# Solving Linear Systems of Equations. Gerald Recktenwald Portland State University Mechanical Engineering Department

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1 Solving Linear Systems of Equations Gerald Recktenwald Portland State University Mechanical Engineering Department

2 These slides are a supplement to the book Numerical Methods with Matlab: Implementations and Applications, by Gerald W. Recktenwald, c , Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. These slides are copyright c Gerald W. Recktenwald. The PDF version of these slides may be downloaded or stored or printed only for noncommercial, educational use. The repackaging or sale of these slides in any form, without written consent of the author, is prohibited. The latest version of this PDF file, along with other supplemental material for the book, can be found at or web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/nmm/. Version 0.88 August, 006 page 1

3 Primary Topics Basic Concepts Gaussian Elimination Limitations on Numerical Solutions to Ax = b Factorization Methods Nonlinear Systems of Equations NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page

4 Basic Concepts Matrix Formulation Requirements for a Solution Consistency The Role of rank(a) Formal Solution when A is n n NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page

5 Pump Curve Model (1) Objective: Find the coefficients of the quadratic equation that approximates the pump curve data. 10 Head (m) Flow rate (m /s) x 10 Model equation: h = c 1 q + c q + c Write the model equation for three points on the curve. This gives three equations for the three unknowns c 1, c,andc. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 4

6 Pump Curve Model () Points from the pump curve: q (m /s) h (m) Substitute each pair of data points into the model equation 115 = c c + c, 110 = c c + c, 9.5 = c c + c, Rewrite in matrix form as c c 5 = c NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 5

7 Pump Curve Model () Using more compact symbolic notation Ax = b where A = , x = c 1 4c 5, b = c NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 6

8 Pump Curve Model (4) In general, for any three (q, h) pairs the system is still Ax = b with q 1 q 1 1 c 1 h 1 6 A = 4q 7 q 15, x = 4c 5, b = 4h 5. q q 1 c h NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 7

9 Matrix Formulation Recommended Procedure 1. Write the equations in natural form.. Identify unknowns, and order them.. Isolate the unknowns. 4. Write equations in matrix form. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 8

10 Thermal Model of an IC Package (1) Objective: Find the temperature of an integrated circuit (IC) package mounted on a heat spreader. The system of equations is obtained from a thermal resistive network model. Physical Model: Mathematical Model: air flow Q c Τ c Q 1 Q Τ p Τ w R 1 R T p Tw Q R Q 4 R 4 Q 5 R 5 ambient air at T a Τ a Τ a Τ a NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 9

11 Thermal Model of an IC Package () 1. Write the equations in natural form: Use resistive model of heat flow between nodes to get Q 1 = 1 R 1 (T c T p ) Q = 1 R (T p T w ) Q = 1 R (T c T a ) Q 4 = 1 R 4 (T p T a ) Q = 1 R 5 (T w T a ) Q c = Q 1 + Q Q 1 = Q + Q 4 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 10

12 Thermal Model of an IC Package (). Identify unknowns, and order them: Unknowns are Q 1, Q, Q, Q 4, T c, T p,and T w. Thus, x = 6 4 Q 1 Q Q Q 4 T c T p T w Isolate the Unknowns R 1 Q 1 T c + T p =0, R Q T p + T w =0, R Q T c = T a, R 4 Q 4 T p = T a, R 5 Q T w = T a, Q 1 + Q = Q c, Q 1 Q Q 4 =0. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 11

13 Thermal Model of an IC Package (4) 4. Write in Matrix Form R R R R R Q 1 Q Q Q 4 T c T p T w 7 5 = 0 0 T a T a T 6 a 7 4 Q c 5 0 Note: The coefficient matrix has many more zeros than non-zeros. This is an example of a sparse matrix. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 1

14 Requirements for a Solution 1. Consistency. The Role of rank(a). Formal Solution when A is n n 4. Summary NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 1

15 Consistency (1) If an exact solution to Ax = b exists, b must lie in the column space of A. If it does, then the system is said to be consistent. If the system is consistent, an exact solution exists. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 14

16 Consistency () rank(a) gives the number of linearly independent columns in A [A b] is the augmented matrix formed by combining the b vector with the columns of A. a 11 a 1 a 1,n b 1 [A b]= 6 a 1 a a,n 4.. b a m,1 a m, a n,n b n If rank([a b]) > rank(a) then b does not lie in the column space of A. Inother words, since [A b] has a larger set of basis vectors than A, and since the difference in the size of the basis set is solely due to the b vector, the b vector cannot be constructed from the column vectors of A. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 15

17 Role of rank(a) If A is m n, andz is an n-element column vector, then Az =0has a nontrivial solution only if the columns of A are linearly dependent 1. In other words, the only solution to Az =0is z =0when A is full rank. Given the m n matrix A, the system Ax = b has a unique solution if the system is consistent and if rank(a) =n. 1 0 isthem-element column vector filled with zeros NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 16

18 Summary of Solution to Ax = b where A is m n For the general case where A is m n and m n, If rank(a) =n and the system is consistent, the solution exists and it is unique. If rank(a) =n and the system is inconsistent, no solution exists. If rank(a) <nand the system is consistent, an infinite number of solutions exist. If A is n n and rank(a) =n, then the system is consistent and the solution is unique. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 17

19 Formal Solution when A is n n The formal solution to Ax = b is where A is n n. x = A 1 b If A 1 exists then A is said to be nonsingular. If A 1 does not exist then A is said to be singular. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 18

20 Formal Solution when A is n n If A 1 exists then but Ax = b = x = A 1 b Do not compute the solution to Ax = b by finding A 1, and then multiplying b by A 1! We see: We do: x = A 1 b Solve Ax = b by Gaussian elimination or an equivalent algorithm NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 19

21 Singularity of A If an n n matrix, A, issingular then the columns of A are linearly dependent the rows of A are linearly dependent rank(a) <n det(a) =0 A 1 does not exist a solution to Ax = b may not exist If a solution to Ax = b exists, it is not unique NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 0

22 Summary of Requirements for Solution of Ax = b Given the n n matrix A and the n 1 vector, b the solution to Ax = b exists and is unique for any b if and only if rank(a) =n. rank(a) =n automatically guarantees that the system is consistent. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 1

23 Gaussian Elimination Solving Diagonal Systems Solving Triangular Systems Gaussian Elimination Without Pivoting Hand Calculations Cartoon Version The Algorithm Gaussian Elimination with Pivoting Row or Column Interchanges, or Both Implementation Solving Systems with the Backslash Operator NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page

24 Solving Diagonal Systems (1) The system defined by A = b = NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page

25 Solving Diagonal Systems (1) The system defined by A = b = is equivalent to x 1 = 1 x = 6 5x = 15 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 4

26 Solving Diagonal Systems (1) The system defined by A = b = is equivalent to The solution is x 1 = 1 x = 6 5x = 15 x 1 = 1 x = 6 = x = 15 5 = NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 5

27 Solving Diagonal Systems () Algorithm 8.1 In Matlab: given A, b for i =1...n x i = b i /a i,i end >> A =... % A is a diagonal matrix >> b =... >> x = b./diag(a) This is the only place where element-by-element division (.*) has anything to do with solving linear systems of equations. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 6

28 Triangular Systems (1) The generic lower and upper triangular matrices are L = l l 1 l l n1 l nn and u 11 u 1 u 1n U = 6 0 u u n u nn The triangular systems Ly = b Ux = c are easily solved by forward substitution and backward substitution, respectively NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 7

29 Solving Triangular Systems () A = b = NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 8

30 Solving Triangular Systems () is equivalent to A = b = x 1 + x + x = 9 x + x = 1 4x = 8 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 9

31 Solving Triangular Systems (4) is equivalent to A = b = x 1 + x + x = 9 x + x = 1 4x = 8 Solve in backward order (last equation is solved first) x = 8 4 = NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 0

32 Solving Triangular Systems (5) is equivalent to A = b = x 1 + x + x = 9 x + x = 1 4x = 8 Solve in backward order (last equation is solved first) x = 8 4 = x = 1 ( 1 +x )= =1 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 1

33 Solving Triangular Systems (6) is equivalent to A = b = x 1 + x + x = 9 x + x = 1 4x = 8 Solve in backward order (last equation is solved first) x = 8 4 = x = 1 ( 1 +x )= =1 x 1 = 1 (9 x x )= 4 = NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page

34 Solving Triangular Systems (7) Solving for x n,x n 1,...,x 1 for an upper triangular system is called backward substitution. Algorithm 8. given U, b x n = b n /u nn for i = n s = b i for j = i +1...n s = s u i,j x j end x i = s/u i,i end NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page

35 Solving Triangular Systems (8) Solving for x 1,x,...,x n for a lower triangular system is called forward substitution. Algorithm 8. given L, b x 1 = b 1 /l 11 for i =...n s = b i for j =1...i 1 s = s l i,j x j end x i = s/l i,i end Using forward or backward substitution is sometimes referred to as performing a triangular solve. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 4

36 Gaussian Elimination Goal is to transform an arbitrary, square system into the equivalent upper triangular system so that it may be easily solved with backward substitution. The formal solution to Ax = b, wherea is an n n matrix is x = A 1 b In Matlab: >> A =... >> b =... >> x = A\b NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 5

37 Gaussian Elimination Hand Calculations (1) Solve x 1 +x =5 x 1 +4x =6 Subtract times the first equation from the second equation x 1 +x =5 x = 4 This equation is now in triangular form, and can be solved by backward substitution. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 6

38 Gaussian Elimination Hand Calculations () The elimination phase transforms the matrix and right hand side to an equivalent system x 1 +x =5 x 1 +4x =6 x 1 +x =5 x = 4 The two systems have the same solution. The right hand system is upper triangular. Solve the second equation for x x = 4 = Substitute the newly found value of x into the first equation and solve for x 1. x 1 =5 ()() = 1 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 7

39 Gaussian Elimination Hand Calculations () When performing Gaussian Elimination by hand, we can avoid copying the x i by using a shorthand notation. For example, to solve: A = b = Form the augmented system Ã =[A b]= The vertical bar inside the augmented matrix is just a reminder that the last column is the b vector. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 8

40 Gaussian Elimination Hand Calculations (4) Add times row 1 to row, and add (1 times) row 1 to row Ã (1) = Subtract (1 times) row from row Ã () = NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 9

41 Gaussian Elimination Hand Calculations (5) The transformed system is now in upper triangular form 1 Ã () = Solve by back substitution to get x = = 1 x = 1 ( 9 5x )= x 1 = 1 ( 1 x + x )= NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 40

42 Gaussian Elimination Cartoon Version (1) Start with the augmented system x x x x x 6x x x x x 7 4x x x x x5 x x x x x The xs represent numbers, they are not necessarily the same values. Begin elimination using the first row as the pivot row and the first element of the first row as the pivot element x x x x x 6 x x x x x 7 4 x x x x x5 x x x x x NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 41

43 Gaussian Elimination Cartoon Version () Eliminate elements under the pivot element in the first column. x indicates a value that has been changed once. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x 6 4 x x x x x x x x x x7 5 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x 0 x x x x 7 5 x x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x 0 x x x x 7 0 x x x x 5 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 4

44 Gaussian Elimination Cartoon Version () The pivot element is now the diagonal element in the second row. Eliminate elements under the pivot element in the second column. x indicates a value that has been changed twice. x x x x x 0 x x x x 6 40 x x x x 7 0 x x x x 5 x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x 7 0 x x x x 5 x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x x x x 5 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 4

45 Gaussian Elimination Cartoon Version (4) The pivot element is now the diagonal element in the third row. Eliminate elements under the pivot element in the third column. x indicates a value that has been changed three times. x x x x x 0 x x x x 60 0 x x x x x x 5 x x x x x 0 x x x x 60 0 x x x x x 5 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 44

46 Gaussian Elimination Cartoon Version (5) Summary Gaussian Elimination is an orderly process of transforming an augmented matrix into an equivalent upper triangular form. The elimination operation is ã kj =ã kj (ã ki /ã ii )ã ij Elimination requires three nested loops. The result of the elimination phase is represented by the image below. x x x x x x x x x x 6 4 x x x x x7 5 x x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x x x NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 45

47 Gaussian Elimination Algorithm Algorithm 8.4 form Ã =[A b] for i =1...n 1 for k = i +1...n for j = i...n+1 ã kj =ã kj (ã ki /ã ii )ã ij end end end GEshow: The GEshow function in the NMM toolbox uses Gaussian elimination to solve a system of equations. GEshow is intended for demonstration purposes only. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 46

48 The Need for Pivoting (1) Solve: A = b = Note that there is nothing wrong with this system. A is full rank. The solution exists and is unique. Form the augmented system NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 47

49 The Need for Pivoting () Subtract 1/ times the first row from the second row, add / times the first row to the third row, add 1/ times the first row to the fourth row. The result of these operations is: The next stage of Gaussian elimination will not work because there is a zero in the pivot location, ã. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 48

50 The Need for Pivoting () Swap second and fourth rows of the augmented matrix Continue with elimination: subtract (1 times) row from row NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 49

51 The Need for Pivoting (4) Another zero has appear in the pivot position. Swap row and row The augmented system is now ready for backward substitution. 7 5 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 50

52 Pivoting Strategies Partial Pivoting: Exchange only rows Exchanging rows does not affect the order of the x i For increased numerical stability, make sure the largest possible pivot element is used. This requires searching in the partial column below the pivot element. Partial pivoting is usually sufficient. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 51

53 Partial Pivoting To avoid division by zero, swap the row having the zero pivot with one of the rows below it. Rows completed in forward elimination. 0 Row with zero pivot element * Rows to search for a more favorable pivot element. To minimize the effect of roundoff, always choose the row that puts the largest pivot element on the diagonal, i.e., find i p such that a i p,i = max( a k,i ) for k = i,...,n NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 5

54 Pivoting Strategies () Full (or Complete) Pivoting: Exchange both rows and columns Column exchange requires changing the order of the x i For increased numerical stability, make sure the largest possible pivot element is used. This requires searching in the pivot row, and in all rows below the pivot row, starting the pivot column. Full pivoting is less susceptible to roundoff, but the increase in stability comes at a cost of more complex programming (not a problem if you use a library routine) and an increase in work associated with searching and data movement. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 5

55 Full Pivoting Rows completed in forward elimination. 0 * Row with zero pivot element * Rows to search for a more favorable pivot element. Columns to search for a more favorable pivot element. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 54

56 Gauss Elimination with Partial Pivoting Algorithm 8.5 form Ã =[A b] for i =1...n 1 find i p such that max( ã i pi ) max( ã ki ) for k = i...n exchange row i p with row i for k = i +1...n for j = i...n+1 ã k,j =ã k,j (ã k,i /ã i,i )ã i,j end end end NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 55

57 Gauss Elimination with Partial Pivoting GEshow: The GEshow function in the NMM toolbox uses naive Gaussian elimination without pivoting to solve a system of equations. GEpivshow: The GEpivshow function in the NMM toolbox uses Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting to solve a system of equations. GEpivshow is intended for demonstration purposes only. GEshow and GEpivshow are for demonstration purposes only. They are also a convenient way to check your hand calculations. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 56

58 The Backslash Operator (1) Consider the scalar equation 5x =0 = x =(5) 1 0 The extension to a system of equations is, of course Ax = b = x = A 1 b where A 1 b is the formal solution to Ax = b In Matlab notation the system is solved with x = A\b NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 57

59 The Backslash Operator () Given an n n matrix A, andann 1 vector b the \ operator performs a sequence of tests on the A matrix. Matlab attempts to solve the system with the method that gives the least roundoff and the fewest operations. When A is an n n matrix: 1. Matlab examines A to see if it is a permutation of a triangular system If so, the appropriate triangular solve is used.. Matlab examines A to see if it appears to be symmetric and positive definite. If so, Matlab attempts a Cholesky factorization and two triangular solves.. If the Cholesky factorization fails, or if A does not appear to be symmetric, Matlab attempts an LU factorization and two triangular solves. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 58

60 Limits on Numerical Solution to Ax = b Machine Limitations RAM requirements grow as O(n ) flop count grows as O(n ) The time for data movement is an important speed bottleneck on modern systems NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 59

61 cache FPU CPU Data Access Time: shortest internal bus RAM system bus Stand alone computer Disk network Computer Computer Computer longest NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 60

62 Limits on Numerical Solution to Ax = b Limits of Floating Point Arithmetic Exact singularity Effect of perturbations to b Effect of perturbations to A The condition number NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 61

63 Geometric Interpretation of Singularity (1) Consider a system describing two lines that intersect y = x +6 y = 1 x +1 The matrix form of this equation is» 1 1/ 1» x1 x =» 6 1 The equations for two parallel but not intersecting lines are»»» 1 x1 6 = 1 5 Here the coefficient matrix is singular (rank(a) =1), and the system is inconsistent x NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 6

64 Geometric Interpretation of Singularity () The equations for two parallel and coincident lines are» 1 1» x1 x =» 6 6 The equations for two nearly parallel lines are» 1 +δ 1» x1 x =» 6 6+δ NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 6

65 Geometric Interpretation of Singularity () A and b are consistent A is nonsingular A and b are consistent A is singular A and b are inconsistent A is singular A and b are consistent A is ill conditioned NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 64

66 Effect of Perturbations to b Consider the solution of a system where b =» 1 / One expects that the exact solutions to Ax =» 1 / and Ax =» will be different. Should these solutions be a lot different or a little different? NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 65

67 Effect of Perturbations to b Perturb b with δb such that The perturbed system is The perturbations satisfy δb b 1, A(x + δx b )=b + δb Aδx b = δb Analysis shows (see next two slides for proof) that δx b x A A 1 δb b Thus, the effect of the perturbation is small only if A A 1 is small. δx b x 1 only if A A 1 1 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 66

68 Effect of Perturbations to b (Proof) Let x + δx b be the exact solution to the perturbed system A(x + δx b )=b + δb (1) Expand Ax + Aδx b = b + δb Subtract Ax from left side and b from right side since Ax = b Aδx b = δb Left multiply by A 1 δx b = A 1 δb () NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 67

69 Effect of Perturbations to b (Proof, p. ) Take norm of equation () δx b = A 1 δb Applying consistency requirement of matrix norms δx A 1 δb () Similarly, Ax = b gives b = Ax, and b A x (4) Rearrangement of equation (4) yields 1 x A b (5) NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 68

70 Effect of Perturbations to b (Proof) Multiply Equation (4) by Equation () to get δx b x A A 1 δb b (6) Summary: If x + δx b is the exact solution to the perturbed system A(x + δx b )=b + δb then δx b x A A 1 δb b NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 69

71 Effect of Perturbations to A Perturb A with δa such that The perturbed system is δa A 1, (A + δa)(x + δx A )=b Analysis shows that δx A x + δx A A A 1 δa A Thus, the effect of the perturbation is small only if A A 1 is small. δx A x + δx A 1 only if A A 1 1 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 70

72 Effect of Perturbations to both A and b Perturb both A with δa and b with δb such that The perturbation satisfies δa A 1 and δb b 1 (A + δa)(x + δx) =b + δb Analysis shows that δx x + δx A A 1 1 A A 1 δa A» δa A + δb b Thus, the effect of the perturbation is small only if A A 1 is small. δx x + δx 1 only if A A 1 1 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 71

73 Condition number of A The condition number κ(a) A A 1 indicates the sensitivity of the solution to perturbations in A and b. The condition number can be measured with any p-norm. The condition number is always in the range 1 κ(a) κ(a) is a mathematical property of A Any algorithm will produce a solution that is sensitive to perturbations in A and b if κ(a) is large. In exact math a matrix is either singular or non-singular. κ(a) = for a singular matrix κ(a) indicates how close A is to being numerically singular. A matrix with large κ is said to be ill-conditioned NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 7

74 Computational Stability In Practice, applying Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting and back substitution to Ax = b gives the exact solution, ˆx, to the nearby problem (A + E)ˆx = b where E ε m A Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting and back substitution gives exactly the right answer to nearly the right question. Trefethen and Bau NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 7

75 Computational Stability An algorithm that gives the exact answer to a problem that is near to the original problem is said to be backward stable. Algorithms that are not backward stable will tend to amplify roundoff errors present in the original data. As a result, the solution produced by an algorithm that is not backward stable will not necessarily be the solution to a problem that is close to the original problem. Gaussian elimination without partial pivoting is not backward stable for arbitrary A. If A is symmetric and positive definite, then Gaussian elimination without pivoting in backward stable. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 74

76 The Residual Let ˆx be the numerical solution to Ax = b. ˆx x (x is the exact solution) because of roundoff. The residual measures how close ˆx is to satisfying the original equation r = b Aˆx It is not hard to show that ˆx x ˆx κ(a) r b Small r does not guarantee a small ˆx x. If κ(a) is large the ˆx returned by Gaussian elimination and back substitution (or any other solution method) is not guaranteed to be anywhere near the true solution to Ax = b. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 75

77 Rules of Thumb (1) Applying Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting and back substitution to Ax = b yields a numerical solution ˆx such that the residual vector r = b Aˆx is small even if the κ(a) is large. If A and b are stored to machine precision ε m, the numerical solution to Ax = b by any variant of Gaussian elimination is correct to d digits where d = log 10 (ε m ) log 10 (κ(a)) NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 76

78 Rules of Thumb () d = log 10 (ε m ) log 10 (κ(a)) Example: Matlab computations have ε m For a system with κ(a) the elements of the solution vector will have d = log 10 ( ) log correct digits =16 11 =5 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 77

79 Summary of Limits to Numerical Solution of Ax = b 1. κ(a) indicates how close A is to being numerically singular. If κ(a) is large, A is ill-conditioned and even the best numerical algorithms will produce a solution, ˆx that cannot be guaranteed to be close to the true solution, x. In practice, Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting and back substitution produces a solution with a small residual r = b Aˆx even if κ(a) is large. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 78

80 Factorization Methods LU factorization Cholesky factorization Use of the backslash operator NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 79

81 LU Factorization (1) Find L and U such that A = LU and L is lower triangular, and U is upper triangular l, L = l,1 l, l n,1 l n, ln 1,n 1 u 1,1 u 1, u 1, u 1,n 0 u, u, u,n U = u n 1,n u n,n Since L and U are triangular, it is easy to apply their inverses. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 80

82 LU Factorization () Since L and U are triangular, it is easy to apply their inverses. Consider the solution to Ax = b. Regroup, matrix multiplication is associative A = LU = (LU)x = b L(Ux)=b Let Ux = y, then Ly = b Since L is triangular it is easy (without Gaussian elimination) to compute y = L 1 b This expression should be interpreted as Solve Ly = b with a forward substitution. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 81

83 LU Factorization () Now, since y is known, solve for x x = U 1 y which is interpreted as Solve Ux = y with a backward substitution. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 8

84 LU Factorization (4) Algorithm 8.6 Solve Ax = b with LU factorization Factor A into L and U Solve Ly = b for y use forward substitution Solve Ux = y for x use backward substitution NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 8

85 The Built-in lu Function Refer to lunopiv and lupiv functions in the NMM toolbox for expository implementations of LU factorization Use the built-in lu function for routine work NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 84

86 Cholesky Factorization (1) A must be symmetric and positive definite (SPD) For SPD matrices, pivoting is not required Cholesky factorization requires one half as many flops as LU factorization. Since pivoting is not required, Cholesky factorization will be more than twice as fast as LU factorization since data movement is avoided. Refer to the Cholesky function in NMM Toolbox for a view of the algorithm Use built-in chol function for routine work NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 85

87 Backslash Redux The \ operator examines the coefficient matrix before attempting to solve the system. \ uses: A triangular solve if A is triangular, or a permutation of a triangular matrix Cholesky factorization and triangular solves if A is symmetric and the diagonal elements of A are positive (and if the subsequent Cholesky factorization does not fail.) LU factorization if A is square and the preceding conditions are not met. QR factorization to obtain the least squares solution if A is not square. NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 86

88 Nonlinear Systems of Equations The system of equations is nonlinear if A = A(x) or b = b(x) Ax = b Characteristics of nonlinear systems Solution requires iteration Each iteration involves the work of solving a related linearized system of equations For strongly nonlinear systems it may be difficult to get the iterations to converge Multiple solutions might exist NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 87

89 Nonlinear Systems of Equations Example: Intersection of a parabola and a line y = αx + β y = x + σx + τ or, using x 1 = x, x = y αx 1 x = β (x 1 + σ)x 1 x = τ which can be expressed in matrix notation as» α 1 x 1 + σ 1 The coefficient matrix, A depends on x» x1 x =» β τ NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 88

90 Nonlinear Systems of Equations Graphical Interpretation of solutions to:» α 1 x 1 + σ 1» x1 x =» β τ Change values of α and β to get 10 5 Two distinct solutions 10 5 One solution One solution sensitive to inputs 10 5 No solution NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 89

91 Newton s Method for Nonlinear Systems (1) Given where A is n n, write Note: f = r The solution is obtained when f(x) = Ax = b f = Ax b f 1 (x 1,x,...,x n )) 6f (x 1,x,...,x n )) = f n (x 1,x,...,x n )) NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 90

92 Newton s Method for Nonlinear Systems () Let x (k) be the guess at the solution for iteration k Look for Δx (k) so that x (k+1) = x (k) +Δx (k) f(x (k+1) )=0 Expand f with the multidimensional Taylor Theorem f(x (k+1) )=f(x (k) )+f (x (k) )Δx (k) + O Δx (k) NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 91

93 Newton s Method for Nonlinear Systems () f (x (k) ) is the Jacobian of the system of equations f (x) J(x) = f 1 f 1 x 1 x f f x 1 x f n f n x 1 x f 1 x n f x n 7 f n 5 x n Neglect the higher order terms in the Taylor expansion f(x (k+1) )=f(x (k) )+J(x (k) )Δx (k) NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 9

94 Newton s Method for Nonlinear Systems (4) Now, assume that we can find the Δx (k) that gives f(x (k+1) )=0 0=f(x (k) )+J(x (k) )Δx (k) = J(x (k) )Δx (k) = f(x (k) ) The essence of Newton s method for systems of equations is 1. Make a guess at x. Evaluate f. If f is small enough, stop 4. Evaluate J 5. solve J Δx = f for Δx 6. update: x x +Δx 7. Go back to step NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 9

95 Newton s Method for Nonlinear Systems (5) Example: Intersection of a line and parabola y = αx + β y = x + σx + τ Recast as αx 1 x + β =0 x 1 + σx 1 x + τ =0 or f =» αx1 x + β x 1 + σx 1 x + τ =» 0 0 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 94

96 Newton s Method for Nonlinear Systems (6) Evaluate each term in the Jacobian f 1 x 1 = α f 1 x = 1 therefore f x 1 =x 1 + σ J = f x = 1» α 1 (x 1 + σ) 1 NMM: Solving Systems of Equations page 95

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