1 L O C K O U T / TA G O U T A D M I N I S T R AT I V E G U I D E
2 2009 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc. This material is the property of CLMI Safety Training and may not be reproduced or distributed in any manner. When permitted, you may print a single copy of this material for your personal use.
3 Lockout/Tagout Instructions Instructions Welcome To The Safety Program! This is one in a series of comprehensive programs that provide unique safety solutions for companies faced with limited time, money and resources. This program is designed to provide a step-by-step, color-coded guide for individuals with limited knowledge of safety management, training or compliance. The program is written in an uncomplicated, easy-to-follow style. Clear and simple explanations of the topic are included, and the Take A Closer Look sections provide more detailed information. The program has the following sections: Introduction This section provides information on the topic and the training benefits for your company and employees. The program s goals are defined as well as how these goals can be incorporated into your safety training efforts. How To Comply This section explains the steps you can take to help employees avoid injuries and reduce related costs to your company. Written Program This section includes a sample written program along with forms that will help you customize the written program to fit your company s needs. Training OSHA compliance also requires employee training. This section provides a complete training guide and tools, including these materials: An Instructor Guide that provides objectives, discussion questions, training techniques and follow-up activities to support the trainer in conducting an effective training session. A video that provides important information to employees in an effective and interesting style. Designed to educate employees on information that may be unfamiliar to the trainer, the video takes a positive, upbeat approach that s entertaining as well as informative. An Employee Handbook that provides information for employees during training and also serves as a reference tool after training has been completed. A Learning Exercise to test employees knowledge and determine their level of understanding about the topic. A Glossary Of Terms. A PowerPoint presentation. Page i
4 Lockout/Tagout Instructions All of the programs in this series have been developed by Certified Safety Professionals (CSPs) with backgrounds in safety training and compliance for all types of industries. This unique package is the most effective and easy-to-use program available, guiding the program administrator step by step through the safety and compliance requirements. UNDERSTANDING THE SYMBOLS Take A Closer Look This symbol identifies material that provides a more detailed explanation of the summary information given previously. The Note This symbol identifies information that the reader should take note of or refers the reader to another section in the manual for additional information. Caution This symbol indicates important points in the program that the reader needs to understand. Video Question Slide Handbook Flipchart Helpful Hint ADD EXAMPLES Add Examples Page ii
5 Lockout/Tagout Instructions Table Of Contents Page # Introduction I-1 How To Comply H-1 Explanation Of The OSHA Standard H-1 How To Develop Your Lockout/Tagout Program H-4 OSHA Standard 29 CFR Written Program W-1 OSHA Requirements W-1 Written Program Development W-1 Lockout/Tagout Written Program W-3 Recordkeeping W-7 Training T-1 Instructor Guides T-1 Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees T-1 Session 2, Lockout/Tagout: Affected Employees T-21 Training Tips T-35 Learning Exercises T-38 Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees T-38 Session 2, Lockout/Tagout: Affected Employees T-41 Glossary Of Terms T-43 Slides T , 2002, 2005 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc. Page iii
6 Lockout/Tagout Instructions The information contained in this program has been developed in good faith and is believed to present good safety principles. CLMI and all other participating organizations make no representations or warranties as to the completeness or accuracy thereof. Persons using this information must make their own determination as to its suitability for their purposes in support of their own safety programs. CLMI and all other participating organizations are in no way responsible for damages of any nature resulting from the use of this information. Technical expertise provided by: Richard R. Johnson, CSP Richard A. Pollock, CSP PowerPoint is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Page iv 1994, 2002, 2005 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc.
7 Lockout/Tagout Introduction Introduction Lockout/Tagout Every workplace has the need for ongoing maintenance. Installation, repair and servicing of machines and equipment may seem routine but can be dangerous to the employees performing the work. Serious injury can be caused by the sudden and unexpected startup of the machinery or equipment, contact with live electrical circuits or the unexpected release of stored energy. Equipment that has been shut down may inadvertently be restarted or re-energized by a co-worker, or equipment that was thought to be shut down may be controlled by automatic processors, timers or computers and may restart automatically and without warning. According to the Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA), the failure to control hazardous energy sources has serious consequences: 10% of serious industrial accidents 28,000 lost workdays per year Approximately 120 deaths per year Fortunately, these hazards can be avoided through the use of lockout/tagout procedures, in which the employee performing the work places a lock and a tag at any point where the equipment can be turned on or where any stored energy can be released. This keeps the equipment from being started during repair or maintenance. Lockout/tagout procedures isolate energy and control machinery and equipment. Doing so helps to protect the employees servicing the equipment, the equipment itself and any equipment operators and bystanders. It s important for all employees to understand lockout/tagout procedures, how and when to use them and how to safely restart equipment and machinery. That s the best way to ensure that everyone will stay safe. This guide will help you develop a program for using safe lockout/tagout procedures. It s designed to present a simple, step-by-step approach that you can use to develop a program to provide employees with the training and tools they need to safely work on equipment and machinery that has been shut down. Page I-1
8 Lockout/Tagout Introduction The outcomes of your lockout/tagout program will be as follow: To understand the energy hazards of equipment that is not locked and tagged To know how to use lockout/tagout procedures to safely install and/or service equipment and machinery By planning ahead knowing the energy sources and how to control them with lockout/tagout procedures you can make equipment installation and maintenance a safe part of the workday. For more information about lockout/tagout, consult these resources: Industry trade groups or other similar organizations Your safety equipment supplier Your insurance company s loss-control department Consultants and safety councils Safety equipment manufacturers Page I-2
9 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply How To Comply This section contains the following topics: Explanation Of The OSHA Standard How To Develop Your Lockout/Tagout Program OSHA Standard 29 CFR Explanation Of The OSHA Standard The Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA) has established a lockout/tagout standard 29 CFR You ll find the complete standard following this section. The OSHA standard covers servicing and maintenance of equipment for which unexpected energization or startup of the equipment could harm employees. This might include activities such as these: Repair and replacement work Renovation work Modifications or other adjustments to power equipment Installation of equipment and/or machinery Briefly, OSHA requires the following: All power sources that can be locked out must be locked out for servicing and maintenance. Guards or interlock devices, used to protect operators during normal operations, cannot be substituted for locks during major servicing. The employer must develop a written lockout/tagout program that clearly explains all procedures for lockout/tagout. Employees affected by lockout/tagout procedures must be trained. Identify and differentiate between authorized and affected employees. Authorized employees are those actually performing the lockout/tagout. Affected employees are those operating the equipment under repair or working in the area of the repair. Recordkeeping on periodic inspections and training must be maintained for all lockout/tagout activities. You can take some specific steps to make sure all employees use lockout/tagout procedures effectively and that you are in compliance with the OSHA standard. We ll go through each of these steps in detail in the next section. OSHA uses the term energy control program to refer to the written document that details lockout/tagout procedures and policies. We will use the term lockout/tagout program in this Instructor Guide. Page H-1
10 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Lockout/Tagout Definitions To help you understand lockout/tagout and the requirements of the OSHA standard, here are some basic definitions: Affected Employee: An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which service or maintenance is being performed under lockout/tagout or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such service or maintenance is being performed. Affected employees must be informed when lockout/tagout is being performed. Authorized Employee: A person who locks and tags machines or equipment in order to perform service or maintenance on it. Blanks: Typically, a metal disk that is inserted into the space between two pipe flanges. The blank is bolted in place and forms a solid block to prevent the passage of liquids or gases through the pipe. Blanking (the insertion of blanks) is an important step to assure the safe entry into tanks or vessels if the materials in the pipes pose a hazard to employees working inside. Bleed: To release stored hydraulic, electrical or pneumatic energy. Block-Out: To physically prevent the movement of machinery or equipment using mechanical devices such as blocks, chains, cribbing or timbers. Capable Of Being Locked Out: An energy-isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which or through which a lock can be affixed or if it has a locking mechanism built into it. Other energy-isolating devices are capable of being locked out if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle, rebuild or replace the energy-isolating device or to permanently alter its energy control capability. Energized: Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy. Energy: All sources of power to a given piece of machinery or equipment. These can be electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical, potential, thermal or gravity. Energy Control: The use of energy-isolating devices to block or isolate energy sources as well as lockout/tagout procedures to prevent the unexpected startup or release of stored energy during maintenance or installation. Energy-Isolating Device: A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including a manually operated electrical circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a line valve, a block or any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Energy Source: Any source of electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical, potential, thermal, gravity or other energy. Lockout: The process used to identify, cut off and secure all energy sources before beginning repair, adjustment or maintenance. A lockout device is used to secure equipment or machinery in the off position, ensuring that it cannot be operated. Lockout Device: A lock (either key or combination type) that holds an energy-isolating device in a safe position and prevents the machine or equipment from energizing. Page H-2
11 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Lockout/Tagout Definitions (continued) Lockout/Tagout Written Program: This is the main requirement of the OSHA standard. The written program provides details about the following: The hazards of uncontrolled energy Energy control and lockout/tagout procedures in the workplace Employee training Inspections Complete records of all inspection and training that applies to energy control and lockout/tagout Normal Production Operations: The use of a machine or piece of equipment to perform its intended production function. Servicing And/Or Maintenance: Workplace activities that require lockout/tagout on the equipment before beginning the activity because employees may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or the release of hazardous energy. Servicing and/or maintenance includes constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, lubricating, cleaning or unjamming and making tool changes. Setting Up: Any work performed to prepare a machine or piece of equipment to perform its normal production operation. Tagout: Attaching a tag to the lock on the power source that has been shut off, indicating the time and reason for the lockout and the name of the person doing the work. The tag acts as a warning not to restore energy to the equipment or machinery. Tagout Device: A prominent warning tag that can be securely fastened to an energy-isolating device to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device has been removed. Zero-Energy State: All energy has been controlled in the machinery or equipment. Page H-3
12 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply How To Develop Your Lockout/Tagout Program Developing a lockout/tagout program for your workplace is the way to make sure employees understand how to use lockout/tagout procedures to work safely. A successful lockout/tagout program includes these steps: STEP 1) STEP 2) STEP 3) STEP 4) Understand Energy Sources Develop Lockout/Tagout Procedures Provide Training And Keep Records Of Training Sessions Perform Periodic Evaluations Of The Program We ll go through these steps one by one, taking a closer look at the important information you ll need to know as you develop your program. STEP 1) Understand Energy Sources The first step is to understand and identify the energy sources that provide power for the machinery or equipment that s going to be serviced. Energy sources can take many forms: Electrical Pneumatic Hydraulic Mechanical Potential Thermal Gravity Page H-4
13 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Energy Energy refers to the movement or possibility of movement in equipment or machinery. Whether the power switch is on or off, energy always is present in any powered equipment. Here are the common types of energy: 1. Electrical: The flow of electrons through a conductor 2. Pneumatic: The force caused by compressed air 3. Hydraulic: The force caused by a pressured fluid, especially water 4. Mechanical (or kinetic): The force caused by moving parts 5. Potential (or stored): The force stored in an object that isn t moving 6. Thermal: The increased heat of a fluid or object 7. Gravity: The force of an object that falls or is knocked over An example of mechanical energy is the energy released by a spinning shaft as it turns. An example of potential energy is a suspended load. The load is not moving but it s under tension, which results in energy being stored.. It s important to identify and isolate all types of energy. Equipment needs to be both shut off and prevented from releasing stored energy. If the energy source is not isolated, a release of energy can occur. This could cause an unexpected startup, movement caused by the release of stored energy or electrical shock. Each could result in serious injury or even death. By understanding and identifying the type and amount of energy source, employees can make sure that equipment or machinery has no mechanical (kinetic) or potential (stored) energy that could cause injury. Engineering Safety Devices Accidental startup and/or release of stored energy can sometimes be controlled with engineering safety devices, such as these: Machine guards Electrical disconnects Mechanical stops Point-of-operation guards All of these devices are designed to provide additional safety to employees working on a piece of equipment or machinery, in addition to the power shutoff. However, no safety device is 100% effective if someone wants to bypass it. As a result, employees should never rely totally on engineering safety devices as their only protection while working on equipment. Page H-5
14 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply STEP 2) Develop Lockout/Tagout Procedures The next step is to develop lockout/tagout procedures so employees can make sure they are safe when servicing equipment or machinery. Lockout/tagout must be performed in the following situations: When service or maintenance is being performed on or around any machine where injury could result from an unexpected startup or the release of stored energy When new equipment or machinery is being installed When a guard or other safety device must be bypassed or removed When an employee must place any part of his or her body where it could be caught by moving machinery Types Of Employees Before discussing specific procedures, it s important to identify the two types of employees involved in lockout/tagout: Authorized employees are those individuals who are sanctioned to shut down, lock out and tag out equipment in order to perform service or maintenance on it. Affected employees are those individuals who operate or work near equipment that s being serviced or maintained according to lockout/tagout procedures. Even though affected employees don t actually perform service or maintenance, their work may be influenced by those employees who do perform such work that is, authorized employees. Thus, a critical part of lockout/tagout procedures is to keep affected employees informed. Specifically, affected employees must be notified when equipment is being locked out and tagged out for service and when it is being restored to normal working order. (We ll return to these points later in this section.) It s also helpful for affected employees to be given some advance notice of equipment being locked out so they can plan ahead for the interruption in their work. In fact, affected employees should initiate repair or servicing by letting their co-workers in the maintenance department know when equipment needs work. Teamwork between authorized and affected employees will go a long way toward ensuring that work will be done efficiently and safely. Page H-6
15 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Once equipment has been locked out and tagged out, the general rule is for affected employees to stay clear of it. They should not attempt to remove a lock or restart equipment, even if it looks as though work has been completed. If the lockout/tagout process is interfering with affected employees ability to do their job, they should talk with their supervisor or manager. Lockout/Tagout Procedures The following procedures are necessary for effective lockout/tagout: 1. Prepare And Notify Before servicing or installing equipment, employees must be able to answer the following questions: What is the type and amount of energy source in the equipment? What are the potential hazards related to the energy source? What steps will be necessary to control the energy source? Who needs to be notified that the equipment will be shut down, locked out and tagged out? Once these questions have been answered, all affected employees should be notified that a lockout procedure is about to begin and that the equipment will be shut down for service. 2. Shut Down The Equipment Follow the company s safety procedures and/or the manufacturer s instructions. Be aware that some equipment has special shutdown procedures (for example, computer-controlled equipment). Make sure all energy sources have been located and shut down. (Some machines have more than one power source all must be shut down.) Page H-7
16 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply 3. Isolate The Equipment Two types of devices are used during lockout/tagout to isolate equipment. The first is called an energy-isolating device. An energy-isolating device is a mechanical instrument that s used to physically prevent energy from being transmitted or released. Examples include the following: Electrical circuit breakers Disconnect switches Line valves Mechanical blocks It s very common for a single piece of equipment to have multiple energy sources or backup systems. Each source of energy must be identified and isolated accordingly. For complex machines or equipment, refer to the manufacturer s control diagram detailing the locations of all isolation points, including breaker panels, switches, valves and so on. The OSHA standard requires that an energy control procedure be created for each piece of equipment that has any of the following conditions: Residual or stored energy that must be released Multiple energy sources Multiple isolation devices Multiple people working on it The energy control procedure is a document that describes the specific methods and places to control energy on a machine or mechanical process. For an example of this document, see the Energy Control Diagram in the Written Program section. You can help make sure that employees control all energy sources by marking each energy source point with a bright-colored circle. If a machine has more than one energy source point, mark each one and label each circle 1 of 3, 2 of 3 and so on. Another method is to take a photograph of the equipment and then mark the photo with dots to indicate all lockout/tagout points. This map can then be laminated and posted near the equipment with a copy kept on file. Page H-8
17 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Working With Electricity Keep the following in mind when working with electricity: Never pull an electrical switch while it s under load. Never remove a fuse instead of disconnecting. If working on electrical components, always use a voltage indicator to test all exposed components for voltage before starting any work. 4. Attach The Lock And Tag The second type of device involved in isolating energy is the lockout device. It s used to hold an energy-isolating device in place, thus ensuring that energy can t be restored to a piece of equipment. Locks and tags are examples of lockout devices. Placing a lock on a disconnect switch or valve will physically prevent anyone from re-energizing or restarting equipment during maintenance or service. Different types of lockout devices are available for use with electricity, gases, water and liquid chemicals. Chains and blocks are sometimes used, as well, to keep parts of equipment from moving during maintenance or service. Each lockout device must be tagged individually, and the tag must include this information: When and why the equipment was locked out Who placed the lock on the equipment (either a name or employee identification number) In addition, a tag serves as a visual reminder that the equipment has been shut down. In this sense, it acts as a warning not to restore energy to or otherwise tamper with the equipment. Given this important safety factor, each tag must be securely attached so it can t be easily removed. Authorized employees who perform maintenance and service are responsible for locking and tagging equipment. Each employee whose duties require him or her to work on equipment must be provided with his or her own lock and key. Page H-9
18 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply If more than one authorized employee is involved in maintenance or service, multiple locking devices must be used to allow each employee to lock and tag. Doing so prevents one employee from accidentally starting up the equipment while another employee is still working. Following the rule of One lock; one key is critical to ensuring safety. Authorized employees should never use one another s locks or lend out their own locks. In fact, employees should not even share or exchange keys. All employees authorized and affected should be familiar with the tags used in the workplace and what they mean. As noted earlier, a wide variety of lockout devices are available to handle different types of equipment. See your safety equipment supplier for more information. 5. Release Any Stored Energy After locking and tagging equipment, authorized employees must make sure that any stored energy on the equipment is released. This can be done in a number of ways: Inspect equipment to make sure all parts have stopped moving. Bleed electrical capacitance (stored charge). Vent or isolate pressure or hydraulic lines from the work area, leaving the vent valves open. Drain tanks and valves. Release the tension on springs or block the movement of spring-driven parts. Block or brace parts that could fall because of gravity. Block, clamp or chain any switches or levers that could be moved into the start position. Clear lines containing process materials that are toxic, hot, cold, corrosive or asphyxiating. Monitor the process to make sure that the work you are doing will not result in an accumulation of stored energy. Page H-10
19 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply 6. Test Equipment To Verify That All Energy Has Been Released Or Controlled To make sure that all kinetic and stored energy has been released or controlled, employees must do the following: Clear personnel from danger areas. Test the start switches on the equipment to confirm that all power sources have been shut down and switches can t be moved to the on or start position. Check pressure gauges to make sure that all lines have been depressurized and stored energy has been released. Secure all blocks, clamps, chains and cribs. Check electrical circuits to make sure that voltage is at 0. Secure blanks (used to block feed lines) and make sure they are not leaking. Because some machinery and equipment can be controlled via a remote, all employees must consider equipment to be energized and in motion at all times. The only exception is when they have personally locked it out of operation and tested equipment to verify that it is at a zero-energy state. Once the employee has confirmed that all energy sources have been controlled and locks and tags are in place, it is safe to begin the maintenance work. While working, employees should avoid any actions that could reactivate the equipment. When installing new piping or wiring, employees should make sure the lockout is not bypassed. See the Lockout Checklist in the Attachments section of the Written Program. Page H-11
20 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Safe Startup Procedures Once the maintenance or installation has been completed, the equipment can be restarted. These are the suggested procedures to follow for safe startup: 1. Prepare To make sure the area is safe for restart, employees must do these things: Verify that all equipment components are fully assembled and operational. Verify that all safety guards are in place. Make sure all controls are in neutral to prevent an unintended startup when the power comes back on. Remove all tools from the equipment and the work area. Remove all braces, pins, blocks, cribs and chains. Reconnect all pressure tubing, pipes and hoses and close all valves. Clear the work area of all personnel. 2. Remove Lockout Devices And Tags Except in emergencies, each lockout device must be removed by the authorized employee who put it on. If more than one employee worked on the equipment, the removal of devices should be coordinated with everyone involved in the shutdown. Have employees remove and sign their own tags and then turn in completed tags to their supervisor to end the lockout/tagout process. 3. Notify Affected Employees Notify all personnel in the area that maintenance, servicing or installation has been completed, that lockout/tagout has been removed and that the machine/equipment is ready to be restarted. Once all three steps have been completed, it will be safe to start up the equipment. See the Safe Startup Checklist in the Attachments section of the Written Program. Page H-12
21 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Lockout And Tagout Devices Lockout Devices Must be provided to each authorized employee Must only be used for the purposes of lockout/tagout Must be able to withstand the environment that they are exposed to for as long as they are in place Must be standardized by color, shape and size Tagout Devices Must be standardized by color, shape, size and format or print Must contain warnings such as DANGER DO NOT OPERATE THIS MACHINE Must have space for the name of the lock or tag owner and the date and purpose of the lockout/tagout Tagout Only A tagout system can be used instead of a lockout system only in the following situations: When an energy-isolating device cannot be locked out When the employer can prove that a tagout system provides the same amount of protection as a lockout system If a tagout-only system is used, the tags must be placed at all isolation points and the employer must follow all safety procedures. Page H-13
22 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply Special Situations For some situations in the workplace, additional procedures are required to perform safe lockout/tagout: Removing someone else s lock: A lock may be removed by someone other than the employee who placed the lock only under the following conditions: The employee whose lock is to be removed is not available to remove the lock after servicing has been completed. All reasonable efforts have been made to contact the employee to inform him or her that the lock has been removed. The employee is contacted and informed that the lock is removed prior to his or her starting the next work shift. Shift changes: If maintenance on a piece of equipment will extend beyond one shift, provisions must be made to have employees from the new shift place their locks on the lockout device before they begin work on the equipment. This must be done without any interruption in lockout/tagout protection. Outside contractors: If outside contractors will be working on equipment inside the facility or workplace, provisions must be made to inform them of the lockout/tagout procedures followed in that facility or workplace. If the contractor s procedures are different, agreement must be reached as to which procedures will be followed. All employees working on the project must be notified of any changes in their own procedures. Temporary reactivation: If the equipment being serviced must be temporarily reactivated (for example, to test the equipment as part of installation), all startup and lockout/tagout procedures must be followed. Lockout Boxes In situations involving a large number of employees, a large number of energy-isolating devices and thus a large number of locks, it s a good idea to use a lockout box. With this device, a single lock and tag are placed on each energy-isolating device. All of the keys for the locks on the various energy-isolating devices on the equipment are kept safely in the lockout box until the job has been completed. Using a lockout box can help avoid the potential confusion and danger involved in complicated situations for instance, when new employees are brought into a job, when a job extends across different shifts and when employees from different organizations are working on the same job. Page H-14
23 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply STEP 3) Provide Training And Keep Records Of Training Sessions The best way to make sure that lockout/tagout procedures are understood and implemented is by conducting training. The OSHA standard requires that employees be trained in lockout/tagout. That training must cover these topics: All the hazards associated with uncontrolled energy The written lockout/tagout program Lockout/tagout procedures Retraining is necessary when any of the following occurs: An employee changes job assignments. A new piece of machinery or process comes into the workplace. An inspection has identified a need to change lockout/tagout procedures. The employer feels the written lockout/tagout program or the lockout/tagout procedures need to be reviewed. Training Records All lockout/tagout training must be documented. Determine who will complete the training records and where these records will be kept. A form is provided for this purpose in the Attachments section of the Written Program. Training is covered in more detail in the Training section. Two different training sessions are provided: Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees Session 2, Lockout/Tagout: Affected Employees Page H-15
24 Lockout/Tagout How To Comply STEP 4) Perform Periodic Evaluations Of The Program Your lockout/tagout program and procedures need to be evaluated periodically to make sure that the workplace stays safe and that OSHA requirements continue to be met. The first step is to designate someone responsible for conducting the evaluations. OSHA requires this to be a person who does not use the energy control procedure being evaluated. In other words, this must be someone other than an employee who routinely performs lockout/tagout and other energy control procedures as part of his or her job. Evaluations must be done annually, at a minimum, and must include these elements: An interview with each authorized employee to discuss his or her responsibilities under your written lockout/tagout program and lockout/tagout procedures Checks to make sure proper locks and tags are being used Checks to make sure all lockout/tagout procedures are being followed Any deficiencies in the program or procedures must be corrected, and retraining must be provided if necessary. All evaluations must be documented and contain records of the following: The machine or equipment that was locked and/or tagged out The date of the evaluation The employees that were interviewed The name of the person performing the evaluation A sample Lockout/Tagout Evaluation Form can be found in the Attachments section of the Written Program. Page H-16
25 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Written Program This section contains the following topics: OSHA Requirements Written Program Development Lockout/Tagout Written Program Recordkeeping OSHA Requirements The OSHA lockout/tagout standard calls for the development of a Lockout/Tagout Written Program, which must include the following elements: 1. Lockout/tagout procedures 2. Restart procedures 3. Training procedures 4. Evaluation procedures 5. Recordkeeping procedures Written Program Development Developing a written program is important for several reasons, including the following: To ensure consistent implementation of all elements of the safety program To clearly define and present expected outcomes, methods and individual behaviors To provide a basis for succession of the program through personnel changes To provide a basis for training new employees To provide documentation for regulatory agencies as well as to clearly present the program s elements and the logic behind its development To save time by documenting the best methods, resources, vendors and equipment needed to ensure safe processes To give employees the recipe for implementing the program The written program identifies these elements: Who is responsible for tasks within the program What steps are needed for safe operations What equipment is used, how it s used, where it s purchased, who s responsible for the purchasing process, where it s stored and how it s issued to employees The following sample written program can help you develop a Lockout/Tagout Written Program for your organization. It s designed to take you section by section through the complete process. Page W-1
26 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Here s a closer look at each section: Purpose: This section describes the purpose of the written program and the employees, departments, operations or facilities to which it applies. This may include both nonemployees and contractors. Definitions: This section defines terms found in the written program. Responsibilities: This section identifies who is responsible for specific tasks within the program to ensure its success. Every program will have a variety of tasks or action items assigned to people in your organization. When the expectations of the program are clearly spelled out, each individual s accountability within it will be clearly established. Program Activities: This section describes the specific management directives (practices) that establish organization, responsibility, authority and standards and that are necessary to implement the lockout/tagout safety program. Practices must be specific and factual, not procedural. They provide guidance on how particular matters should be handled. Attachments: This section includes forms and reports that document important program information. If you fill in the blanks in the sample written program with the names and titles of people in your organization and complete the forms that follow, you will have met the requirements of a written program, as mandated by the OSHA standard. Read and verify that the information contained in the sample written program accurately represents your lockout/tagout program. Attach all forms to your written program. Page W-2
27 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Lockout/Tagout Written Program Purpose The purpose of this program is to establish procedures for the safe control of energy through the locking and tagging of equipment and machinery at. Company Name This program supports compliance with the Occupational Safety And Health Administration lockout/tagout standard, as found in 29 CFR This program applies to all company employees who are authorized to perform maintenance service activities on equipment or processes that present energy hazards and to any employees who are affected by these activities. Definitions Affected Employee: An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which service or maintenance is being performed under lockout/tagout or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such service or maintenance is being performed. Affected employees must be informed when lockout/tagout is being performed. Authorized Employee: A person who locks and tags machines or equipment in order to perform service or maintenance on it. Energy-Isolating Device: A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including a manually operated electrical circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a line valve, a block and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Lockout: The process used to identify, cut off and secure all energy sources before beginning repair, adjustment or maintenance. A lockout device is used to secure equipment or machinery in the off position, ensuring that it cannot be operated. Lockout Device: A lock (either key or combination type) that holds an energyisolating device in a safe position and prevents the machine or equipment from energizing. May be reproduced by original purchaser. 1994, 2002, 2005 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc. Page W-3
28 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Servicing And/Or Maintenance: Workplace activities that require lockout/tagout on the equipment before beginning the activity because employees may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or the release of hazardous energy. Servicing and/or maintenance includes constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, lubricating, cleaning or unjamming and making tool changes. Tagout: Attaching a tag to the lock on the power source that has been shut off, indicating the time and reason for the lockout and the name of the person doing the work. The tag acts as a warning not to restore energy to the equipment or machinery. Zero-Energy State: All energy has been controlled in the machinery or equipment. Responsibilities The Program Administrator This person is responsible for these tasks: Name & Title Issuing and administering this program and making sure that it satisfies the requirements of all applicable federal, state and local lockout/tagout requirements Providing initial and annual training of employees on lockout/tagout procedures Maintaining the training records of all employees included in the training sessions Verifying through periodic audit that the lockout/tagout program effectively protects employees who are servicing powered equipment The Maintenance Supervisor This person is responsible for these tasks: Name & Title Ensuring that all employees who are authorized to service equipment within the facility have received training on appropriate lockout/tagout procedures and energy control plans Completing an energy control procedure for each specific piece of equipment or process within the facility Assuring that appropriate energy-isolating devices are available for all equipment and processes within the facility Assigning locks and keys to authorized employees Coordinating activities of contractors that may affect lockout/tagout and energy control procedures within the company Page W-4 May be reproduced by original purchaser. 1994, 2002, 2005 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc.
29 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Managers And Supervisors Whose Departments Contain Energized Equipment These people are responsible for these tasks: Ensuring that only authorized employees service the equipment and machinery in their department Ensuring that affected employees understand their role in the lockout/tagout process Authorized Employees These people are responsible for these tasks: Complying with the company s lockout/tagout program Following all safe shutdown and startup procedures Communicating activities to all affected employees and other authorized employees Ensuring the security of their own locks and keys Affected Employees These people are responsible for these tasks: Advising the maintenance department when equipment needs servicing Following the direction of the authorized employee as it affects the operation of their equipment Program Activities General All equipment that contains energy of any form will be locked out prior to being serviced or maintained. All employees who are authorized to work on equipment or machinery in the company will follow appropriate company lockout/tagout procedures. Contractors who perform work on company equipment will comply with company lockout/tagout procedures. An energy control procedure will be completed for each piece of equipment requiring lockout. It will identify all energy-isolation points to be locked and tagged as well as any special information required to safely achieve a zero-energy state. A Lockout Checklist and a Safe Startup Checklist will be used during all service and maintenance activities to ensure the safety of both authorized and affected employees. May be reproduced by original purchaser. 1994, 2002, 2005 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc. Page W-5
30 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Work Requiring More Than One Person If more than one person is required to lock or tag out equipment, each person will place his or her own lock and tag on the energy-isolating device. When an energy-isolating device cannot accept multiple locks and tags, a multiple lockout device or hasp will be used. Attachments Recordkeeping A Lockout Checklist B Safe Startup Checklist C Energy Control Diagram D Lockout/Tagout Evaluation Form E Lockout/Tagout Training Record Page W-6 May be reproduced by original purchaser. 1994, 2002, 2005 Comprehensive Loss Management, Inc.
31 Lockout/Tagout Written Program Recordkeeping Evaluation Recordkeeping The OSHA lockout/tagout standard requires that you keep accurate records of all lockout/tagout program evaluations. Evaluations must be done annually, at a minimum, and must include these elements: An interview with each authorized employee to discuss his or her responsibilities under the Lockout/Tagout Written Program and lockout/tagout procedures Checks to make sure proper locks and tags are being used Checks to make sure all lockout/tagout procedures are being followed A form that can be used to record your evaluation activities is provided at the end of this section. Training Recordkeeping The OSHA standard also requires that you keep accurate records of all lockout/tagout training activities. This calls for keeping a record of all participants, the training received, the date of training and who performed the training. A training record that you can use for this purpose is provided at the end of this section. Forms Provided A Lockout Checklist B Safe Startup Checklist C Energy Control Diagram D Lockout/Tagout Evaluation Form E Lockout/Tagout Training Record Page W-7
33 Training This section contains the following topics: Instructor Guides: Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees Session 2, Lockout/Tagout: Affected Employees Training Tips Learning Exercises: Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees Session 2, Lockout/Tagout: Affected Employees Glossary Of Terms Slides Instructor Guides Two different training sessions are provided in this section: Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees: Designed for all employees who are sanctioned by your organization to shut down, lock out and tag out equipment in order to install or perform service or maintenance on it. Authorized employees and their supervisors or managers should participate in this training. Session 2, Lockout/Tagout: Affected Employees: Designed for all employees who operate or work near equipment that may be installed, serviced or maintained according to your organization s lockout/tagout procedures. Affected employees and their supervisors or managers should participate in this training. If you have never put on a training session before, there are some helpful hints following these guides (see pages T-35 T-37). Session 1, Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees Putting On The Training Program Training is an important way to make sure that the authorized employees who are involved in lockout/tagout activities understand both the hazards and the safety procedures. The OSHA lockout/tagout standard, 29 CFR , requires training for all employees who have responsibilities in your lockout/tagout program. This training must cover all the hazards associated with uncontrolled energy, lockout/tagout procedures and restart procedures. Your lockout/tagout training will be more effective if you can motivate employees to want to educate themselves in lockout/tagout procedures and help them see the training as an important and useful part of their jobs. Page T-1
34 The benefits of understanding lockout/tagout include the following: Being able to recognize uncontrolled energy hazards Knowing how to follow lockout/tagout and restart procedures Reducing injuries during maintenance, repair and installation Creating a safer workplace Everyone learns in a different way. Some of your employees may learn quickly from the video and Employee Handbook; others may need more time and attention. Take time to answer all questions and clarify the information. Be sure to keep accurate records of all lockout/tagout training. For each participant, identify the date of training, the instructor and the information covered. You will find a Lockout/Tagout Training Record that can be used for this purpose in the Written Program section. Training Materials This Instructor Guide is intended to be used with the following materials: Lockout/Tagout: Authorized Employees Video Designed for authorized employees, the video covers these topics: The hazards of uncontrolled energy Multiple energy sources Lockout/tagout procedures Restart procedures Safety standards and regulations Page T-2
35 Employee Handbook Designed for participants in lockout/tagout training, the handbook covers these topics: The hazards of uncontrolled energy Energy and energy control information Lockout/tagout procedures Restart procedures Information on special situations How To Comply Section Of The Lockout/Tagout Safety Program Designed for the designated safety director or person responsible for lockout/tagout, this section covers these topics: The OSHA lockout/tagout standard Steps for establishing a lockout/tagout program Energy control and lockout/tagout information Slides Designed for use in the lockout/tagout training program, a Microsoft PowerPoint slide presentation is provided on the enclosed CD. Page T-3
36 Using This Instructor Guide This Instructor Guide provides the following symbols to help you conduct the session: This symbol indicates that you should show the video. This symbol indicates that you should show a slide. This symbol indicates that you should use the flipchart or whiteboard. This symbol indicates that you should ask a question. This symbol indicates that you should refer to the Employee Handbook. ADD EXAMPLES This symbol indicates that you should add specific information about your organization. This symbol indicates that you should read the note for the instructor. Page T-4
37 Program Preparation ADD EXAMPLES Due to the technical nature of lockout/tagout, it s important that the instructor has knowledge of the workplace s equipment and machinery, understands the potential hazards of uncontrolled energy, knows the company s program for lockout/tagout and knows the company s lockout/tagout and restart procedures. If an outside consultant does the training, he or she needs to understand your company s written program and all the associated procedures prior to conducting the training. The best way to ensure that you will conduct a successful training session is to be fully prepared. Here are some important preparation steps: 1. Identify the location of the room in which you will conduct the training. Ideally, the room should be quiet, well ventilated and well lit. Due to the nature of the training, groups should be kept small to facilitate hands-on training with all equipment. 2. Schedule the session, and send out notices to managers and participants. 3. Assemble the following materials (some will be optional, depending on your presentation plans): TV and VCR or DVD player Video/DVD Computer, projector and screen Markers and flipchart or whiteboard Employee Handbooks Copies of the Learning Exercise (found at the end of this guide) Copies of your company s Lockout/Tagout Written Program Locks and tags used in the workplace 4. Review all program materials thoroughly. Make notes of examples or discussion questions that pertain to your situation. Anticipate questions that participants are likely to ask. 5. Review your Lockout/Tagout Written Program. Highlight points you want to emphasize. 6. Read the Employee Handbook. Highlight points you want to emphasize. 7. Read through the Learning Exercise. You may want to add additional questions to verify that employees understand the unique hazards and procedures in your company. 8. Consider how you want to present the Learning Exercise. The purpose of the exercise is to check for understanding. It can be used as part of a group discussion, completed in small groups or filled out individually. It is not recommended that the exercise be used as a test. 9. Practice presenting the program. Page T-5
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