FAKULTÄT LIFE SCIENCES. Waste to Energy. University of Applied Sciences HAW Hamburg

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1 Waste to Energy Prof. Dr. Kerstin Kuchta University of Applied Sciences HAW Hamburg

2 Waste 2 Energy Technologies The main energy recovery processes used in the waste management field are: Landfill Gas Systems The process of collecting landfill gas formed naturally by means of deep wells drilled d into the landfill. Anaerobic Digestion The process of using bacteria to break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas and a compost like material. Incineration The process of reducing the volume of waste by a combustion process.

3 What is Waste to to Energy? Waste to Energy is a speciallydesigned energy generation facility that uses household waste as fuel and helps solve some of society s it big challenges hll Municipal Solid Waste 1 Mg Power: up to 750 kwh Metal: 50 kg Ash: % of original volume

4 Waste to Energy Facility 13,000 KWh generated IN 1 cubic meter of waste 90% volume reduction OUT 0,1 cubic yards of ash Reducing the Volume of Waste & Saving Space in the Landfill while Generating Clean, Renewable Energy

5 How renewable is energy from waste? t? Carbon content of 1 Mg Municipal Solid Waste: 350 kg 1270 kg CO 2 emissionsi i 40% are of fossil origin (mainlyplastics) Per 1 kwh electricity and 1.2 kg waste treated (MSWI with 25% electric efficiency): i 06k 0.6 kg fossil ilco 2

6 Environmental Performance Waste to to Energy Climate Change False: As a source of energy, burning trash produces more global warming CO2 than natural gas, oil, or even coal Coal Oil Natural Gas Waste-to-Energy Fact: The IPCC, in its th Assessment Report (Synthesis Report, Table 4.2), calls waste incineration with energy recovery a key waste mitigation technology. Ted Michaels, Energy Recovery Council April, 2009

7 What are the sources of Wastes? Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial Agricultural Treatment Plants Open Areas (streets, parks, etc.)

8 Waste management in Europe (2005) kg waste / capita kg SA / E European average: 522 kg waste/cap Mittelwert Europa: 522 kg SA / E N IRL CY DK L CH A NL M D E GB F I IS HR S FIN B BG H P GR EST SLO RO LT LV CZ SK PO Landfil l Incineration Recycling Country Land Deponierung Verbrennung Recycling National differences in per capita waste generation are large! Incineration and Recycling important in Western European countries Landfill dominant in Eastern European countries (> 60% 96%) Source: Salzmann 2007, Student thesis IfU

9 Waste statistic Germany 2009 Waste to dispose 202 kg/a*cap Bio waste 102 kg/ a Cap Recycling 147 kg/acap Total in Germany Household Waste : 37 Mio Mg /a Total Municipal Solid Waste in Germany Summer 2010 Prof. K. Kuchta 9

10 SOLID WASTE COMPOSITION IN EUROPE (Average value per inhabitant: 500 Kg/Year) * * Food, Vegetable, Fruit More than 40% of solid waste can be composted

11 Waste Management in Europe Reduction of Organic Material going to Landfill Landfill ban in D, F Landfill taxes Recycling / material recovery Resource of energy Co combustion Cement, Power plants RDF plants

12 Landfill Gas Systems Phase 1 of the Maghtab Aerial Emissions i Project

13 Landfill Gas Systems Landfill Gas is created as waste decomposes in the landfill. This generally consists of 50% Methane, 45% Carbon Dioxide and some 5% of other gases. Methane emissions cause the equivalent of 21 times more damage to the Ozone Layer than the equivalent volume of Carbon Dioxide. Since MSW accounts for high Methane emissions, some form of treatment is required. The collection and treatment of this gas reduces odours and hazards associated with fires and explosions.

14 Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic Digestion is a process used for treating biologically organic wastes only. These are waste substances from plants and animals. Examples include waste foods, greenwaste andpaper paper. Since source segregation of organic wastes is not the practice in Malta, a pre treatment to the MSW is required. This is done by a Mechanical Treatment process. Sant Antnin Waste Treatment Plant

15 Anaerobic Digestion (AD) Mechanical Treatment include: Screens Manual Separation Eddy Current Separation MBT flow diagram Once the organic waste is filtered out, it goes to the digestion tanks were a series of biological processes occur. This results into a release of biogas (60% Methane and 40% Carbon Dioxide which can be converted to electricity by IC or GT) and digestate.

16 Classifying efficient W2E Plants as energy recovery On 17 th June 2008 the European Parliament (EP) voted on the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) The WFD accepts the energy recovery status for efficient W2E plants. The classification consists of two parts: The recovery definition and the R1 formula stating energy efficiency criteria in Annex II of the WFD

17 Energy recovery status FOR EU Recovery" means replacing other materials i.e. fossil fuels Annex II sets out a non exhaustive list of recovery operations;

18 Energy Efficiency R 1, Annex II of WFD use principally as a fuel or other means to generate energy This includes incineration facilities dedicated to the processing of MSW only where their energy efficiency is equal or above 0.6 for existing plants (permitted before 1 January 2009) and 0.65 for plants permitted after 31 st December Energy produced (Energy in added fuel + Energy import)/0,97* x (Energy in the waste + Energy in added fuel) Equivalency factor electricity production x 2,6 Equivalency factor heat production for commercial use x 1,1

19 W2E Technology

20 WP BAT W2E Technique Untreated Municipal waste Pretreated MSW and RDF Hazardous waste Sewage sludge Clinical waste Grate Not normally Not normally Widely applied Widely Applied reciprocating applied applied Applied Grate Not normally Applied Applied Rarely applied travelling applied Applied Grate rocking Applied Applied Rarely applied Not normally applied Applied Grate roller Applied Widely Applied Rarely applied Not normally applied Applied Grate water Not normally Applied Applied Rarely applied cooled applied Applied Grate plus Not normally Not normally Applied Rarely applied rotary kiln applied applied Applied Rotary kiln Not normally applied Applied Widely applied Applied Widely applied Rotary kiln Not normally water cooled applied Applied Applied Applied Applied Static hearth Not normally Not normally Not normally Applied applied applied applied Widely applied Static furnace Not normally Not normally Not normally Widely applied applied applied applied Applied Fluid bed Not normally Not normally Rarely applied Applied Applied bubbling applied applied Fluid bed Not normally Not normally Rarely applied Applied Widely applied circulating applied applied Fluid bed rotating Applied Applied Not normally applied Applied Applied Pyrolysis Rarely applied Rarely applied Rarely applied Rarely applied Rarely applied Gasification Rarely applied Rarely applied Rarely applied Rarely applied Rarely applied

21 Flue Gas Cleaning Systems Electrostatic Precipitators Multi-stage Wet Scrubbers with Waste Water Evaporation Fabric Filters or Wet Electro - Venturies es SCR - de NO x or SCNR (Catalytic or non Catalytic)

22

23 Questions and Challenges which kind of waste (provenience, pretreatment, consistence...)? calorific value of waste (estimated trend)? which amount of waste (actually, development trend...)?

24

25 Overview of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators in Europe Plants in operation in 2005 Additional plants installed until 2007 Projected plants for the future years 19 countries 431 incineration plants 7 plants more until future plants planned Salzmann 2008, Master thesis IfU

26 Costs of W2E The aspects of costs of investment and operating: Invest: it depends on the techniques, the size and other factors. Material from different countries in BREF draft, annex Between per Mg annual capacity Operating: between 65 and 330 /t in Europe, mostly in the range of /t It hold true for all: the larger plant has the lower costs

27 Thanks Summer 2010 Prof. K. Kuchta 27

28

29 Summer 2010 Prof. K. Kuchta 29

30 Thanks

31 EU Waste Generation Study Studied correlation between waste generation and: Population Population density Age distribution Employment GDP Infant mortality Life expectancy Average household size Unemployment Tourism Waste generation has grown steadily in Europe for over 20 years

32 t/a Medium capacities of incinerators F D I UK DK CH S B NL E N A P SF L Country

33 Waste production and BIP in Germany Summer 2010 Prof. K. Kuchta 33

34 Fossil CO 2 emissions per kwh electricity it in Europe h ente pro kw kg CO2 fos 2-Aequivale sil CO 2 eq/ / kwh Electricity at grid, medium voltage Supply Mix Production Mix UCTE Mix: 0.53 kg CO 2 /kwh Source: ecoinvent 2.01

35 Typical composition of household wastes in Brazil Material % pêso Campinas Japão USA Itália Irlanda matéria orgânica ,5 24,9 RECICLÁ ÁVEIS papel e papelão ,5 34,7 plásticos ,5 13,5 10,8 metal 4 6 8,5 3,5 2,9 vidro 2 7 8,5 8 6,3 têxteis e similares ,1 diversos 5 0 7,5 8 18,3

36 Flue gas cleaning types in percent Energy Recovery Waste to Energy State -of -the -Art Flue gas cleaning type 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Austria * Belgium* Denmark France Germany Great Britain* Hungary Dry SD WET DRY+WET SD+WET ESP only FF only Other only No info Italy* Netherland Norway* Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland

37 Landfill Gas Systems Distribution of gas wells Gas wellhead designs

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