# Load Dump Pulses According to Various Test Requirements: One Phenomenon Two Methods of Generation A Comparison

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2 The following general considerations of the dynamic behaviour of an alternator during load dump apply: a) The internal resistance of an alternator, in the case of load dump, is mainly a function of alternator rotational speed and excitation current. b) The internal resistance Ri of the load dump test pulse generator shall be obtained from the following relationship: Ri = 10 x Unom x Nact 0.8 x Irat x 12,000 min -1 where Unom is the specified voltage of the alternator Irat is the specified current at an alternator speed of 6,000min -1 (as given in ISO 8854) Nact is the actual alternator speed, in reciprocal minutes c) The pulse is determined by the peak voltage Us, the calmpe voltage Us*, the internal resistor Ri and the pulse duration td. In all cases, small values of Us are correlated with small values of Ri and td while high values of Us correlate with high values of Ri and td. Definition of the Load Dump test pulses as per ISO 7637 The test pulses 5a and 5b are specified as follows: Figure 1 : Definition of the Load Dump test pulse 5a Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 2 3 March 2006

3 Figure 2 : Definition of the Load Dump test pulse 5b In Annex E of ISO :2004 it is further specified that the used transient generator shall generate pulse with a double exponential decay. Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 3 3 March 2006

5 Methods of Test Pulse Generation Looking at commercially available test equipment for the generation of Load Dump pulses we can find two different methods how such pulses are generated. Generators based on a LCR circuit The first method is the classic way of generating transients using an energy storage capacitor that is discharged across a passive pulse-forming network. Figure 6 illustrates the basic circuitry. The energy storage capacitor C S is charged from a DC supply. When charged the switch S connects the energy storage capacitor to the pulse-forming network and the stored energy generates a transient pulse with a waveform defined by the components of the pulse-forming network L, R i, R 1 and R L. Figure 6: General circuit diagram of a classic transient generator Generator based on a programmable DC amplifier The second method of generating load dump pulses is based on a DC amplifier. The corresponding general circuit diagram is shown in figure 7. Figure 7: General circuit diagram on a DC amplifier based transient generator As illustrated in figure 7 the output waveform follows waveform that is connected to the input of the amplifier and will remain unchanged as long as the stored energy of the energy storage capacitor C Zw is sufficient. Hence the generated waveform is more or less independent from the connected load R L. Both methods are used in the standards and are considered to be a valid solution for pulse generation. ISO :2004 and all manufacturer standards referring or related to this document require the use of a transient generator with an energy storage capacitor discharging across a passive pulse-forming network (as per Annex E of ISO :2004). Other manufacturer standards, not making reference to ISO :2004, use DC amplifier based load dump generators. It is up to the user to determine which type of generator to be used for the different test application. Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 5 3 March 2006

7 The following measurements illustrate how the pulses look like. Figure 10 shows the waveforms measured directly at the output of the generator while the waveforms shown in figure 11 are recorded at the end of 1.5m harness with no change to the generator setting. oc open clam clamped/ Figure 10: Measurements according to GMW 3097 ( ) requirements taken from the generator output Figure 11: Measurements according to GMW 3097 ( ) requirements taken from the end of a 1.5m harness When comparing the waveforms of figures 10 and 11 we recognise that the related waveforms are almost equal despite of the fact that a harness is connected. But what we can clearly determine from these measurements is the difference between open circuit and loaded condition due to the fact that the pulse generation is based on an energy storage capacitor being discharged across a passive pulse-forming network. Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 7 3 March 2006

8 Peugeot PSA B (B) for 42V supply systems Figure 12 gives the specification of test pulse 5b as per the above standard (Impulsion 5b). Figure 12: Specification of the Peugeot PSA B (B) for 42V supply system This is a typical waveform specification that requires an equipment based on a programmable DC amplifier to generate. There is no way to generate such a waveform with a traditional transient generator using an energy storage capacitor being discharged across a passive pulse-forming network. The waveform will not change depending on the load but will remain as programmed. Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 8 3 March 2006

9 Comparison of energy applied to the DUT Looking at how the different load dump waveforms are generated it is worthwhile and important to also take into account who much energy is applied to the DUT. Recalling the fact that as per ISO and requirements referring to the same the pulse width and amplitude decrease the smaller the connected load gets. As we have introduced above this requirement can only be fulfilled by using a generator using an energy storage capacitor and a passive pulse-forming network. If we would use a programmable DC amplifier to generate the same pulse then we might be able to set the amplitude more or less correctly but we can t properly adjust the pulse duration. Figure 13 summarises the waveforms recorded from two different types of generators. Figure 13: Comparison of waveforms The blue line (curve 1) shows the open circuit waveform that is about equally generated by both types of generators. The purple line (curve 2) represents the loaded waveform generated by a DC amplifier based generator while, finally, the red line (curve 3) is the loaded waveform generated by a energy storage capacitor based load dump generator. Comparing the area below the area underneath the purple line to the area underneath the red line it becomes obvious that the area is considerably smaller. As the area directly represent the energy of the transient pulse we can conclude that the DC amplifier based generator outputs considerably more energy being applied to the DUT. Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 9 3 March 2006

10 Figure 14 here below illustrates a practical example. Energy in load resistor - LCR generator - Amplifier Energy absorbed in varistor Figure 14: Comparison of the energy distribution in the test circuit The light-blue (curve 1) and the blue line (curve 2) each show a loaded load dump pulse generated by the two different load dump generators. We can clearly recognise the difference in the decaying part of the waveform. The light-green line (curve 3) represents the loaded suppressed load dump pulse generated by a generator as recommended by ISO :2004, Annex E. The red lined waveform (curve 4) shows a clipped load dump pulse under loaded originating from a amplifier based type. The white area shows the energy absorbed by a varistor (representing the input protection of the DUT. The grey areas indicate the energy that the DUT is actually exposed to during this test. In the actual example calculation results in a 70% higher energy being applied to the DUT by an amplifier based generator compared to the energy generated by an energy capacitor based generator. Just imagine the harm this additional 70% of pulse energy could do to a DUT! Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 10 3 March 2006

12 Biographical Notes A graduate from the Basel Institute of Technology and holder of a Bachelor degree in Electrical and Industrial Electronics Engineering, registered European Engineer (EUR ING). Has worked in the high voltage test field installing and commissioning high voltage test systems all over the world, training the users in operation and application of HV test installations for eight years. Working for the last nine years in the EMC field as an International Sales Supporter for one of the world s leading companies manufacturing and supplying EMC test equipment for the conducted immunity and emission testing, mainly in the automotive and telecom industry and for CE marking. A graduate from the Basel Institute of Technology and holder of a Bachelor degree in Electrical and Industrial Electronics Engineering, registered European Engineer (EUR ING). Has worked in the high voltage test field for 15 years and was responsible for impulse generators and the development of their electronic control. Working since 1994 for EM Test. He is responsible for the CE marking and the support of technical questions for customer service and sales. He makes customer instruction, training and gives seminars all over the world, in operation of EM Test equipment and EMC application. Automotive EMC Conference 2006 Page 12 3 March 2006

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