Data Structures Using C++ 2E. Chapter 5 Linked Lists

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1 Data Structures Using C++ 2E Chapter 5 Linked Lists

2 Doubly Linked Lists Traversed in either direction Typical operations Initialize the list Destroy the list Determine if list empty Search list for a given item Insert an item Delete an item, and so on See code on page 311 Class specifying members to implement properties of an ordered doubly linked list 2

3 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Linked list in which every node has a next pointer and a back pointer Every node contains address of next node Except last node Every node contains address of previous node Except the first node FIGURE 5 27 Doubly linked list 3

4 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Default constructor Initializes the doubly linked list to an empty state isemptylist Returns true if the list empty Otherwise returns false List empty if pointer first is NULL 4

5 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Destroy the list Deletes all nodes in the list Leaves list in an empty state Traverse list starting at the first node; delete each node count set to zero Initialize the list Reinitializes doubly linked list to an empty state Can be done using the operation destroy Length of the list Length of a linked list stored in variable count Returns value of this variable 5

6 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Print the list Outputs info contained in each node Traverse list starting from the first node Reverse print the list Outputs info contained in each node in reverse order Traverse list starting from the last node Search the list Function search returns true if searchitem found Otherwise, it returns false Same as ordered linked list search algorithm 6

7 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) First and last elements Function front returns first list element Function back returns last list element If list empty Functions terminate the program 7

8 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Insert a node Four cases Case 1: Insertion in an empty list Case 2: Insertion at the beginning of a nonempty list Case 3: Insertion at the end of a nonempty list Case 4: Insertion somewhere in a nonempty list Cases 1 and 2 requirement: Change value of the pointer first Cases 3 and 4: After inserting an item, count incremented by one 8

9 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Insert a node (cont d.) Figures 5 28 and 5 29 illustrate case 4 See code on page 317 Definition of the function insert 9

10 Doubly Linked Lists (cont d.) Delete a node Four cases Case 1: The list is empty Case 2: The item to be deleted is in the first node of the list, which would require us to change the value of the pointer first Case 3: The item to be deleted is somewhere in the list Case 4: The item to be deleted is not in the list See code on page 319 Definition of function deletenode 10

11 STL Sequence Container: list TABLE 5 9 Various ways to declare a list object 11

12 TABLE 5 10 Operations specific to a list container 12

13 TABLE 5 10 Operations specific to a list container (cont d.) 13

14 Linked Lists with Header and Trailer Nodes Simplify insertion and deletion Never insert item before the first or after the last item Never delete the first node Set header node at beginning of the list Containing a value smaller than the smallest value in the data set Set trailer node at end of the list Containing value larger than the largest value in the data set 14

15 Linked Lists with Header and Trailer Nodes (cont d.) Header and trailer nodes Serve to simplify insertion and deletion algorithms Not part of the actual list Actual list located between these two nodes 15

16 Circular Linked Lists Last node points to the first node Basic operations Initialize list (to an empty state), determine if list is empty, destroy list, print list, find the list length, search for a given item, insert item, delete item, copy the list FIGURE 5 34 Circular linked lists 16

17 Summary Linked list topics Traversal, searching, inserting, deleting Building a linked list Forward, backward Linked list as an ADT Ordered linked lists Doubly linked lists STL sequence container list Linked lists with header and trailer nodes Circular linked lists 17

18 Data Structures Using C++ 2E Chapter 7 Stacks

19 Objectives Learn about stacks Examine various stack operations Learn how to implement a stack as an array Learn how to implement a stack as a linked list Discover stack applications Learn how to use a stack to remove recursion 19

20 Stacks Data structure Elements added, removed from one end only Last In First Out (LIFO) FIGURE 7 1 Various examples of stacks 20

21 Stacks (cont d.) push operation Add element onto the stack top operation Retrieve top element of the stack pop operation Remove top element from the stack 21

22 Stacks (cont d.) FIGURE 7 2 Empty stack FIGURE 7 3 Stack operations 22

23 Stacks (cont d.) Stack element removal Occurs only if something is in the stack Stack element added only if room available isfullstack operation Checks for full stack isemptystack operation Checks for empty stack initializestack operation Initializes stack to an empty state 23

24 Stacks (cont d.) Review code on page 398 Illustrates class specifying basic stack operations FIGURE 7 4 UML class diagram of the class stackadt 24

25 Implementation of Stacks as Arrays First stack element Put in first array slot Second stack element Put in second array slot, and so on Top of stack Index of last element added to stack Stack element accessed only through the top Problem: array is a random access data structure Solution: use another variable (stacktop) Keeps track of the top position of the array 25

26 Implementation of Stacks as Arrays (cont d.) Review code on page 400 Illustrates basic operations on a stack as an array FIGURE 7 5 UML class diagram of the class stacktype 26

27 Implementation of Stacks as Arrays (cont d.) FIGURE 7 6 Example of a stack 27

28 Initialize Stack Value of stacktop if stack empty Set stacktop to zero to initialize the stack Definition of function initializestack FIGURE 7 7 Empty stack 28

29 Empty Stack Value of stacktop indicates if stack empty If stacktop = zero: stack empty Otherwise: stack not empty Definition of function isemptystack 29

30 Full Stack Stack full If stacktop is equal to maxstacksize Definition of function isfullstack 30

31 Push Two step process Store newitem in array component indicated by stacktop Increment stacktop FIGURE 7 8 Stack before and after the push operation 31

32 Push (cont d.) Definition of push operation 32

33 Return the Top Element Definition of top operation 33

34 Pop Remove (pop) element from stack Decrement stacktop by one FIGURE 7 9 Stack before and after the pop operation 34

35 Pop (cont d.) Definition of pop operation Underflow Removing an item from an empty stack Check within pop operation (see below) Check before calling function pop 35

36 Copy Stack Definition of function copystack 36

37 Constructor and Destructor 37

38 Copy Constructor Definition of the copy constructor 38

39 Overloading the Assignment Operator (=) Classes with pointer member variables Assignment operator must be explicitly overloaded Function definition to overload assignment operator for class stacktype 39

40 Stack Header File (cont d.) Stack operations analysis Similar to class arraylisttype operations TABLE 7 1 Time complexity of the operations of the class stacktype on a stack with n elements 40

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