# 7.1 Graphs of Quadratic Functions in Vertex Form

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1 7.1 Graphs of Quadratic Functions in Vertex Form Quadratic Function in Vertex Form A quadratic function in vertex form is a function that can be written in the form f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k where a is called the leading coefficient and 1. The vertex of the parabola is located at (h, k). 2. The equation of the axis of symmetry is x = h. 3. If a is positive, then the parabola opens upward. 4. If a is negative, then the parabola opens downward. Example 1 Find the Vertex Form of a Parabola Find the equation for function f (shown) in vertex form: Step 1 Identify the vertex of f. Write the values for h and k in f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k Step 2 Identify any other point on f. Use that point to determine a in f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k. Example 2 Find the Vertex Form of a Parabola Find the equation for function g (shown above) in vertex form.

2 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 2 of 39) Example 2 Vertex Form of a Parabola Fill-in the table and match each function to its graph. Graph Function f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k h k a Vertex Axis of Symmetry Opens Upward Opens Downward f (x) =!3(x!2) f (x) = 2(x + 3) 2! 4 f (x) =!(x! 7) 2 +1 f (x) = (x!2) f (x) = 4 x f (x) = x 2 A B C D E F

3 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 3 of 39) Example 3 The Effect of a on the Shape of a Parabola 1. The graphs of f (x) = x 2, g(x) = 2x 2, and h(x) = (1/ 3)x 2 are shown. x h(x) = 1 3 x2 f (x) = x 2 g(x) = 2x g f h 2. Compared to f, the graph of g is a. narrower b. wider 3. As the leading quadratic coefficient a gets larger and larger, what happens to the shape of the graph? a. The graph gets wider and wider b. The graph gets narrower and narrower 4. Compared to f, the graph of h is a. narrower b. wider 5. As the leading quadratic coefficient a gets closer to zero, what happens to the shape of the graph? a. The graph gets wider and wider b. The graph gets narrower and narrower

4 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 4 of 39) Graphs of Parabolas in the Form f(x) = ax 2 1. The graph is a parabola with vertex at (0, 0). 2. As a gets larger and larger, the graph of f narrows. 3. As a gets closer to zero, the graph of f widens. 4. If a is positive, then the graph of f opens upward. 5. If a is negative, then the graph of f opens downward. 6. The graphs of y = ax 2 and y =!ax 2 are reflections of each other across the x-axis. Example 4 Reflecting a Graph across the x-axis Sketch the graphs of f (x) = 1 2 x2 and g(x) =! 1 2 x2. x f (x) = 1 2 x2 g(x) =! 1 2 x2 y x

5 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 5 of 39) Example 5 Shapes & Reflections of Parabolas Write reasonable equations for the family of parabolas shown.

6 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 6 of 39) Example 6 Vertical Translations (Up & Down Shifts) The graph of f (x) = x 2 is shown. Complete the table and sketch the graphs of g(x) = x 2! 3 and h(x) = x f x f (x) = x 2 g(x) = x 2! 3 h(x) = x Example 7 Horizontal Translations The graph of f (x) = x 2 is shown. Complete the table and sketch the graph of g(x) = (x! 5) 2. x f (x) = x 2 g(x) = (x! 5) f

7 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 7 of 39) Steps to Graph a Quadratic Function To sketch the graph of f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k. 1. Sketch the graph of y = ax 2 2. Translate the graph from step 1 by h units horizontally 3. Translate the graph from step 2 by k units vertically. Example 8 1. The graph of f (x) = 0.5x 2 is shown. Sketch the graph of g(x) = 0.5(x! 3) The graph of f (x) = 0.5x 2 is shown. Sketch the graph of g(x) = 0.5(x +1) 2! 2.

8 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 8 of 39) Example 9 Let f (x) =!2(x + 6) 2! Find the vertex on the graph of f. y 5 2. Find at least 4 other points on the graph of f at least 2 points on each side of the vertex. Then sketch the graph of f x 3. The domain of f, in interval notation, is 4. The range of f, in interval notation, is

9 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 9 of 39) Exercise #63 The graph f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k is shown. Sketch each graph. a. g(x) = a(x! 2h) 2 + k f b. p(x) = a(x! h) 2 + 2k f c. q(x) = 2a(x! h) 2 + k f d. r(x) = 2a(x! 2h) 2 + 2k f

10 7.1 Quadratic Function in Vertex Form (Page 10 of 39) Example 10 Let f (t) represent the percentage of Americans who are pro-choice at t years since a. Find the appropriate regression equation (linear exponential or quadratic) that models the data well.. y = f (t) = 0.56t 2! 9.92t b. Identify the vertex in the graph of f and explain its meaning in this application. Year Percent The vertex is which means the model predicts c. Identify the y-intercept and explain its meaning in this application. The y-intercept is which means the model predicts d. Use the vertex and y-intercept to write the model in vertex form. e. Predict the percentage of Americans who will be pro-choice in f. Predict when 75% of Americans will be pro-choice.

11 7.2 Quadratic Function in Standard Form (Page 11 of 39) 7.2 Sketching Quadratic Functions in Standard Form Symmetric Points Two points on a parabola that have the same y- coordinate are called symmetric points. Since every pair of symmetric points is equidistant from the axis of symmetry of a parabola, the x- coordinate of the vertex is the average of the x-coordinates of any pair of symmetric points (see figure 1). Example 1 The graph of y = x 2 + 6x + 7 is shown. 1. List three pairs of symmetric points. Axis of Symmetry 6 3 Figure 1 The axis of symmetry (the x -value of the vertex) is located at the average x -value of any pair of symmetric points y x 2. Average the x-values of each pair of symmetric points. What is the equation of the axis of symmetry of the parabola? 3. Verify that the equation of the axis of symmetry can also be computed by x =! b 2a.

12 7.2 Quadratic Function in Standard Form (Page 12 of 39) To sketch the graph of f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c 1. Find the y-intercept (0, c). 2. Find the symmetric point to the y-intercept. Set f (x) = c and solve. ( ( ))!b 3. Find the vertex, f!b 2a 2a a. The x-coordinate of the vertex is the average of any two x- coordinates of symmetric points. Or the axis has the equation given by x =! b 2a. b. The y-coordinate of the vertex is found by evaluating the function at the x-coordinate of the vertex. 4. Sketch the parabola. Example 2 Let f (x) = x 2! 4x Find the y-intercept. 2. Find the symmetric point to the y-intercept. 3. Find the vertex. y x 4. Sketch the graph of f. - 5

13 7.2 Quadratic Function in Standard Form (Page 13 of 39) Example 3 Let f (x) =! 0.9x 2! 5.8x! Find the y-intercept of f and its symmetric point.!b 2. Find the vertex, f!b ( 2a ( 2a )). 3. Sketch the graph of f by plotting at least 5 points. y x - 5

14 7.2 Quadratic Function in Standard Form (Page 14 of 39) Maximum or Minimum Values of a Quadratic Function Let f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c have vertex (h, k). Then 1. h =! b and k = f (h). 2a 2. If a < 0, then the parabola opens downward and the maximum value of f is k (see figure 1). 3. If a > 0, then the parabola opens upward and the minimum value of f is k (see figure 2). y y k k h Figure 1 When a > 0, the parabola opens upward and the minimum value of the quadratic function is k x h Figure 2 When a < 0, the parabola opens downward and the maximum value of the quadratic function is k x Example 5 The profit (in millions of dollars) for a company is given by P(t) = 0.09t 2!1.65t , where t is the number of years since Find the vertex of P and explain its meaning in this application.

15 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 15 of 39) 7.3 Solving Quadratic Equations by Square Roots The square root of a number a, denoted whose square is a. In the expression a = a 1 2, is the number a, a is the radicand and is the radical symbol. The expression a is read radical a, or square-root of a. There are two square roots of any positive number - one positive and one negative. The positive square root is called the principal square root, denoted negative square root is denoted! a. Example 1 Evaluate each of the following. a. The ! 81 3.!25 Product and Quotient Properties of Square Roots If a! 0 and b! 0, then 1. Product Property ab = a b 2. Quotient Property a b = a b Caution: There are no similar properties for addition or subtraction. i.e. a + b! a + b and a! b " a! b

16 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 16 of 39) A Radical Expression is Simplified if 1. The radicand contains no perfect square factors and no fractions. 2. There are no radicals in a denominator. 3. The numerator and denominator have no common factors (other than 1). Example 2 Simplify each of the following x 9 Example 3 Simplify each of the following Recall a a = a x x 4. a + b a + b Example 4 Simplify each of the following by rationalizing the denominator !

17 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 17 of 39) Example 5 Simplify each of the following Solving Equations in the form x 2 = a Let a be a nonnegative number. Then x 2 = a is equivalent to x = ± a Steps to Solve Equations by Extracting Square Roots 1. Isolate the Perfect Square Term. 2. Take the square root of both sides placing a ± symbol on the numeric side. Solve (x! 5) 2! 2 = (x! 5) 2 = (x! 5) 2 = ± Solve for x. 3. x! 5 = ±4 x = 5 ± 4 Example 6 Solve each equation. x = 1, x = 9 1. x 2 = x 2! 50 = y 2!13 = 0

18 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 18 of 39) Example 7 Solve each equation for the exact [non-decimal] solution(s) w/o your calculators. Check your solutions. 1. (2x + 7) 2 = (4x! 3) = (6! 5x) 2 = (6x!11) = 0 Example 8 Let f (x) =!3(x! 5) Find the exact [non-decimal] value of the zeros of f. 2. Write the x-intercepts to 2 decimal places.

19 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 19 of 39) Example 9 Using a Quadratic Model to Make Predictions Let f (t) represent he average monthly Average Monthly participation (in millions) in the Food Year Participation Stamp Program in the year that is t years (millions) since 1990 (see table). 1. Find the appropriate regression model (linear, quadratic or exponential) for the data. Round the constants to decimal places Estimate when the average monthly participation in the Food Stamp Program was 30 million. 3. Find the vertex of the model and explain its meaning in this application.

20 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 20 of 39) Complex Numbers So far we have said the equation x 2 =!1 has no real solutions. However, by introducing complex numbers, we can solve such equations. The Imaginary Unit i The imaginary unit, written i, is the number whose square is 1. That is, i 2 =!1 or i =!1 Square Root of a Negative Number If p is a positive real number, then! p = i p For example,!4 =!1"4 =!1 4 = i "2 = 2i. If b is a non-zero real number, then bi is an imaginary number. Example 10 Write each number in bi form. 1.!18 2.!!24

21 7.3 Solving Quadratics by Square Roots (Page 21 of 39) Complex and Imaginary Numbers A complex number is a number in the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers. If a = 0, then a + bi = bi is an imaginary number. If b = 0, then a + bi = a is a real number. Complex Number 2 + 5i! 2 3! 3 4 i 5 a b Complex and Real or Imaginary!i 2 Solving Equations in the form x 2 = a Let a be a real number. Then x 2 = a is equivalent to x = ± a Example 11 Solve. Write complex solutions in a + bi form. 1. x 2 =!12 2. (x + 3) 2 =!28 " 3. 4w = x! 1 % # \$ 3& ' 2 =! 7 4

22 7.4 Completing the Square (Page 22 of 39) 7.4 Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square A perfect square trinomial is the trinomial that results when a binomial is squared and written in expanded form. A perfect square trinomial with a leading coefficient of 1 is obtained by squaring a binomial in the form x + k (note the coefficient on x is one). When the binomial (x + k) is squared and expanded we get (x + k) 2 = x 2 + 2kx + k 2, and the following are true: 1. The leading coefficient of the resulting perfect-square trinomial is one. 2. The constant term of the perfect-square trinomial ( k 2 ) is the square of one-half of the linear coefficient (2k). 3. The perfect square trinomial factors to (x + k) 2, where k is one-half the linear coefficient of the perfect square trinomial. Example 1 For each show the constant term of the perfect-square trinomial is one-half of the coefficient of its linear term squared 1. (x + 5) 2 = x 2 +10x (x! 7) 2 = x 2!14x (x +11) 2 = x x (x! 3) 2 = x 2! 6x + 9 Example 2 Find the value of c so the expression is a perfect square trinomial. Then factor each perfect square trinomial. 1. x 2 +12x + c 2. x 2! 8x + c 3. x 2 + 4x + c

23 7.4 Completing the Square (Page 23 of 39) Steps To Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by Completing the Square 1. Write the equation in the form ax 2 + bx =! c. That is, get all the variable terms on one side of the equation and the constant term on the other side. 2. The completing the square procedure requires the leading coefficient to be one, so divide both sides by a. Then Solve 3x 2!18x! 3 = x 2!18x = x2!18x = x 2! 6x = 1 x 2 + b a x =! c a 3. To make x 2 + b x a perfect square trinomial, a add half the linear coefficient squared to both sides of the equation. 4. Factor the perfect square trinomial: (x + half the linear coefficient) 2 5. Solve by taking square roots. 6. Check your solutions. x = 3 ± 10 x! "0.1623, ( ) 1 Since!6 2 " \$ # 2 % = (!3) 2 = 9 3. x 2! 6x + 9 = 1+ 9 x 2! 6x + 9 = (x! 3) 2 = (x! 3) 2 = ± x! 3 = ± 10 x = 3± 10 You can also verify the graph of y = 3x 2! 18x! 3 has x-intercepts at (! 0.162, 0) and (6.162, 0).

24 7.4 Completing the Square (Page 24 of 39) Example 3 a. Solve x 2! 8x + 9 = 0 by completing the square. Find the exact [non-decimal] solutions. b. Write the solutions in decimal form and verify they correspond to the zeros of y = x 2! 8x + 9 y = x 2! 8x + 9 Example 4 Solve 3x 2 + 7x! 5 = 0 by completing the square. Find the exact [non-decimal] solutions. Check your solutions.

25 7.4 Completing the Square (Page 25 of 39) Example 5 Solve by completing the square. Write complex solutions in a + bi form. Check your solutions. 1. m 2 + 5m + 7 = t 2! 2t =!6

26 7.5 The Quadratic Formula (Page 26 of 39) 7.5 Solving Quadratic Equations by the Quadratic Formula Example 1 Solve by completing the square: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 The Quadratic Formula A quadratic equation in the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has solutions given by: x =!b ± b2! 4ac 2a Example 2 Solve using the quadratic formula: 2x 2! 7x!15 = 0

27 7.5 The Quadratic Formula (Page 27 of 39) Example 3 Solve using the quadratic formula 1. 5x(4x! 3) =!2 2. 2x 2 +12x =!18 3. x(x +1) =!1

28 7.5 The Quadratic Formula (Page 28 of 39) The Discriminant in the Quadratic Formula Determines The Number of Real Solutions to ax 2 + bx + c = 0 In the quadratic formula the radicand b 2! 4ac is called the discriminant. The sign of the x =!b ± b2! 4ac discriminant determines whether the quadratic 2a equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has zero, one or two real solutions by: (i) If b 2! 4ac > 0, then there are two real solutions and two x- intercepts. (ii) If b 2! 4ac = 0, then there is one real solution and one x- intercept. (iii) If b 2! 4ac < 0, then there are no real solutions and no x- intercepts. Example 4 No Real Solutions, b 2-4ac < 0 1. Use the discriminant to determine the number of real solutions to 2x 2! 3x + 5 = 0. b 2! 4ac = (!3) 2! 4(2)(5) =!31 < 0 No Real Solutions 2. Find the zeros and x-intercepts of f (x) = 2x 2! 3x + 5. Xscl = Yscl = 1 Example 5 Two Real Solutions, b 2-4ac > 0 1. Use the discriminant to determine the number of real solutions to 2x 2! 4x! 3 = Find the zeros and x-intercepts of f (x) = 2x2! 4x! 3. Xscl = Yscl = 1

29 7.5 The Quadratic Formula (Page 29 of 39) Example 6 One Real Solutions, b 2-4ac = 0 1. Use the discriminant to determine the number of real solutions to 2x 2! 4x + 2 = Find the zeros and x-intercepts of f (x) = 2x2! 4x + 2. Xscl = Yscl = 1 Example 7 Let f (x) = x 2! 4x + 8. Use the discriminate to find the number of points that lie on the graph of f at each indicated height. 1. y = 5 y f 2. y = 4 y = 5 y = 4 y = 3 x 3. y = 3

30 7.5 The Quadratic Formula (Page 30 of 39) Example 8 Let f (t) represent the number of U.S. hotel openings at t years since Find the appropriate regression model (linear, exponential or quadratic) for f and predict the number of openings in Year Number of Openings Find t when f (t) = 700? Explain its meaning in this application. 3. Find the t-intercept of f and explain its meaning in this application.

31 7.6 Solving Systems of Equations (Page 31 of 39) 7.6 Solving a System of Three Linear Equations to Find Quadratic Functions Example 1 Without using your calculators, find the equation of the parabola that contains the points (0, 1), (3, 7), and (4, 5). 1. We need to find the value of a, b and c in y = ax 2 + bx + c. So substitute the three points above into the equation to get three equations with three unknowns (a, b and c). Point y = ax 2 + bx + c System of Equations (0, 1) 1 = a(0) 2 + b(0) + c (3, 7) 7 = a(3) 2 + b(3) + c (4, 5) 2. Find the values of a, b and c using elimination. Choose any two pairs of equations and eliminate one variable from them. Then you will have a system of two equations and two unknowns to solve. 3. Use the regression capabilities of your calculator to verify the result.

32 7.6 Solving Systems of Equations (Page 32 of 39) Example 2 Without using your calculators, find the equation of the parabola that contains the points (1, 1), (2, 3), and (3, 9). Point y = ax 2 + bx + c System of Equations (1, 1) (2, 3) (3, 9)

33 7.6 Solving Systems of Equations (Page 33 of 39) Example 3 Without using your calculators, find the equation of the parabola that contains the points (4, -3), (5, 2), and (6, 9). Point y = ax 2 + bx + c System of Equations (4, -3) (5, 2) (6, 9) Example 4 Solve the system of three equations in three variables. Express your solution as an ordered triple (x, y, z). x + y! z =!1!4x! y + 2z =!7 2x! 2y! 5z = 7

34 7.7 Finding Regression Models (Page 34 of 39) 7.7 Finding Regression Models 7.7 Homework: 1-11 (odd) When asked to find the equation that models the data, just find the appropriate (linear, exponential, or quadratic) regression model for the data. Example 1 Although the number of property crimes increased from 1984 to 1991, it decreased after that. Let f (t) represent the number of property crimes (in millions) at t years since Draw a scattergram on your calculators and find the appropriate (linear, exponential, or quadratic) regression model for the data. Year Number of Property Crimes (millions) Example 2 Sales of DVD players have increased over the years. Let f (t) represent the sales (in millions) of DVD players at t years since Draw a scattergram on your calculators and find the appropriate (linear, exponential, or quadratic) regression model for the data. Year DVD Player Sales (in millions)

35 7.8 Modeling with Quadratic Functions (Page 35 of 39) 7.8 Modeling with Quadratic Functions Four Step Modeling Process 1. Create a scattergram of the data and decide whether a line, exponential curve, or parabola comes closest to the data. a. Enter the independent variable values into list 1 and the dependent variable values into list 2. To access the lists press STAT/EDIT. b. Turn STATPLOT 1 on and press ZOOM/9: ZoomStat to view the scattergram. 2. Find the appropriate regression model (linear, exponential or quadratic) of the function in the STAT/CALC menu. 3. Verify that the graph of the regression equation comes close to the data points. You may have to compute and graph more than one type of equation to determine the best model. 4. Use the model to draw conclusions, make estimates, and/or make predictions. Example 1 Let f (t) = 1.04t 2!14.73t represent the sales (in millions) of DVD players during the year that is t years since 1990 (see table). 1. Find f (15) and explain its meaning in this application. Year DVD Player Sales (in millions) Find t when f (t) = 100 and explain its meaning in this application. 3. In what years does there seem to be model breakdown?

36 7.8 Modeling with Quadratic Functions (Page 36 of 39) Example 2 Let p(t) represent the percentage of workers who use computers on the job at age t years (see table). 1. Find the appropriate regression model (linear, exponential or quadratic) that matches the data well. Age Group Representative Age (years) p(t) =! 0.051t t! Percent who Use Computers at Work Estimate the age(s) at which half the workers use computers on the job. 2. Use p to estimate the percentage of 22-year-old workers who use computers on the job. 3. Estimate the age of workers who are most likely (maximum percentage) to use computers on the job. What percentage of workers at this age use computers on the job? 4. Find the t-intercepts. What do they mean in this situation?

37 7.8 Modeling with Quadratic Functions (Page 37 of 39) Example 3 The numbers of videocassettes and DVDs bought by U.S. dealers are given in the table for Year various years. Let v(t) and d(t) be the numbers (in millions of units) of videocassettes and units) DVDs, respectively since Find the appropriate (linear, exponential, quadratic) regression equations for v(t) and d(t). Write the constants to two decimal places. Number of Videocassettes (millions of Number of DVDs (millions of units) Estimate when sales of DVDs overtook sales of videocassettes.

38 7.8 Modeling with Quadratic Functions (Page 38 of 39) Example 4 Airlines originated frequent flier programs in The cumulative unredeemed miles are the total number of frequent-flier miles that members have not redeemed (see table). Let c be the cumulative unredeemed miles (in trillions of miles) at t years since Find the appropriate regression equation (linear, quadratic, or exponential) that models the situation. Year Cumulative Unredeemed Miles (trillions of miles) In what years is model breakdown certain? 3. Predict the cumulative unredeemed miles in Predict when the cumulative unredeemed miles will be 25 trillion miles.

39 7.8 Modeling with Quadratic Functions (Page 39 of 39) Example 5 A group charters a flight that normally costs \$800 per person. A group discount reduces the fare by \$10 for each ticket sold; the more tickets sold, the lower the per-person fare. There are 60 seats on the plane, including 4 for the crew. What size group would maximize the airline revenue?

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