General 15 April 2013 Original: English Statement by the President of the Security Council At the 6946th meeting of the Security Council, held on 15

More information

PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW RIR6007/RIO7009, 2. Nov. 2010 PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1 Sovereignty Equality Consent Duty of States to co-operate Non-intervention Settlement of international disputes by peaceful means Prohibition

More information

Resolution 1244 (1999) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting, on 10 June 1999

Resolution 1244 (1999) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting, on 10 June 1999 Resolution 1244 (1999) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting, on 10 June 1999 The Security Council, Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and

More information

The UN and Crisis Management

The UN and Crisis Management The UN and Crisis Management John Kriendler Professor of NATO and European Security Issues George C. Marshall Center UN General Assembly Michael Nagle/Getty Images International Security Architecture What

More information

International cooperation for post-conflict reconstruction. Ece Sakaoglu (President Chair of Special Conference) I- Introduction

International cooperation for post-conflict reconstruction. Ece Sakaoglu (President Chair of Special Conference) I- Introduction Committee: Issue: Student Officer: Special Conference International cooperation for post-conflict reconstruction Ece Sakaoglu (President Chair of Special Conference) I- Introduction Instability, violence,

More information

REACT XIX EDITION. Experts in Rapid Co-operation and Assistance for Conflict Prevention Operations, Crisis Management and Post Conflict Rehabilitation

REACT XIX EDITION. Experts in Rapid Co-operation and Assistance for Conflict Prevention Operations, Crisis Management and Post Conflict Rehabilitation May 2014 REACT XIX EDITION Pursue a career with international organizations Experts in Rapid Co-operation and Assistance for Conflict Prevention Operations, Crisis Management and Post Conflict Rehabilitation

More information

Women, Peace and Security: Iceland s Plan of Action for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000)

Women, Peace and Security: Iceland s Plan of Action for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) Women, Peace and Security: Iceland s Plan of Action for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) Published by: Ministry for Foreign Affairs March 8, 2008 www.mfa.is

More information

Adopted by the Security Council at its 6934th meeting, on 14 March 2013

Adopted by the Security Council at its 6934th meeting, on 14 March 2013 United Nations S/RES/2095 (2013) Security Council Distr.: General 14 March 2013 Resolution 2095 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6934th meeting, on 14 March 2013 The Security Council, Recalling

More information

THE LEAGUE COVENANT AND THE UN CHARTER: A SIDE-BY-SIDE (FULL TEXT) COMPARISON. A. Walter Dorn, Royal Military College of Canada 12 May 2008

THE LEAGUE COVENANT AND THE UN CHARTER: A SIDE-BY-SIDE (FULL TEXT) COMPARISON. A. Walter Dorn, Royal Military College of Canada 12 May 2008 THE LEAGUE COVENANT AND THE UN CHARTER: A SIDE-BY-SIDE (FULL TEXT) COMPARISON A. Walter Dorn, Royal Military College of Canada 12 May 2008 The League of Nations Covenant (1919) served as an important template

More information

The Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty United Nations The Arms Trade Treaty Preamble The States Parties to this Treaty, Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Recalling Article 26 of the Charter of the United

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

Protecting Children During Armed Conflict

Protecting Children During Armed Conflict Protecting Children During Armed Conflict International Legal Foundations of the Six Grave Violations Against Children During Armed Conflict The UN Security Council identified the Six Grave Violations

More information

Interim Report of the Study Group on Japan's Engagement in UN Peacekeeping Operations. 4 July 2011

Interim Report of the Study Group on Japan's Engagement in UN Peacekeeping Operations. 4 July 2011 PROVISIONAL TRANSLATION by the Secretariat of the International Peace Cooperation Headquarters Interim Report of the Study Group on Japan's Engagement in UN Peacekeeping Operations 4 July 2011 I. Introduction

More information

United Nations Police: Restoring Civil Order Following Hostilities

United Nations Police: Restoring Civil Order Following Hostilities United Nations Police: Restoring Civil Order Following Hostilities TABLE OF CONTENTS FORMAT OF STUDY......................................................... V METHOD OF STUDY.........................................................

More information

Training and Evaluation Outline Report

Training and Evaluation Outline Report Training and Evaluation Outline Report Task Number: 71-9-8600 Task Title: Establish Civil Security (Division Echelon and Above [Operational]) Distribution Restriction: for public release; distribution

More information

DECLARATION ON PREVENTING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT Adopted in London on 11 April 2013

DECLARATION ON PREVENTING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT Adopted in London on 11 April 2013 DECLARATION ON PREVENTING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT Adopted in London on 11 April 2013 1. Ministers welcomed the positive efforts in recent years by States, the UN, other intergovernmental organisations,

More information

ECOWAS COMMON POSITION ON THE ARMS TRADE TREATY

ECOWAS COMMON POSITION ON THE ARMS TRADE TREATY COMISSÂO DA CEDEAO ECOWAS COMMISSION COMMISSION DE LA CEDEAO ECOWAS COMMON POSITION ON THE ARMS TRADE TREATY COTONOU, DECEMBER 2010 1 BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION 1. During its 55 th plenary meeting on

More information

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe CODE OF CONDUCT ON POLITICO-MILITARY ASPECTS OF SECURITY

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe CODE OF CONDUCT ON POLITICO-MILITARY ASPECTS OF SECURITY Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe CODE OF CONDUCT ON POLITICO-MILITARY ASPECTS OF SECURITY 3 December 1994 Programme for Immediate Action Series, No. 7 Note: This document was adopted

More information

UN Strategic Results Framework on Women, Peace and Security: 2011-2020

UN Strategic Results Framework on Women, Peace and Security: 2011-2020 July 2011 UN Strategic Results Framework on Women, Peace and Security: 2011-2020 In 2010, on the occasion of the ten-year anniversary of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women and peace and security,

More information

Adopted by the Security Council at its 6196th meeting, on 5 October 2009

Adopted by the Security Council at its 6196th meeting, on 5 October 2009 United Nations S/RES/1889 (2009) Security Council Distr.: General 5 October 2009 (E) *0954255* Resolution 1889 (2009) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6196th meeting, on 5 October 2009 The Security

More information

FREEDOM FROM WAR THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD

FREEDOM FROM WAR THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD Page 1 of 14 FREEDOM FROM WAR THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD DEPARTMENT OF STATE DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 7277 Disarmament Series 5 Released September

More information

GEMUN 2014 SECURITY COUNCIL. Topic 1: Question of effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. Study Guide Joselyn Salazar

GEMUN 2014 SECURITY COUNCIL. Topic 1: Question of effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. Study Guide Joselyn Salazar GEMUN 2014 SECURITY COUNCIL Topic 1: Question of effectiveness of peacekeeping operations Study Guide Joselyn Salazar Definitions of Key Terms 1. Peacekeeping: an effective means to help countries torn

More information

Peace Agreements Digital Collection

Peace Agreements Digital Collection Peace Agreements Digital Collection Bosnia and Herzegovina >> Washington Agreement Washington Agreement Signed By Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic Bosnian Croat

More information

B. Brussels Treaty Treaty of Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence Signed at Brussels on 17 March 1948

B. Brussels Treaty Treaty of Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence Signed at Brussels on 17 March 1948 B. Brussels Treaty Treaty of Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence Signed at Brussels on 17 March 1948 [This Treaty entered into force on 25 August 1948] Treaty of Economic,

More information

Summary 1. Module scope and objectives 2. Terms, definitions and abbreviations 3. Introduction 4. The military component

Summary 1. Module scope and objectives 2. Terms, definitions and abbreviations 3. Introduction 4. The military component 4.40 UN Military Roles and Responsibilities Contents Summary... 1 1. Module scope and objectives... 1 2. Terms, definitions and abbreviations... 2 3. Introduction... 2 4. The military component... 2 4.1.

More information

Adopted by the Security Council at its 5727th meeting, on 31 July 2007

Adopted by the Security Council at its 5727th meeting, on 31 July 2007 United Nations S/RES/1769 (2007) Security Council Distr.: General 31 July 2007 Resolution 1769 (2007) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5727th meeting, on 31 July 2007 The Security Council, Recalling

More information

DEPARTMENT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS (DPKO) CIVIL-MILITARY COORDINATION POLICY. Introduction

DEPARTMENT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS (DPKO) CIVIL-MILITARY COORDINATION POLICY. Introduction DEPARTMENT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS (DPKO) CIVIL-MILITARY COORDINATION POLICY Introduction 1. The response to conflict that has resulted in military or civilian police capability being deployed as part

More information

Reaffirming Bearing in mind Recognizing

Reaffirming Bearing in mind Recognizing AFRICAN UNION MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON COOPERATION IN THE AREA OF PEACE AND SECURITY BETWEEN THE AFRICAN UNION, THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMUNITIES AND THE COORDINATING MECHANISMS OF THE REGIONAL STANDBY

More information

Peace Agreements Digital Collection

Peace Agreements Digital Collection Peace Agreements Digital Collection Aceh (Indonesia) >> Cessation of Hostilities Cessation of Hostilities Framework Agreement Between Government of the Republic of Indonesia And the Free Acheh Movement

More information

Nations Unies Déclaration et Programme d action sur une culture de la paix. Naciones Unidas Declaración y Programa de Acción sobre una Cultura de Paz

Nations Unies Déclaration et Programme d action sur une culture de la paix. Naciones Unidas Declaración y Programa de Acción sobre una Cultura de Paz Nations Unies Déclaration et Programme d action sur une culture de la paix Naciones Unidas Declaración y Programa de Acción sobre una Cultura de Paz United Nations Declaration and Programme of Action on

More information

Adopted by the Security Council at its 6225th meeting, on 30 November 2009

Adopted by the Security Council at its 6225th meeting, on 30 November 2009 United Nations S/RES/1896 (2009) Security Council Distr.: General 30 November 2009 Resolution 1896 (2009) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6225th meeting, on 30 November 2009 The Security Council,

More information

Bargaining failures and civil war

Bargaining failures and civil war Barbara Walter: Bargaining failures and civil war Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, Brno Course: MVZ489 Political Causes of Violence Spring 2016 Aneta Zachová it is more difficult to reach

More information

Inter-Parliamentary Union 128 th Assembly and related meetings Quito (Ecuador), March 2013

Inter-Parliamentary Union 128 th Assembly and related meetings Quito (Ecuador), March 2013 Inter-Parliamentary Union 128 th Assembly and related meetings Quito (Ecuador), 22 27 March 2013 www.ipu2013ecuador.ec ENFORCING THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT: THE ROLE OF PARLIAMENT IN SAFEGUARDING CIVILIANS

More information

I am grateful for this opportunity to address the UN Security Council.

I am grateful for this opportunity to address the UN Security Council. Mr. President Excellencies, I am grateful for this opportunity to address the UN Security Council. The point that I wish to make today is simply put. The UN and the OSCE, as the largest and most inclusive

More information

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND LE CONGRES NATIONAL POUR LA DEFENSE DU PEUPLE (CNDP)

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND LE CONGRES NATIONAL POUR LA DEFENSE DU PEUPLE (CNDP) DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND LE CONGRES NATIONAL POUR LA DEFENSE DU PEUPLE (CNDP) PREAMBLE We, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and

More information

CONFERENCE PRECEPTS. 1 (1) Engagement and protection of women as agents of peace and stability (2) Building on the goals of gender

CONFERENCE PRECEPTS. 1 (1) Engagement and protection of women as agents of peace and stability (2) Building on the goals of gender CONFERENCE PRECEPTS The goal of this National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security is as simple as it is profound: to empower half the world s population as equal partners in preventing conflict and

More information

Appendix 1: The Brussels Treaty

Appendix 1: The Brussels Treaty Appendix 1: The Brussels Treaty Treaty of economic, social and cultural collaboration and collective self-defence Signed at Brussels on 17 March 1948 between His Majesty in respect of the United Kingdom

More information

Ellen Margrethe Løj. Special Representative of the Secretary-General United Nations Mission in South Sudan

Ellen Margrethe Løj. Special Representative of the Secretary-General United Nations Mission in South Sudan UNMISS Ellen Margrethe Løj Special Representative of the Secretary-General United Nations Mission in South Sudan Speech at the International Peacekeepers Day 29 May 2015 (10:00 11:30) Honourable Minister

More information

Statement of the Special Envoy of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission on Women, Peace and Security. United Nations Security Council

Statement of the Special Envoy of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission on Women, Peace and Security. United Nations Security Council Statement of the Special Envoy of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission on Women, Peace and Security United Nations Security Council Open Debate on Women, Peace and Security 25 April 2014, New

More information

CEDAW Committee Consultation on Women in Conflict and Post-Conflict Contexts. Invited submission by Professor Christine Bell and Dr Catherine O Rourke

CEDAW Committee Consultation on Women in Conflict and Post-Conflict Contexts. Invited submission by Professor Christine Bell and Dr Catherine O Rourke CEDAW Committee Consultation on Women in Conflict and Post-Conflict Contexts Invited submission by Professor Christine Bell and Dr Catherine O Rourke Peace agreements and processes typically involve a

More information

Farewell Speech for Special Representative of the Secretary General to Liberia Alan Doss Friday 14 December 2007

Farewell Speech for Special Representative of the Secretary General to Liberia Alan Doss Friday 14 December 2007 Farewell Speech for Special Representative of the Secretary General to Liberia Alan Doss Friday 14 December 2007 Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, Mr. President Pro-Tempore and Members of the National Legislature,

More information

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 31 July [without reference to a Main Committee (A/68/L.55 and Add.1)]

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 31 July [without reference to a Main Committee (A/68/L.55 and Add.1)] United Nations A/RES/68/303 General Assembly Distr.: General 13 August 2014 Sixty-eighth session Agenda item 33 (b) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 31 July 2014 [without reference to a Main

More information

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE. MARITIME DELIMITATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN (SOMALIA v. KENYA) PRELIMINARY OBJECTIONS

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE. MARITIME DELIMITATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN (SOMALIA v. KENYA) PRELIMINARY OBJECTIONS INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE MARITIME DELIMITATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN (SOMALIA v. KENYA) PRELIMINARY OBJECTIONS DELIMITATION MARITIME DANS L OCEAN INDIEN (SOMALIE c. KENYA)

More information

Summary of AG-027 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) ( )

Summary of AG-027 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) ( ) Summary of AG-027 United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) (1997-1999) Title United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) (1997-1999) Active Dates 1946-1999 Administrative History The United

More information

Integrated DDR Planning: Processes and Structures

Integrated DDR Planning: Processes and Structures 3.10 Integrated DDR Planning: Processes and Structures Contents Summary... 1 1. Module scope and objectives... 1 2. Terms, definitions and abbreviations... 2 3. Introduction... 2 4. Guiding principles...

More information

Course: Corporate Risks and Security

Course: Corporate Risks and Security Course: Corporate Risks and Security 1 3 + 1 + 1 75 7 Acquisition of knowledge needed to understand and realize the risks of activities endangering contemporary corporations. Acquisition of knowledge and

More information

THE GOVERNMENT OF SPAIN S ACTION PLAN FOR THE APPLICATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 (2000) ON WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY

THE GOVERNMENT OF SPAIN S ACTION PLAN FOR THE APPLICATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 (2000) ON WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY THE GOVERNMENT OF SPAIN S ACTION PLAN FOR THE APPLICATION OF UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 (2000) ON WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY I. INTRODUCTION United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, passed

More information

VII. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

VII. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY VII. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY The international community has consistently focused on finding a political solution to the conflict in Liberia, but often at the expense of the long-term objectives

More information

THE ROLE OF UN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS IN THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS

THE ROLE OF UN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS IN THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS OXFAM POLICY COMPENDIUM NOTE JULY 2012 THE ROLE OF UN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS IN THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS Overview: Oxfam s position on the role of UN peacekeeping missions in the protection of civilians

More information

Comprehensive Political Guidance

Comprehensive Political Guidance Comprehensive Political Guidance Endorsed by NATO Heads of State and Government on 29 November 2006 Introduction 1. This Comprehensive Political Guidance provides a framework and political direction for

More information

New Zealand on the UN Security Council Report Card: Assessment Period January July 2015

New Zealand on the UN Security Council Report Card: Assessment Period January July 2015 New Zealand on the UN Security Council Report Card: Assessment Period January July 2015 This report card looks to assess New Zealand s contribution to protecting human rights via the UN Security Council.

More information

Cabinet Decision on Development of Seamless Security Legislation to Ensure Japan s Survival and Protect its People July 1, 2014

Cabinet Decision on Development of Seamless Security Legislation to Ensure Japan s Survival and Protect its People July 1, 2014 (Provisional Translation) Cabinet Decision on Development of Seamless Security Legislation to Ensure Japan s Survival and Protect its People July 1, 2014 Since the end of World War II, Japan has consistently

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

TRAINING MODULES

TRAINING MODULES TRAINING MODULES 2014-2015 Last Updated 16/10/2015 REPEAT SESSION: Protocol and Diplomatic Law Module 2.7 November 2 nd 6 th 2015 - Introduction to Protocol - The basics of Diplomatic Law - Receiving Foreign

More information

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE Policy Statement Gender Equality in Humanitarian Action 20June 2008

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE Policy Statement Gender Equality in Humanitarian Action 20June 2008 INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE Policy Statement Gender Equality in Humanitarian Action 20June 2008 Approved by the IASC Working Group A. PURPOSE This Policy Statement sets out actions to be taken by the

More information

United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations Department of Field Support Ref Guidelines

United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations Department of Field Support Ref Guidelines United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations Department of Field Support Ref. 2009.9 Guidelines Roles and Training Standards for UN Military Staff Officers Approved by: USG Le Roy Effective date:

More information

THE ROLE OF ECOWAS IN SECURITY SECTOR & JUSTICE REFORM AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE SSR

THE ROLE OF ECOWAS IN SECURITY SECTOR & JUSTICE REFORM AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE SSR THE ROLE OF ECOWAS IN SECURITY SECTOR & JUSTICE REFORM AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE SSR 1. ECOWAS regional approach to SSR Insertion of security as insurance for and complement to regional

More information

Security Force Assistance

Security Force Assistance Joint Doctrine Note 1-13 Security Force Assistance 29 April 2013 Unclassified JOINT DOCTRINE NOTE 1-13 SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE Joint Doctrine Note (JDN) 1-13, Security Force Assistance (SFA), is a pre-doctrinal

More information

COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON COMBATING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Executive Summary

COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON COMBATING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Executive Summary COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY ON COMBATING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO Executive Summary Overview The Comprehensive Strategy on Combating Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic

More information

PEACEMAKING IN BURUNDI A CASE STUDY OF REGIONAL DIPLOMACY BACKED BY INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING AND PEACEBUILDING

PEACEMAKING IN BURUNDI A CASE STUDY OF REGIONAL DIPLOMACY BACKED BY INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING AND PEACEBUILDING PEACEMAKING IN BURUNDI A CASE STUDY OF REGIONAL DIPLOMACY BACKED BY INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING AND PEACEBUILDING AMBASSADOR ADONIA AYEBARE Director of the Africa Program, International Peace Institute

More information

A/HRC/FMI/2014/2. General Assembly

A/HRC/FMI/2014/2. General Assembly United Nations General Assembly Distr.: General 30 September 2014 A/HRC/FMI/2014/2 Original: English Human Rights Council Forum on Minority Issues Seventh session Geneva, 25 26 November 2014 Note by the

More information

Operations Other than War (MOOTW)

Operations Other than War (MOOTW) E-1 Appendix E The Military in Operations Other than War (MOOTW) Reference: Joint Pub 3-0 1. GENERAL Military operations other than war encompass a wide range of activities where the military instrument

More information

FOOD-FOR-THOUGHT PAPER ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN THE OSCE AREA

FOOD-FOR-THOUGHT PAPER ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN THE OSCE AREA SEC.DAYS/20/13 5 September 2013 ENGLISH only Conflict Prevention Centre Vienna, 5 September 2013 Operations Service FOOD-FOR-THOUGHT PAPER ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN THE OSCE AREA I. Background During the

More information

Human Rights Council. Human rights and transitional justice

Human Rights Council. Human rights and transitional justice Human Rights Council Resolution 9/10. Human rights and transitional justice The Human Rights Council, Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International

More information

Post-conflict Stabilization, Peacebuilding and Recovery Frameworks

Post-conflict Stabilization, Peacebuilding and Recovery Frameworks 2.20 Post-conflict Stabilization, Peacebuilding and Recovery Frameworks Contents Summary... 1 1. Module scope and objectives... 1 2. Terms, definitions and abbreviations... 1 3. DDR in context... 2 3.1.

More information

CENTER FOR CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS (CCMR) By Richard Hoffman Director, CCMR, School of International Graduate Studies Naval Postgraduate School

CENTER FOR CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS (CCMR) By Richard Hoffman Director, CCMR, School of International Graduate Studies Naval Postgraduate School CENTER FOR CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS (CCMR) By Richard Hoffman Director, CCMR, School of International Graduate Studies Naval Postgraduate School Established in 1994, CCMR is dedicated to strengthening

More information

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS CENTER FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS CENTER FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS CENTER FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS NYU s Master of Science in Global Affairs

More information

National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security

National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security Preface 1. Initiative for World Peace and Gender Equality (1) In 1945, the United Nations was established to save succeeding generations from the scourge

More information

Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué

Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué 30.06.2012 1. On 30 June 2012, the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the League of Arab States, the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Russia, United

More information

The. Gl bal. Plum Book. Influential Positions in the U.S. Government on Global Development and Diplomacy.

The. Gl bal. Plum Book. Influential Positions in the U.S. Government on Global Development and Diplomacy. The Gl bal Plum Book Influential Positions in the U.S. Government on Global Development and Diplomacy www.usglc.org Dear Friends, We have been proud to serve as the co-chairs of the U.S. Global Leadership

More information

Principles and Guidelines for

Principles and Guidelines for Principles and Guidelines for UN Peacekeeping Operations SERIES EDITOR Harvey J. Langholtz, Ph.D. Peace Operations Training Institute Principles and Guidelines for UN Peacekeeping Operations SERIES EDITOR

More information

SAMOA. 60th SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY STATEMENT BY

SAMOA. 60th SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY STATEMENT BY SAMOA 60th SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY STATEMENT BY HONOURABLE TUILA'EPA SAILELE MALIELEGAOI PRIME MINISTER AND MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND TRADE OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA

More information

Chairman's Draft Paper 3 March 2010

Chairman's Draft Paper 3 March 2010 Chairman's Draft Paper 3 March 2010 Elements 1. Preamble/ Principles 2. Goals and Objectives 3. Scope 4. Criteria for the transfer of conventional arms and other related items 5.. Implementation and Application

More information

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. [without reference to a Main Committee (A/53/L.79)]

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. [without reference to a Main Committee (A/53/L.79)] UNITED NATIONS A General Assembly Distr. GENERAL A/RES/53/243 6 October 1999 Fifty-third session Agenda item 31 The General Assembly, RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY [without reference to a

More information

Summary: Date. Subindra Bogati, Mr. Nationality: Nepalese. Languages: Nepali(native); Hindi (fluent); English (fluent)

Summary: Date. Subindra Bogati, Mr. Nationality: Nepalese. Languages: Nepali(native); Hindi (fluent); English (fluent) Name: Subindra Bogati, Mr. Nationality: Nepalese Languages: Nepali(native); Hindi (fluent); English (fluent) Email: subindra@nepalpeacebuilding.org or subindra@gmail.com Phone:+ 977-1- 5010 978 (off) 98511

More information

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS BY THE COMMISIONER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY OF THE AFRICAN UNION, AMBASSADOR SMAIL CHERGUI,

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS BY THE COMMISIONER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY OF THE AFRICAN UNION, AMBASSADOR SMAIL CHERGUI, AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, P.O. Box: 3243 Tel.: (251-11) 5513 822 Fax: (251-11) 5519 321 Email: situationroom@africa-union.org INTRODUCTORY REMARKS BY THE COMMISIONER

More information

Topic II: Child Soldiers. Chair: Xavier Gurrola

Topic II: Child Soldiers. Chair: Xavier Gurrola Topic II: Child Soldiers Chair: Xavier Gurrola Northern Illinois Model United Nations 2011 Table of Contents Letter from the Chair 2 Background 3 What is the UN doing to prevent the use of child soldiers?

More information

WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNCa OF MINISTERS BONN, 19 JUNE 1992. PETERSBERG DECLARA non

WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNCa OF MINISTERS BONN, 19 JUNE 1992. PETERSBERG DECLARA non WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION COUNCa OF MINISTERS BONN, 19 JUNE 1992 PETERSBERG DECLARA non I. ON WEU AND EUROPEAN SECURITY Developments in the security situation in Europe, disannament and anns control 1. Ministers

More information

OI Policy Compendium Note on United Nations Integrated Missions and Humanitarian Assistance

OI Policy Compendium Note on United Nations Integrated Missions and Humanitarian Assistance OI Policy Compendium Note on United Nations Integrated Missions and Humanitarian Assistance Overview: Oxfam International s position on United Nations Integrated Missions and Humanitarian Assistance This

More information

APPROVED VERSION. Centro de Estudios Estratégicos de la Defensa Consejo de Defensa Suramericano Unión de Naciones Suramericanas.

APPROVED VERSION. Centro de Estudios Estratégicos de la Defensa Consejo de Defensa Suramericano Unión de Naciones Suramericanas. CEED S PRELIMINARY REPORT TO THE SOUTH AMERICAN DEFENSE COUNCIL ON THE TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE CONCEPTS OF SECURITY AND DEFENSE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN REGION The Centre for Strategic Defense Studies

More information

Camp David Accords. The search for peace in the Middle East must be guided by the following:

Camp David Accords. The search for peace in the Middle East must be guided by the following: Camp David Accords Muhammad Anwar al-sadat, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, met with Jimmy Carter, President of the United States of America, at Camp

More information

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 17 May [without reference to a Main Committee (A/67/L.29 and Add.1)]

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 17 May [without reference to a Main Committee (A/67/L.29 and Add.1)] United Nations A/RES/67/264 General Assembly Distr.: General 16 August 2013 Sixty-seventh session Agenda item 121 (r) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 17 May 2013 [without reference to a Main

More information

26 June 1945, San Francisco. 10 December 1948, New York. 16 December 1966, New York. York. York

26 June 1945, San Francisco. 10 December 1948, New York. 16 December 1966, New York. York. York LIBERIA I- Normative Framework A. Synoptic Tables of major international, regional and sub-regional agreements and conventions on human rights CONVENTIONS, PROTOCOLS AND INTERNATIONAL TREATIES ON HUMAN

More information

2015 Civil Society Women, Peace and Security Roadmap 1

2015 Civil Society Women, Peace and Security Roadmap 1 NGO WORKING GROUP ON WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY A project of Tides Center 777 United Nations Plaza, New York, New York 10017 WWW.WOMENPEACESECURITY.ORG 2015 Civil Society Women, Peace and Security Roadmap

More information

Republic of Iraq. Statement by H.E. Mr. Jalal Talabani

Republic of Iraq. Statement by H.E. Mr. Jalal Talabani Republic of Iraq Statement by H.E. Mr. Jalal Talabani President of The Republic of Iraq, At the General Debate of the 66 th Session of the United Nations General Assembly New York, 23 September 2011 Mr.President,

More information

PROMOTING AN INCLUSIVE PEACE A CALL TO STRENGTHEN CANADA S PEACE-MAKING CAPACITY THE CANADIAN POLICY LANDSCAPE

PROMOTING AN INCLUSIVE PEACE A CALL TO STRENGTHEN CANADA S PEACE-MAKING CAPACITY THE CANADIAN POLICY LANDSCAPE PROMOTING AN INCLUSIVE PEACE A CALL TO STRENGTHEN CANADA S PEACE-MAKING CAPACITY THE CANADIAN POLICY LANDSCAPE DISCUSSION PAPER BY SURENDRINI WIJEYARATNE PEACE AND CONFLICT POLICY ANALYST CANADIAN COUNCIL

More information

THE WHITE HOUSE. Office of the Press Secretary. For Immediate Release September 21, September 21, 2016

THE WHITE HOUSE. Office of the Press Secretary. For Immediate Release September 21, September 21, 2016 THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary For Immediate Release September 21, 2016 September 21, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE HEADS OF EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES SUBJECT: Climate Change and National

More information

MC.DEC/3/11 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe 7 December 2011 Ministerial Council

MC.DEC/3/11 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe 7 December 2011 Ministerial Council MC.DEC/3/11 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Ministerial Council Vilnius 2011 Original: ENGLISH Second day of the Eighteenth Meeting MC(18) Journal No. 2, Agenda item 8 DECISION No.

More information

Raphael Lemkin Seminar for Genocide Prevention

Raphael Lemkin Seminar for Genocide Prevention PROGRAM: LEMKIN SEMINAR, U.S. MILITARY DAY ONE: SUNDAY, JUNE 20TH Morning and afternoon Arrival at Krakow-Balice airport, travel to Oswiecim 15.30 Late lunch, Dialogue Center 19.40 Buses from Dialogue

More information