The Evolution of Deadly Conflict in Liberia

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1 The Evolution of Deadly Conflict in Liberia

2

3 The Evolution of Deadly Conflict in Liberia From Paternaltarianism to State Collapse Jeremy I. Levitt Associate Professor of Law Florida International University College of Law Carolina Academic Press Durham, North Carolina

4 Copyright 2005 Jeremy I. Levitt All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Levitt, Jeremy I., 1970 The evolution of deadly conflict in Liberia : from paternaltarianism to state collapse / Jeremy I. Levitt. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (alk. paper) 1. Political violence--liberia--history. 2. Liberia--History, Military. 3. Liberia--Politics and government. I. Title. DT631.L dc Carolina Academic Press 700 Kent Street Durham, NC Telephone (919) Fax (919) Comments and questions may be sent to Professor Levitt at Printed in the United States of America

5 To My Blessed Wife CANDACE A Virtuous Woman I Await Our Glorious Reunion To the Liberian Masses, A Great People I Have Come to Love and Respect: Your Time Has Yet to Come! Africa and the African Diaspora Await Your Rebirth!

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7 Contents Maps Abstract Acknowledgments ix xiii xv Introduction 3 Chapter 1 Pre-Settler Societies, Political Institutions and Conflict 17 Pre-Settler Indigenous Societies 17 Pre-Settler Indigenous Political Systems 21 Deadly Conflict in Pre-Liberia 25 Conclusion 28 Chapter 2 The American Colonization Society and the Emergence of Authoritarianism, Setting the Structure for Conflict 31 Dei-British/Settler Water Battle of Dei-Settler War of Dei-Gola-Settler War of Bassa-Settler War of Kru-Settler Fishmen Conflict of Vai-Settler Battles of Conclusion 85 Chapter 3 The Rise of a Settler Oligarchic State, Institutionalization of Conflict 89 Bassa-Government War of Kru-Government War of Grebo-Maryland War of Gebebo Reunited Kingdom Revolution of Conclusion 121 vii

8 viii Contents Chapter 4 The Consolidation of the Oligarchic State, Exacerbation of Conflict 125 Grebo-Government War of Native Resistance to Liberian Nationalism 132 Conclusion 135 Chapter 5 The Evolution of Centralization and the Pacification of the Hinterland, Apex of Conflict 137 Indirect Rule System 138 Frontier Force 140 Kru-Government Battles of Grebo-Government War of Kru-Government Conflict of Kru Confederacy-Government War of Conclusion 178 Chapter 6 The Ascent of an Oligarchic Democracy, Peace, Indigenous Revolt, and Chaos, The Evolution of Authoritarianism and Deceptive Inclusion Coup d état of the Tolbert Regime 194 The Doe Era, Conclusion 202 Chapter 7 The Great War, A Legacy of Conflict 205 The Liberian Civil War, The Interwar Years, The LURD and MODEL Insurrections, Conclusion 242 Chapter 8 Conclusion 245 Introduction 245 Summary of Conflict Causes 246 Summary of Major Findings and Future Prospects 250 Appendix 259 Bibliography 275 Index 305

9 Maps Map 1. Distribution of Major Liberian Ethnic and Language Groups ix

10 x Maps Map 2. Settlements in Colonial Liberia

11 Maps xi Map 3. Extent of Liberian Territorial Claims

12 xii Maps Map 4. Changes in County Boundaries, 1964

13 Abstract This book pre s ents the first attem pt to holisti c a lly doc u m ent and analy ze the historical causes of de adly con fli ct in Liberi a. It recon s tru cts and ex a m- ines the roo t, opera ti on a l, and catalytic causes of ei gh teen internal de adly confli cts that tra n s p i red in Liberia from its founding in 1822 thro u gh 2003, i n- cluding fifteen set t l er- i n d i genous Liberian con f l i cts ( ), the 1980 coup d état a gainst the To l bert regi m e, rise and fall of the Doe regi m e ( ), the Great War inclusive of the Liberian Civil War ( ), Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and Movement for Dem oc racy in Liberia (MODEL) insu rrecti ons ( ), and the forced dismantling of Charles Taylor s regime in The book seeks to answer two primary questions: (1) What are the historical causes of deadly conflict in Liberia? and (2) To what extent has the evolution of settler nationalism and authoritarianism contributed to the stimul a ti on of con f l i ct bet ween set t l er and native Liberians? To answer these questions, it examines a continuum of circular causation among the state of a f f a i rs that led to the founding of the Liberian state, the evo luti on of s et t l er n a ti onalism and aut h ori t a ri a n i s m, and internal con fli ct. By analyzing these processes toget h er, the causes of ei gh teen con fli cts are reve a l ed and thoro u gh ly discussed. The book en de avors to accomplish three obj ective s : (1) determine the historical causes of de adly con fli ct in Liberi a, in particular the underlying historical ph en om ena re s pon s i ble for bi rthing the Great Wa r; (2) pre s ent an altern a- tive fra m ework to com preh end and examine the aged con fli ct dynamic bet ween s et t l er and indigenous Liberi a n s, and within Liberian soc i ety itsel f ; and (3) produ ce the first com preh en s ive stu dy of de adly con fli ct in the rep u bl i c. It argues among other things that, t a ken toget h er, the diametri c a lly oppo s ed principles on wh i ch Liberia and native vi ll a ge - s t a tes were based, a n d the authoritarian political apparatus introduced into Liberia by the American Colonization Society (ACS) in 1822 and ultimately inherited by the settlers in 1847 permanently shaped the sociopolitical order responsible for the institutionalization of ethnopolitical conflict between settler and native Liberi- xiii

14 xiv Abstract ans bet ween 1822 and 1980, and a ll L i berians bet ween 1980 and Wh i l e a t tem pting to establish a set t l er state, the set t l ers provo ked de adly con f l i ct with, and responded to challenges from, various native village-states. Success ive Liberian govern m ents re s pon ded to su ch con fli ct by evo lving in an authoritarian fashion. In this sense, settler-indigenous conflict affected the dispo s i ti on of con s ec utive regi m e s, causing them to implem ent pro tecti on i s t rules and strategies to preserve the existence of the settler state, resulting in a perpetual cycle of circular causation with deadly conflict as a permanent feature. From this background, I argue that Liberia s legacy of violent conflict is inextricably linked to its traditions of nationalism and authoritarianism.

15 Acknowledgments Re s e a rch for the book was con du cted in Af ri c a, Great Bri t a i n, and the Un i ted State s. I have many people to thank for su pporting me thro u gh o ut the P h. D. d ra f ting ( ) and boo k - m a nu s c ri pt prep a ra ti on proce s s e s ( ). Foremost among them is my bl e s s ed wi fe Ca n d ace Levi t t, for her enduring support and gracious love and my beautiful daughter Makayla for precious hu gs and kisses du ring our difficult tra n s i ti on to a new life. I also thank my wonderful family, for loving me, and Professor James Mayall of the Un ivers i ty of Ca m bri d ge, for grac i o u s ly su pervising my Ph.D. d i s s ert a ti on, which forms the foundation of this book. Th ree major phases of re s e a rch were carri ed out for the vo lu m e. The firs t phase of re s e a rch (April 1998 thro u gh August 1999) was con du cted in the Un i ted Ki n gdom at the Ca m bri d ge Un ivers i ty Libra ry, Un ivers i ty of Ox ford ( Rh odes and Bodelian libra ri e s ) ; Un ivers i ty of Lon don (Sch ool of O ri ental and Af rican Studies Libra ry, Bri tish Libra ry of Social and Po l i tical Scien ce, and the In s ti tute of Com m onwealth Stu d i e s ) ; and the Pu blic Records Office in Lon don ( Bri tish Forei gn and Com m onwealth Office ). I was pleasantly su rpri s ed by the ri ch co ll ecti on of e a rly nineteen t h - cen tu ry inform a ti on ava i l a ble in these libra ries and at the Un ivers i ty of Lon don in parti c u l a r. I hu m bly thank Abi odu n Al a o, E m m a nu el Kwesi An i n g, Gu s t av Ba rn a rd, Kayode Fayem i, Craig Gant, Linda Green e, Craig Jack s on, D avid Lewi s, James Maya ll, Abi gail No ko, Fu n m i Ol on i s a k i n, Ma m ph ela Ra m ph el e, Jack Spen ce, James Th om a s, Ma t t h ew Wh i t a ker and Tu n de Zack Wi lliams for their wise co u n s el and re s o lute su pport f rom the begi n n i n g. I also thank fri en d s, co ll e a g u e s, and on l oo kers from the a n nual meeti n gs and work s h ops of the Royal Af rican Soc i ety and Af rican Stu d- ies As s oc i a ti on of the UK for their insigh tful com m ents and cri ti qu e s. I con du cted the second phase of re s e a rch (August 1999 thro u gh Au g u s t 2001) while an In tern a ti onal Studies Fell ow at the Cen ter for In tern a ti onal Devel opm ent and Con f l i ct Ma n a gem ent (CIDCM) at the Un ivers i ty of Ma ryland-college Park. I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to Ernest J. Wilson III for creating a fellowship opportunity for me at CIDCM and providing me with unyi elding moral su pport thro u gh o ut the Ph.D. d i s s ert a ti on and boo k xv

16 xvi Acknowledgments prep a tory proce s s e s. Du ring this peri od, I re s e a rch ed at the U. S. L i bra ry of Con gre s s, Wa s h i n g ton, D. C. ; U. S. Na ti onal Arch ives in Wa s h i n g ton, D. C. ; Un ivers i ty of Ma ryl a n d - Co ll ege Pa rk Main Libra ry; G eor getown Un ivers i ty Main Library; and the University of Virginia Main Library. In addition, I obt a i n ed va lu a ble arch ival inform a ti on from the Arch ives of the Ep i s cop a l Chu rch in Au s ti n, Tex a s. This phase of re s e a rch was cri tical to uncovering prim a ry inform a ti on that form ed the basis of this boo k. I would like to espec i a lly thank Angel D. Batiste at the U.S. Library of Congress, Walter B. Hill Jr. and L. Ho lland at the U. S. Na ti onal Arch ive s, and Yogi Pa tel at the Arch ives of t h e Episcopal Church for their kind support and assistance. The third phase of re s e a rch took place sporad i c a lly at De Paul Un ivers i ty Co ll ege of L aw (April 2002 thro u gh Decem ber 2003) in Ch i c a go, Ill i n oi s, where I spent the bulk of my time editing and fine tuning the manuscript. I thank the Dean s Office of the DePaul University College of Law for providing me with generous research stipends while completing my book. Because the fo u n d a ti on of the stu dy relies on historical ra t h er than contem pora ry inform a ti on, it dem a n ded that pri m a ry arch ival re s e a rch take preceden ce over field intervi ews. With the excepti on of i n tervi ews con cern i n g the Great Wa r, 1 field intervi ews were incon s equ en tial to the thrust of the analysis. Yet I took advantage of work-, workshop- and conference-related trips to Ghana, Guinea, and Namibia to uncover important research and data, which i n form ed the gen eral thrust of the stu dy. I owe a debt of gra ti tu de to my friends, colleagues, and other analysts (too many to mention) from Canada, C ô te d Ivoi re, Et h i op i a, G h a n a, Gu i n e a, G a bon, Na m i bi a, So uth Af ri c a, Denm a rk, the Un i ted Ki n gdom, and the Un i ted State s, for providing me with vi t a l i n form a ti on and insights on the ori gins of Af rican con fli ct and spec i fic a lly the L i berian Civil Wa r. I espec i a lly thank Ch ri s toph er Cl a ph a m, D. E lwood Du n n and Crawford Yo u n g, for revi ewing the final manu s c ri pt and providing me with cri tical feed b ack and insigh t s ; and Ma m ph ela Ra m ph el e, for her re s o lute support, grace, and wisdom. Last but not least, I thank my friends and colleagues formerly with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) (now African Union) in Addis Ababa, in particular, Christopher Bakwesegha, John Tesha and Ben Kioko, for furnishing me with important doc u m ents and data on et h n opo l i tical con f l i ct, regional security, state dynamics and state-building in Africa. 1. The term Great War is used to define the Liberian Civil War ( ) and the L i berian Un i ted for Recon c i l i a ti on and Dem oc racy (LURD) and Movem ent for Dem oc rac y in Liberia (MODEL) insurrections ( ) because the latter conflict is largely a continuation of the former war.

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