# Chord. A scalable peer-to-peer look-up protocol for internet applications

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1 Chord A scalable peer-to-peer look-up protocol for internet applications by Ion Stoica, Robert Morris, David Karger, M. Frans Kaashoek, Hari Balakrishnan

2 Overview Introduction The Chord Algorithm Construction of the Chord ring Localization of nodes Node joins and stabilization Failure of nodes Applications Summary Questions

3 The lookup problem N 1 N 2 N 3 Key= title Value=MP3 data Publisher Internet N 4 N 5 N 6? Client Lookup( title )

4 Routed queries (Freenet, Chord, etc.) N 1 N 4 N 6 Client Publisher N 2 Lookup( title ) Key= title Value=MP3 data N 7 N 8 N 3 N 9

5 What is Chord? Problem addressed: efficient node localization Distributed lookup protocol Simplicity, provable performance, proven correctness Support of just one operation: given a key, Chord maps the key onto a node

6 Chord software 3000 lines of C++ code Library to be linked with the application provides a lookup(key) function: yields the IP address of the node responsible for the key Notifies the node of changes in the set of keys the node is responsible for

7 Overview Introduction The Chord Algorithm Construction of the Chord ring Localization of nodes Node joins and Stabilization Failure/Departure of nodes Applications Summary Questions

8 Construction of the Chord ring use Consistent Hash Function assigns each node and each key an m-bit identifier using SHA 1 (Secure Hash Standard). m = any number big enough to make collisions improbable Key identifier = SHA-1(key) Node identifier = SHA-1(IP address) Both are uniformly distributed Both exist in the same ID space

9 Construction of the Chord ring identifiers are arranged on a identifier circle m modulo 2 => Chord ring

10 Construction of the Chord ring a key k is assigned to the node whose identifier is equal to or greater than the key s identifier this node is called successor(k) and is the first node clockwise from k.

11 Simple node localization // ask node n to find the successor of id n.find_successor(id) if (id (n; successor]) return successor; else // forward the query around the circle return successor.find_successor(id); => Number of messages linear in the number of nodes!

12 Scalable node localization Additional routing information to accelerate lookups Each node n contains a routing table with up to m entries (m: number of bits of the identifiers) => finger table i th entry in the table at node n contains the i-1 first node s that succeeds n by at least 2 i-1 s = successor (n + 2 ) s is called the i th finger of node n

13 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

14 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

15 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

16 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

17 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

18 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

19 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

20 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

21 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

22 Scalable node localization Finger table: finger[i] = successor (n + 2 i-1 )

23 Scalable node localization Important characteristics of this scheme: Each node stores information about only a small number of nodes (m) Each nodes knows more about nodes closely following it than about nodes further away A finger table generally does not contain enough information to directly determine the successor of an arbitrary key k

24 Scalable node localization Search in finger table for the nodes which most immediately precedes id Invoke find_successor from that node => Number of messages O(log N)!

25 Scalable node localization Search in finger table for the nodes which most immediately precedes id Invoke find_successor from that node => Number of messages O(log N)!

26 Node joins and stabilization

27 Node joins and stabilization

28 Node joins and stabilization

29 Node joins and stabilization To ensure correct lookups, all successor pointers must be up to date => stabilization protocol running periodically in the background Updates finger tables and successor pointers

30 Node joins and stabilization Stabilization protocol: Stabilize(): n asks its successor for its predecessor p and decides whether p should be n s successor instead (this is the case if p recently joined the system). Notify(): notifies n s successor of its existence, so it can change its predecessor to n Fix_fingers(): updates finger tables

31 Node joins and stabilization

32 Node joins and stabilization N26 joins the system N26 acquires N32 as its successor N26 notifies N32 N32 acquires N26 as its predecessor

33 Node joins and stabilization N26 copies keys N21 runs stabilize() and asks its successor N32 for its predecessor which is N26.

34 Node joins and stabilization N21 acquires N26 as its successor N21 notifies N26 of its existence N26 acquires N21 as predecessor

35 Impact of node joins on lookups All finger table entries are correct => O(log N) lookups Successor pointers correct, but fingers inaccurate => correct but slower lookups

36 Impact of node joins on lookups Incorrect successor pointers => lookup might fail, retry after a pause But still correctness!

37 Impact of node joins on lookups Stabilization completed => no influence on performance Only for the negligible case that a large number of nodes joins between the target s predecessor and the target, the lookup is slightly slower No influence on performance as long as fingers are adjusted faster than the network doubles in size

38 Failure of nodes Correctness relies on correct successor pointers What happens, if N14, N21, N32 fail simultaneously? How can N8 acquire N38 as successor?

39 Failure of nodes Correctness relies on correct successor pointers What happens, if N14, N21, N32 fail simultaneously? How can N8 acquire N38 as successor?

40 Failure of nodes Each node maintains a successor list of size r If the network is initially stable, and every node fails with probability ½, find_successor still finds the closest living successor to the query key and the expected time to execute find_succesor is O(log N) Proofs are in the paper

41 Failure of nodes Massive failures have little impact Failed Lookups (Percent) (1/2) 6 is 1.6% Failed Nodes (Percent)

42 Overview Introduction The Chord Algorithm Construction of the Chord ring Localization of nodes Node joins and stabilization Failure/Departure of nodes Applications Summary Questions

43 Applications: Chord-based DNS DNS provides a lookup service keys: host names values: IP addresses Chord could hash each host name to a key Chord-based DNS: no special root servers no manual management of routing information no naming structure can find objects not tied to particular machines

44 Summary Simple, powerful protocol Only operation: map a key to the responsible node Each node maintains information about O(log N) other nodes Lookups via O(log N) messages Scales well with number of nodes Continues to function correctly despite even major changes of the system

45 Questions?

46 Thanks!

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