1 A duality between descents and connectivity.

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1 The Descent Set and Connectivity Set of a Permutation 1 Richard P. Stanley 2 Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139, USA version of 16 August 2005 Abstract The descent set D(w) of a permutation w of 1,2,...,n is a standard and well-studied statistic. We introduce a new statistic, the connectivity set C(w), and show that it is a kind of dual object to D(w). The duality is stated in terms of the inverse of a matrix that records the joint distribution of D(w) and C(w). We also give a variation involving permutations of a multiset and a q-analogue that keeps track of the number of inversions of w. 1 A duality between descents and connectivity. Let S n denote the symmetric group of permutations of [n] = {1, 2,..., n}, and let w = a 1 a 2 a n S n. The descent set D(w) is defined by D(w) = {i : a i > a i+1 } [n 1]. The descent set is a well-known and much studied statistic on permutations with many applications, e.g., [6, Exam. 2.24, Thm ][7, 7.23]. Now define the connectivity set C(w) by C(w) = {i : a j < a k for all j i < k} [n 1]. (1) Mathematics Subject Classification: 05A05 Key words and phrases: descent set, connected permutation, connectivity set 2 Partially supported by NSF grant #DMS and by the Institut Mittag-Leffler.

2 The connectivity set seems not to have been considered before except for equivalent definitions by Comtet [3, Exer. VI.14] and Callan [1] with no further development. H. Wilf has pointed out to me that the set of splitters of a permutation arising in the algorithm Quicksort [8, 2.2] coincides with the connectivity set. Some notions related to the connectivity set have been investigated. In particular, a permutation w with C(w) = is called connected or indecomposable. If f(n) denotes the number of connected permutations in S n, then Comtet [3, Exer. VI.14] showed that f(n)x n 1 = 1 n 0 n!xn, n 1 and he also considered the number #C(w) of components. He also obtained [2][3, Exer. VII.16] the complete asymptotic expansion of f(n). For further references on connected permutations, see Sloane [4]. In this paper we will establish a kind of duality between descent sets and connectivity sets. We write S = {i 1,...,i k } < to denote that S = {i 1,...,i k } and i 1 < < i k. Given S = {i 1,..., i k } < [n 1], define η(s) = i 1! (i 2 i 1 )! (i k i k 1 )! (n i k )!. Note that η(s) depends not only on S but also on n. The integer n will always be clear from the context. The first indication of a duality between C and D is the following result. Proposition 1.1. Let S [n 1]. Then #{w S n : S C(w)} = η(s) #{w S n : S D(w)} = n! η(s). Proof. The result for D(w) is well-known, e.g., [6, Prop ]. To obtain a permutation w satisfying S D(w), choose an ordered partition (A 1,...,A k+1 ) of [n] with #A j = i j i j 1 (with i 0 = 0, i k+1 = n) in n!/η(s) ways, then arrange the elements of A 1 in increasing order, followed by the elements of A 2 in increasing order, etc. 2

3 Similarly, to obtain a permutation w satisfying S C(w), choose a permutation of [i 1 ] in i 1! ways, followed by a permutation of [i 1 + 1, i 2 ] := {i 1 + 1, i 1 + 2,...,i 2 } in (i 2 i 1 )! ways, etc. Let S, T [n 1]. Our main interest is in the joint distribution of the statistics C and D, i.e., in the numbers X ST = #{w S n : C(w) = S, D(w) = T }, where S = [n 1] S. (It will be more notationally convenient to use this definition of X ST rather than having C(w) = S.) To this end, define Z ST = #{w S n : S C(w), T D(w)} = S S T T X S T. (2) For instance, if n = 4, S = {2, 3}, and T = {3}, then Z ST = 3, corresponding to the permutations 1243, 1342, 1432, while X ST = 1, corresponding to Tables of X ST for n = 3 and n = 4 are given in Figure 1, and for n = 5 in Figure 2. Theorem 1.2. We have { η(s)/η(t), if S T; Z ST = 0, otherwise, Proof. Let w = a 1 a n S n. If i C(w) then a i < a i+1, so i D(w). Hence Z ST = 0 if S T. Assume therefore that S T. Let C(w) = {c 1,...,c j } < with c 0 = 0 and c j+1 = n. Fix 0 h j, and let [c h, c h+1 ] T = {c h = i 1, i 2,...,i k = c h+1 } <. If w = a 1 a n with S C(w) and T D(w), then the number of choices for a ch +1, a ch +2,...,a ch+1 is just the multinomial coefficient ( ) c h+1 c h := i 2 i 1, i 3 i 2,...,i k i k 1 3 (c h+1 c h )! (i 2 i 1 )! (i 3 i 2 )! (i k i k 1 )!.

4 S\T S\T Figure 1: Table of X ST for n = 3 and n = 4 Taking the product over all 0 h j yields η(s)/η(t). Theorem 1.2 can be restated matrix-theoretically. Let M = (M ST ) be the matrix whose rows and columns are indexed by subsets S, T [n 1] (taken in some order), with { 1, if S T; M ST = 0, otherwise. Let D = (D ST ) be the diagonal matrix with D SS = η(s). Let Z = (Z ST ), i.e., the matrix whose (S, T)-entry is Z ST as defined in (2). Then it is straightforward to check that Theorem 1.2 can be restated as follows: Z = DMD 1. (3) Similarly, let X = (X ST ). Then it is immediate from equations (2) and (3) that MXM = Z. (4) The main result of this section (Theorem 1.4 below) computes the inverse of the matrices X, Z, and a matrix Y = (Y ST ) intermediate 4

5 S\T Figure 2: Table of X ST for n = 5 5

6 between X and Z. Namely, define Y ST = #{w S n : S C(w), T = D(w)}. (5) It is immediate from the definition of matrix multiplication and (4) that the matrix Y satisfies Y = MX = ZM 1. (6) In view of equations (3), (4) and (6) the computation of Z 1, Y 1, and X 1 will reduce to computing M 1, which is a simple and wellknown result. For any invertible matrix N = (N ST ), write N 1 ST for the (S, T)-entry of N 1. Lemma 1.3. We have M 1 ST = ( 1)#S+#T M ST. (7) Proof. Let f, g be functions from subsets of [n] to R (say) related by f(s) = T S g(t). (8) Equation (7) is then equivalent to the inversion formula g(s) = T S( 1) #(S T) f(t). (9) This is a standard combinatorial result with many proofs, e.g., [6, Thm , Exam ]. Theorem 1.4. The matrices Z, Y, X have the following inverses: Z 1 ST = ( 1) #S+#T Z ST (10) Y 1 ST = ( 1) #S+#T #{w S n : S = C(w), T D(w)} (11) X 1 ST = ( 1) #S+#T X ST. (12) Proof. By equations (3), (4), and (6) we have Z 1 = DM 1 D 1, Y 1 = MDM 1 D 1, X 1 = MDM 1 D 1 M. 6

7 Equation (10) is then an immediate consequence of Lemma 1.3 and the definition of matrix multiplication. Since Y 1 = MZ 1 we have for fixed S U that Y 1 SU = = = T : S T U T : S T U T : U T S ( 1) #T+#U Z TU ( 1) #T+#U #{w S n : T C(w), U D(w)} ( 1) #T+#U #{w S n : T C(w), U D(w)}. Equation (11) is now an immediate consequence of the Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion (or of the equivalence of equations (8) and (9)). Equation (12) is proved analogously to (11) using X 1 = Y 1 M. Note. The matrix M represents the zeta function of the boolean algebra B n [6, 3.6]. Hence Lemma 1.3 can be regarded as the determination of the Möbius function of B n [6, Exam ]. All our results can easily be formulated in terms of the incidence algebra of B n. Note. The matrix Y arose from the theory of quasisymmetric functions in response to a question from Louis Billera and Vic Reiner and was the original motivation for this paper, as we now explain. See for example [7, 7.19] for an introduction to quasisymmetric functions. We will not use quasisymmetric functions elsewhere in this paper. Let Comp(n) denote the set of all compositions α = (α 1,...,α k ) of n, i.e, α i 1 and α i = n. Let α = (α 1,...,α k ) Comp(n), and let S α denote the subgroup of S n consisting of all permutations w = a 1 a n such that {1,..., α 1 } = {a 1,...,a α1 }, {α 1 +1,..., α 1 + α 2 } = {a α1 +1,...,a α1 +α 2 }, etc. Thus S α = Sα1 S αk and #S α = η(s), where S = {α 1, α 1 +α 2,...,α 1 + +α k 1 }. If w S n and D(w) = {i 1,...,i k } <, then define the descent composition co(w) by co(w) = (i 1, i 2 i 1,...,i k i k 1, n i k ) Comp(n). 7

8 Let L α denote the fundamental quasisymmetric function indexed by α [7, (7.89)], and define R α = w S α L co(w). (13) Given α = (α 1,...,α k ) Comp(n), let S α = {α 1, α 1 + α 2,..., α α k 1 }. Note that w S α if and only if S α C(w). Hence equation (13) can be rewritten as R α = β Y SαS β L β, with Y SαS β as in (5). It follows from (5) that the transition matrix between the bases L α and R α is lower unitriangular (with respect to a suitable ordering of the rows and columns). Thus the set {R α : α Comp(n)} is a Z-basis for the additive group of all homogeneous quasisymmetric functions over Z of degree n. Moreover, the problem of expressing the L β s as linear combinations of the R α s is equivalent to inverting the matrix Y = (Y ST ). The question of Billera and Reiner mentioned above is the following. Let P be a finite poset, and define the quasisymmetric function K P = f x f, where f ranges over all order-preserving maps f : P {1, 2,...} and x f = t P x f(t) (see [7, (7.92)]). Billera and Reiner asked whether the quasisymmetric functions K P generate (as a Z-algebra) or even span (as an additive abelian group) the space of all quasisymmetric functions. Let m denote an m-element antichain. The ordinal sum P Q of two posets P, Q with disjoint elements is the poset on the union of their elements satisfying s t if either (1) s, t P and s t in P, (2) s, t Q and s t in Q, or (3) s P and t Q. If α = (α 1,...,α k ) Comp(n) then let P α = α 1 α k. It is easy to see that K Pα = R α, so the K Pα s form a Z-basis for the homogeneous quasisymmetric functions of degree n, thereby answering the question of Billera and Reiner. 8

9 2 Multisets and inversions. In this section we consider two further aspects of the connectivity set: (1) an extension to permutations of a multiset and (2) a q-analogue of Theorem 1.4 when the number of inversions of w is taken into account. Let T = {i 1,..., i k } < [n 1]. Define the multiset N T = {1 i 1, 2 i 2 i 1,..., (k + 1) n i k }. Let S NT denote the set of all permutations of N T, so #S NT = n!/η(t); and let w = a 1 a 2 a n S NT. In analogy with equation (1) define C(w) = {i : a j < a k for all j i < k}. (Note that we could have instead required only a j a k rather than a j < a k. We will not consider this alternative definition here.) Proposition 2.1. Let S, T [n 1]. Then #{w S NT : C(w) = S} = (XM) S T = U : U T X SU = #{w S n : C(w) = S, D(w) T }. Proof. The equality of the three expressions on the right-hand side is clear, so we need only show that #{w S NT : C(w) = S} = #{w S n : C(w) = S, D(w) T }. (14) Let T = {i 1,...,i k } < [n 1]. Given w S n with C(w) = S and D(w) T, in w 1 replace 1, 2,..., i 1 with 1 s, replace i 1 + 1,...,i 2 with 2 s, etc. It is easy to check that this yields a bijection between the sets appearing on the two sides of (14). Let us now consider q-analogues Z(q), Y (q), X(q) of the matrices Z, Y, X. The q-analogue will keep track of the number inv(w) of inversions of w = a 1 a n S n, where we define inv(w) = #{(i, j) : i < j, a i > a j }. 9

10 Thus define X(q) ST = w Sn C(w)=S, D(w)=T q inv(w), and similarly for Z(q) ST and Y (q) ST. We will obtain q-analogues of Theorems 1.2 and 1.4 with completely analogous proofs. Write (j) = 1 + q + + q j 1 and (j)! = (1)(2) (j), the standard q-analogues of j and j!. Let S = {i 1,...,i k } < [n 1], and define η(s, q) = i 1! (i 2 i 1 )! (i k i k 1 )! (n i k )!. Let T [n 1], and let T = {i 1,...,i k } <. Define ( ) ( ) ( ) i1 i2 i 1 n ik z(t) = Note that z(t) is the least number of inversions of a permutation w S n with T D(w). Theorem 2.2. We have { q Z(q) ST = z(t) η(s, q)/η(t, q), if S T = ; 0, otherwise. Proof. Preserve the notation from the proof of Theorem 1.2. If (s, t) is an inversion of w (i.e., s < t and a s > a t ) then for some 0 h j we have c h + 1 s < t c h+1. It is a standard fact of enumerative combinatorics (e.g., [5, (21)][6, Prop ]) that if U = {u 1,...,u r } < [m 1] then ( ) q inv(v) = m u 1, u 2 u 1,..., m u r v Sm D(v) U := (m)! (u 1 )! (u 2 u 1 )! (m u r )!, a q-multinomial coefficient. From this it follows easily that if U = {y 1,..., y s } < then ( q inv(v) = q z(t) m y 1, y 2 y 1,..., m y ). s v Sm D(v) U 10

11 Hence we can parallel the proof of Theorem 1.2, except instead of merely counting the number of choices for the sequence u = (a ch, a ch + 1,..., a ch+1 ) we can weight this choice by q inv(u). Then u q inv(u) = q (i 2 i 1 2 )+ +( i k i k 1 2 ) ( ) c h+1 c h i 2 i 1, i 3 i 2,..., i k i, k 1 summed over all choices u = (a ch, a ch + 1,...,a ch+1 ). Taking the product over all 0 h j yields q z(t) η(s, q)/η(t, q). Theorem 2.3. The matrices Z(q), Y (q), X(q) have the following inverses: Z(q) 1 ST = ( 1) #S+#T Z(1/q) ST Y (q) 1 ST = ( 1) #S+#T w Sn S=C(w), T D(w) X(q) 1 ST = ( 1) #S+#T X(1/q) ST. q inv(w) Proof. Let D(q) = (D(q) ST ) be the diagonal matrix with D(q) SS = η(s, q). Let Q(q) be the diagonal matrix with Q(q) SS = q z(s). Exactly as for (3), (4) and (6) we obtain Z(q) = D(q)MD(q) 1 Q(q) MX(q)M = Z(q) Y (q) = MX(q) = Z(q)M 1. The proof now is identical to that of Theorem 1.4. Let us note that Proposition 2.1 also has a straightforward q- analogue; we omit the details. Acknowledgment. I am grateful to the referee for several suggestions that have enhanced the readability of this paper. 11

12 References [1] D. Callan, Counting stabilized-interval-free permutations, J. Integer Sequences (electronic) 7 (2004), Article ; [2] L. Comtet, Sur les coefficients de l inverse de la série formelle n!t n, Comptes Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, A 275 (1972), [3] L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, [4] N. J. A. Sloane, The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, A003319; njas/sequences. [5] R. Stanley, Binomial posets, Möbius inversion, and permutation enumeration, J. Combinatorial Theory (A) 20 (1976), [6] R. Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics, vol. 1, Wadsworth and Brooks/Cole, 1986; second printing, Cambridge University Press, [7] R. Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics, vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, [8] H. Wilf, Algorithms and Complexity, second ed., A K Peters,

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