An Analysis of Synergy Degree of Primary-Tertiary Industry System in Dujiangyan City

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1 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August An Analysis of Synrgy Dgr of Primary-Trtiary Industry Systm in Dujiangyan City Qizhi Yang School of Tourism, Sichuan Agricultural Univrsity, Chngdu 683, China Tl: Fuhui Yan & Fng Y School of Economics and Managmnt, Sichuan Agricultural Univrsity, Chngdu 683, China Rcivd: May, Accptd: May 3, doi:.5539/ijbm.v6n8p9 Abstract According to th charactristics of complx systm and th synrgtic thoris, authors stablish th ordr paramtrs for th primary systm and th trtiary systm, using ordr paramtrs dscribing th ordr dgr of systm, constituting th modl assssing th synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary complx systm, analyzing th impact factor of systm synrgtic dvlopmnt, and studying th synrgy dgr of primary-trtiary systm in Dujiangyan City. Studis show that: thr is a positiv synrgy dgr in th primary-trtiary systm in Dujiangyan City, but th synrgy dgr is low. No fficint synrgtic rlationship xists btwn th two systms. By mans of adjusting th mploymnt structur, focusing on th dvlopmnt of spcial industris of agricultur, and dvloping th trtiary, spcially th tourism as th lading, w can improv th synrgy dgr of primary-trtiary systm. Kywords: Dujiangyan, Primary-trtiary systm, Dgr of ordr, Synrgy dgr. Introduction Dujiangyan City has th propr structur, which is in lin with th laws and rquirmnts of volvmnt and dvlopmnt of intrnational structur. According to th rsourc ndowmnt of Dujiangyan City, th tourism has bn always th lading of th city. And som spcial industris of agricultur hav a good advantag of traditional planting and bttr mass basis. Compard to th tourism and th agricultur, th dos not possss prominnt comptitiv advantags. It mainly dvlops th rsourc-saving and nvironmnt-frindly. Th primary and th trtiary hav clar focuss. In th yar 9, th thr industris hav ralizd th addd valu.59 billion Yuan, 3.96 billion Yuan, and 6.4 billion Yuan rspctivly. Th proportion of th primary, th scondary, and th trtiary is 3.6:33.9:5.5. And thir contribution ratios to th city s conomic growth ar rspctivly 3.%, 4.6%, and 56.%. Howvr, from th prspctiv of ral, th trtiary, in which th tourism is th lading, has a dominanc position. Statistic data show that th tourism and rlatd srvic consum an mploymnt of 5, popl, almost accounting for th half of th whol mploymnt. Bsids, Dujiangyan City supports th tourism as th lading of city conomy. In th yar 9, th tourism ralizd th comprhnsiv rvnu of 4.8 billion Yuan, incrasing 6% ovr 7. Th agricultur, as th basic of county tourism, is vry important in Dujiangyan City. Th Dujiangyan City aims at dvloping modrn cological agricultur, and focusing on spcial agricultural. Basd on th construction of spcial agricultural products, it forms fiv spcial industris with local advantags: kiwi fruit, ta, cold watr fish, pigs, vgtabls, and dibl fungi. And th fiv industris srv as th industrial support for th county tourism in Dujiangyan City, playing an important rol. From this point of viw, whthr agricultur is in synrgy with th trtiary, rprsntd by tourism, is critical to th positiv dvlopmnt of trtiary in Dujiangyan City. Manwhil, th nt incom of farmrs in Dujiangyan City is only 6 Yuan plus in th yar 9. Although th numbr sms not so small, it is still rlativly lowr, compard to th incom of citizns. Thr is a big gap btwn city and county. Schultz, a famous conomist, has said: problms of agricultur hav to b solvd outsid. To achiv a fast incras of farmrs incom, w must find solution out of th agricultur. In Dujiangyan City, to dvlop th agricultur-supportd county tourism is a practical way incrasing farmrs incom. Whthr th trtiary, rprsntd by tourism, is in synrgy with th agricultur, has irrplacabl significanc for incrasing farmrs incom and solving th agricultur, rural aras, Publishd by Canadian Cntr of Scinc and Education 9

2 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August and farmrs problm. Thrfor, basd on thoris of synrgtics in this papr authors stablish th ordr paramtrs of th primary and th trtiary to dscrib th dgr of ordr of th systm, constitut a modl assssing th synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary complx systm, and analyz th impact factors affcting th synrgy of systm, hoping to mak up rasonabl industrial policis for Dujiangyan City, and driving th synrgtic dvlopmnt of th thr industris.. Connotations of th synrgtic dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary systm and thortical basis. Basic connotations of th synrgtic dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary systm Th synrgtic dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary discussd in this papr mans th synrgy and coxistnc of all sub-industris and industrial componnts in th systm. By mans of mutual ffcts, thy can form an ffctiv and highly-ordrd intgration, driving th coordinativ dvlopmnt of industris during th slf-organizing procss, and promoting th rationality of industrial structur.. Thortical basis: thoris of synrgtics Hakn. H., a Grman physicist, foundd th scinc of synrgtics in th 7s of th cntury. H said: th synrgy is th mutual coordinativ, cooprativ, and simultanous combind ffct btwn lots of sub-systms in on systm. It is an inhrnt xprss of systm intgrity and rlvanc. Ths sub-systms influnc ach othr by mans of xchang of matrials, nrgis, and information, forming an intgrity ffct or a nw structur by mans of mutual ffcts (Hakn, H., 977). Th synrgtics focus on th complx systm composd by sub-systms by mans of complicatd ways and mutual ffcts. Ths systms gnrat th synrgtic phnomna and th cohrnc ffct by mans of nonlinar ffct undr crtain conditions, driving systms to th ordrly sat from th disordrd stat and possssing th function of slf-organization. Hakn. H. found that th absnc of quilibrium is not a ncssary condition for th mrgnc of ordrly structur. Th ky is not whthr th thrmodynamics is in quilibrium or how far it is from th quilibrium. Th ky is th synrgtic ffct among sub-systms (Hakn, H., 977). Th thory also points out whthr systms xprinc phas transition or not is dtrmind by th paramtrs controlld by systms. Th phas transition of systms is ralizd by systms slf-organization. What kind of ordrs and structurs systms would rach dpnds on th synrgtic ffct of intrnal variabls as systms ar in th critical rgion. In th vicinity of critical point, th intrnal variabls of systms includ slow rlaxation variabls and fast rlaxation variabls. Slow rlaxation variabls, calld ordr paramtrs, ar fundamntal, which dtrmin th volution of systms. For systms from disordrly to ordrly, th ky is th synrgtic ffct btwn ordr paramtrs, which dtrmin th faturs and th laws of systms volution (Hakn, H., 983; Hakn, H., 988). Th synrgtics mphasizs on th intgration of systms. According to thoris of synrgtics, th synrgy btwn sub-systms and componnts of on systm turns th disordrly stat into th ordrly on, changing th scattrd or vn contradictory componnts into th ordrly intgratd powr and form th intgral function. Othrwis, thr is no way forming th intgratd powr, or intgratd function or bnfits (Png Li, 5). According to th thoris of synrgtics (Hakn, H.), th slf-organizing volution of systm is ssntially th slf-adjustmnt, r-nginring, and updat of industrial structur within th systm. And th volution and updat of industrial structur is th rsult of componnts in th whol conomic systm, such as matrials, information, nrgis, scinc & tchnology, and talnts, distributing in ach sub--systm. Thrfor, if any sub-- systm hops to dvlop mor ordrly, it must b mor opn and kp in xchanging matrials, information, nrgis, scinc & tchnology, and talnts with othr sub-systm. By this way, it can form a structur or possss a function that is mor bnficial to th ordrly dvlopmnt of th sub-systm, so that th sub-systm and th whol systm can achiv a synrgtic dvlopmnt, ralizing th optimal conomic bnfits at th sam tim. 3. A modl to assss th synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary systm 3. Th ordr-dgr modl of th primary systm In th dvlopmnt of th primary systm, suppos th ordr paramtrs ar =(,,, n ), and n,β i i α i,i [, n]. In this papr, th ordr paramtrs of th primary systm could b takn as th indxs valuating th dvlopmnt of primary. Suppos,,, j ar slow rlaxation paramtrs, and th highr thir valus ar, th highr th ordr dgr of th systm is, and th smallr thir valus ar, th lowr th ordr dgr of th systm. Suppos j+, j+,, n ar fast rlaxation paramtrs, and th highr thir valus ar, th lowr th ordr dgr of th systm is, and th smallr thir valus ar, th highr th ordr dgr of th systm. Thrfor, dfin it as follow: Dfinition. Th formula rprsnts th ordr dgr of systm by th ordr paramtr i of th primary systm 9 ISSN E-ISSN

3 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August i i i i, i [, j ] u ( i ) i i, i [ j, n] i i From th Dfinition, w know that th largr th valu of u ( j ) [, n] is, th biggr th contribution of i to th ordrly stat of th primary systm. Hr w should notic that in practic it is no good for th valu of i too big or too small. Th bst is to cntr in crtain rang. For this kind of i, w can adjust th rang of valu [β i,α i ] to mak th ordr dgr to fit th Dfinition. In gnral, th total contribution of ordr paramtr i to th ordr dgr of th primary systm can b ralizd by th intgration u ( i ). Howvr, th intgration ruls ar dtrmind by th fact that th systms hav diffrnt structurs. To mak it simpl, in this papr authors procss it by gomtric man mthod: () n ( ) n u ( j ) j u () Dfinition : Tak u ( ) dfind abov as th ordr dgr of th primary systm. From Dfinition, w know if u ( ) [, ], th largr th u ( ) is, th biggr th contribution of to th ordr dgr of th primary systm is, and th highr th ordr dgr of th systm is, vic vrs. 3. Th ordr-dgr modl of th trtiary systm Similar to th assumption for th ordr-dgr modl of th primary systm, thn: Dfinition 3: Th following formula is th ordr dgr of systm by th ordr paramtr i of th trtiary systm., i [, j] u ( i ), i [ j, n] (3) Dfinition 4: Tak u ( ) dfind in th following formula as th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm. u n ( ) n u ( j ) j (4) From Dfinition 4, w know if u ( ) [, ], th largr th u ( ) is, th biggr th contribution of i to th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm is, and th highr th ordr dgr of th systm is, vic vrs. 3.3 Th synrgy-dgr modl of th primary-trtiary systm Th synrgy dgr of primary-trtiary systm mans th dgr of harmony and unity of th primary systm and th trtiary systm in th procss of indpndnt dvlopmnt and volvmnt by mans of mutual ffcts. It dtrmins th tndncy and th dgr of th primary-trtiary systm from disordrly to ordrly stat. Suppos at th initial momnt (or crtain spcific tim priod) t, th ordr dgr of th primary systm is u ( ), and th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm is u ( ). But at th momnt t during th volvmnt of th ntir primary-trtiary systm, if th ordr dgr of th primary systm is u ( ), and th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm is u ( ), thn: Dfinition 5: Th synrgy dgr of sub-systms in th primary-trtiary systm: XTD u ) u ( ) u ( ) u ( ) (5) ( Hr,, u ( ) u ( )] [ u ( ) u ( )] [ -, u ( ) u ( )] [ u ( ) u ( )] Explanations for Dfinition 5: [ Publishd by Canadian Cntr of Scinc and Education 93

4 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August First, for XTD [-, ], th largr th valu is, th highr th synrgy dgr of th ntir primary-trtiary systm is, vic vrs. Scond, th paramtr λ is to judg th synrgy dirction of th primary sub-systm and th trtiary sub-systm. As [u ( )-u ( )] [u ( )-u ( )]>, th XTD rflcts th synrgy dgr of two subsystms toward th sam dirction. As [u ( )-u ( )] [u ( )-u ( )], th XTD rflcts th opposit dirction of two sub-systms or complt discordanc. Third, as both [u ( )-u ( )] and [u ( )-u ( )] ar largr than zro, th XTD rflcts th synrgy dgr of two sub-systms dvloping toward low ordrly stat. As both [u ( )-u ( )] and [u ( )-u ( )] ar smallr than zro, th XTD rflcts th synrgy dgr of two sub-systms dvloping toward high ordrly stat. Fourth, th Dfinition 5 discusss conditions of two sub-systms. If th ordr dgr of on sub-systm riss significantly and th ordr dgr of th othr sub-systm riss slightly, th ntir systm can not stay in a good synrgtic stat. Bsids, to mastr th synrgy stat of th ntir systm in th changs of ordr dgr is a dynamic analysis procss for th ntir systm. 4. Th mpirical study on Dujiangyan City In ordr to study th synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary complx systm, w must build a propr indx systm. According to th slf-organization and slf-adaptation charactristics of complx systm, this papr is basd on thoris of ordr paramtrs from synrgtics and thoris of dominanc, and build a synrgy dgr modl for th primary-trtiary systm. 4. Slction of ordr paramtr indxs Th ordr dgr rflcts th closnss dgr of on country or rgion s industrial structur to th targt structur, which can b usd to masur th rasonability lvl of industrial structur. By analyzing th changs of ordr dgr of industrial structur, w can xactly mastr and judg whthr th dirction of industrial structur is propr or not (Haibiao Huang & Jun Li, 8). If th primary-trtiary complx systm pursus for synrgy dvlopmnt, first of all, th primary systm and trtiary systm must raliz th ordrly dvlopmnt rspctivly. Th componnts of two industris affct and promot mutually, and ffctivly driv th local conomic dvlopmnt. It can rflct th local siz and dvlopmnt rat, and th unity of structur, quality, and fficincy. Thrfor, th slction of ordr paramtr indxs should mak sur that th indxs rflct th dvlopmnt of industris. In this papr, th ordr paramtr indxs of th primary ar proportions of addd valu and mployrs, agricultural products valu, forst valu, poultry valu, and fishing valu. Th ordr paramtr indxs of th trtiary ar proportions of addd valu and mploys, tourism incom, consumption goods rtail sals, communication incom, financ and insuranc, ral stat invstmnts, and transportation. Hr, th proportion of addd valu rflcts th siz and rat of industrial dvlopmnt. Th proportion of mployrs rflcts th fficincy and quality of industrial dvlopmnt. And othr indxs can rflct th industrial structur and synrgy dgr. 4. Data sourc Considring th nds of modl, data in this papr ar mainly from Sichuan Statistical Yarbook, Chngdu Statistical Yarbook, and Dujiangyan City Statistical Rport btwn 3 and 8. Bcaus of diffrnt targts of th ordr paramtrs, original data should b standardizd. Us th formula R i =( ji - ji )/σ i,(j=,;i =,,,n; ji is th avrag; σ i is th standard dviation) to mak data standardization. Th rsults ar listd in Tabl. 4.3 Th calculation of synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary systm () Th ordr dgr of ordr paramtrs of th primary systm. According to data in Tabl, w us th formula () to calculat th ordr dgr of th primary systm. Hr, th valu of β i and α i is in lin with th minimum and th maximum of th squnc. Rsults ar listd in Tabl. () Th ordr dgr of ordr paramtrs of th trtiary systm. According to data in Tabl, w us th formula (3) to calculat th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm. Hr, th valu of β i and α i is in lin with th minimum and th maximum of th squnc. Rsults ar listd in Tabl 3. (3) Th calculation of synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary systm. First of all, us formula () and (4) to calculat th ordr dgr of primary-trtiary systm. Rsults ar displayd in Figur and. Thn, tak th ordr dgr of primary sub-systm and that of trtiary sub-systm as th intrmdiat variabls, and th yar 3 as th bas yar. Us th formula (5) to calculat th synrgy dgr of primary-trtiary complx systm. S to Figur 3. Bcaus crtain sub-ordr paramtr may mak th ordr dgr b, authors chang this kind of indxs to., in ordr to avoid th mrgnc of ordr dgr, as w us gomtric man mthod to calculat th ordr dgr of th ntir systm. 4.4 Rsults analysis Figur shows that from 3 to 8, th ordr dgr of th primary systm is gnrally rising. In 7, it fluctuats and dcrass slightly, which mans th synrgtic ffct of all ordr paramtrs in th systm 94 ISSN E-ISSN

5 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August is infficint. According to th ordr dgr of sub-ordr paramtr of th primary systm, th ordr paramtr th proportion of mploys from th primary dvlops disordrly, which indicats unrasonabl mploymnt structur of th primary. Employs in th primary continu to dcras, and th dcras dos not fit for th nds of primary dvlopmnt. Employmnt structur mainly rflcts th dvlopmnt fficincy of on. It dcrass its contribution to th ordr dgr of th systm. It provs that big changs of ach ordr paramtr will affct th ordr dgr of th primary systm. Figur shows that from 3 to 7, th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm is in a fast growing stat. In 8, th ordr dgr of trtiary systm drops svrly. According to th ordr paramtrs of th trtiary systm, th ordr dgrs of all ordr paramtrs in 8 ar dcrasing. Ths ordr paramtrs affct th contribution ratio from diffrnt prspctivs. As a rsult, th ordr dgr of th whol systm dvlops toward a rasonabl dirction. Th rason is that Dujiangyan City has suffrd from hug arthquak in 8. All kinds of rsourcs, spcially th touring rsourcs, wr damagd on diffrnt lvl. Plus, infrastructur and roads collaps. It sriously affcts th dvlopmnt of tourism-dominating trtiary in Dujiangyan City. Figur 3 shows that th synrgy dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary complx systm in Dujiangyan City riss firstly and thn dcrass. From 4 to 6, th synrgy dgr of complx systm is gnrally in a rising stat. From 7, it starts to dclin and in 8 it drops havily. From Figur and, although th ordr dgr of th trtiary systm is highst in 7, th low ordr dgr of th primary systm causs a slight dcras of synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary systm. But in 8 th fast drop of ordr dgr of trtiary systm causs a hug rduc of synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary systm, making th primary-trtiary systm b in a low-synrgtic dvlopmnt stat. Gnrally spaking, th avrag synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary systm in Dujiangyan City btwn 3 and 8 is only.44, which mans th primary-trtiary complx systm in Dujiangyan City is in a synrgtic dvlopmnt, though th synrgy dgr is low. 5. Conclusions and suggstions Basd on thoris of synrgtics, authors constitut a mathmatical modl and analyz th synrgy dgr of th primary-trtiary complx systm in Dujiangyan City. Studis show that th primary-trtiary systm in Dujiangyan City has a positiv synrgy dgr, but th synrgy dgr is low, which mans thr is no fficint synrgtic rlationship btwn th two systms. Thrfor, th mploymnt structur is unrasonabl and so dos th industrial structur. By analyzing th rsourcs and ndowmnts of Dujiangyan City, w know that spcial agricultural industris and tourism ar dominating, spcially th tourism, which is tratd as a lading in practic. Howvr, th analysis rsults do not prov th two industris contributions rspctivly to thir systm. Thrfor, authors suggst that w must think about th rsourcs and ndowmnts of Dujiangyan City, focus on farmrs mploymnt issu, try vry mans to improv farmrs quality, incras trainings, and dvlop labor-intnsiv industris, in ordr to promot th synrgtic dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary, improv farmrs incom, and solv th agricultur, rural aras, and farmrs problm. By mans of applying th agricultural industrialization, w should dvlop spcial agricultur in Dujiangyan City. For xampl, dvlop th fiv spcial advantag industris, such as kiwi fruit, ta, cold watr fish, pigs, vgtabls, and dibl fungi, and mak th production of primary progrss toward an advancd stag. Manwhil, dvlop th tourism-lading modrn srvic, spcially th spcial tourism, such as county touring and farmrs hous, driving and srving th dvlopmnt of rlvant industris and sctors, and promoting th synrgtic dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary. Rfrncs Hakn, H. (977). Synrgtic An Introduction. Brlin: Springr. Hakn, H. (983). Advancd Synrgtics. Brlin: Springr. Hakn, H. (988). Information and Slf-Organization. Brlin: Springr. Huang, Haibiao & Li, Jun. (8). On th constitution of indx systm for assssing th optimization and updat of industrial structur. Commrcial Tims, No.3. Li, Png. (5). Thortical basis and practical mthods of rgional conomic synrgistic dvlopmnt. Gography and Go-Information Scinc, No.4. Statistical Rport on National Economy and Social Dvlopmnt in Dujiangyan City in 9. [Onlin] Availabl: tongjigongbao/8/6-33.html Publishd by Canadian Cntr of Scinc and Education 95

6 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August Tabl. Ordr paramtrs of th synrgy dvlopmnt of th primary-trtiary systm Yar Ordr paramtrs of th primary systm Th Proportion proportion of of Agricultural Forst primary mploys product from valu valu addd valu primary Poultry valu Fishing valu Total powrs of agricultur machin to GDP Yar Ordr paramtrs of th trtiary systm Th proportion of trtiary Ral stat invstmnt addd Proportion of mploys from trtiary Tourism incom Consumption goods rtail sals Communication incom Financ and insuranc valu to GDP Tabl. Th calculation rsults of ordr paramtrs of th primary sub-systm Yar Th ordr dgr of sub-ordr paramtrs of th primary systm Th Proportion proportion of Agricultural Forst Poultry of primary mploys product from valu valu valu addd valu primary to GDP Fishing valu Total powrs of agricultur machin ISSN E-ISSN

7 Intrnational Journal of Businss and Managmnt Vol. 6, No. 8; August Tabl 3. Th calculation rsults of ordr paramtrs of th trtiary sub-systm Th ordr dgr of sub-ordr paramtrs of th trtiary systm Th proportion of trtiary Tourism Consumption Ral stat Yar goods rtail invstmnt addd incom sals Proportion of mploys from trtiary Communication incom Financ and insuranc valu to GDP Figur. Th Lin Graph for th Ordr Dgr of th Primary Industry Systm Figur. Th Lin Graph for th Ordr Dgr of th Trtiary Industry Systm Publishd by Canadian Cntr of Scinc and Education 97

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