Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm

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1 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm

2 Patient (1) - 69 PMH: MVP, aortic root replacement with biological valve (Perimount) and subtotal aortic arch replacement Analysis for oppressive chest complaints reveals large thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm

3

4

5 Underlying disease? Marfan Ehlers-Danlos Turner s syndrome Polycystic kidney disease Loeys-Dietz syndrome Syphilis / arteritis Traumatic injury

6 Risk factors for rupture? In total 80% will rupture (10-20% 5-year survival) Higher age and COPD increase rupture risk For aneurysm > 6 cm annual rupture risk 7% For aneurysm > 7 cm 43% will rupture Incidence CAD < 30% in contrast to AAA (> 70%)

7 Indications for repair Rupture All symptomatic aneurysms regardless of size should be repaired (pain/pressure) However in 95% no heralding symptoms Acute dissection with malperfusion/ other life-threatening complication Symptomatic aneurysm (pain or compression other organs) Enlargement 1 cm/year Absolute size > 6.5 cm or > 6.0 cm with connective tissue disorder

8 Repair strategies Cardiovascular risk factors Open Endovascular Hybrid Spirometry - most open repairs require single lung ventilation Pre-existing renal function (AKI most important risk factor for early postoperative mortality) CTA with 3-D reconstruction Preoperative workup

9 Modified Crawford classification Extent I Extent II Extent III Extent IV Extent V

10 Patient (2) Rapidly progressive TAAA 7.9 cm No underlying other disease (degenerative) Extent II Open repair

11 Patient (3) Preoperative ICU admission (28/11) Arterial line (right radial artery) Pulmonary artery catheter (PAP 29/13, CI 3.8) ELD (10 cm H2O)

12 Is CSF drainage useful? CSF drainage No CSF drainage 24 23,7 18 % ,3 7,3 4 4,3 SC damage 30-D mortality In-hospital mortality RCT s N = 3 Cinà CS. J Vasc Surg 2004;40:36-44

13 Risk factors for paraplegia Overall mortality 10% Previous EVAR/TEVAR Preoperative hypotension Intraoperative hypotension Open distal anastomoses Postoperative complications in 200 patients Paraplegia 17 (8.5%) Cerebral infarction 5 (2.5%) Perioperative MI 1 (0.5%) Pneumonia 5 (2.5%) Atelectasis 19 (9.5%) AKI 5 (2.5%) Acute hepatic failure 3 (1.5%) Bowel ischemia 7 (3.5%) Gastrointestinal bleeding 1 (0.5%) Chylothorax 4 (2%) Vocal cord paralysis (left) 16 (8%) Phrenic nerve paralysis 1 (0.5%) Reoperation surgical bleeding 3 (1.5%) Wongkornrat W. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014

14 Intraoperative monitoring Insertion of double lumen endotracheal tube Central access with PA catheter for HD monitoring Arterial monitoring of upper and lower extremities with aortic clamping and left heart bypass Lumbar CSF drain in Extent I and II repair (IT pressure < 10 mmhg) - continue for 3-5 days Monitoring of SSEP/MEP with Extent II repair and hypothermic circulatory arrest

15 Circulatory support LHB with decompression of the proximal circulation in conjunction with distal perfusion through left atrial drainage via the left inferior pulmonary vein and arterial inflow distal to the aortic clamp site usually the iliac system Alternative is partial CP bypass by femoral vein canulation (advanced to RA) and same arterial inflow (includes membrane oxygenation) Circulatory arrest if proximal clamp is impossible with same canulation with total body retrograde perfusion

16 Additional measures to prevent ischemic injury Permissive or active systemic hypothermia (32 0 C) Cold selective renal perfusion (4 0 C) Reattachment of segmental arteries Sequential aortic clamping Selective visceral perfusion

17 Extent I Extent II Extent III Extent IV Extent V

18 Operative procedure 29/ (24 mm Hemabridge from left SA until aortic bifurcation with left-left bypass, CSF drainage, sequential aortic clamping, selective renal perfusion and IC artery reimplantation) left thoracophrenolaparotomy (retroperitoneal approach) - 4 tempi Period 1 - clamp distal LSA and T6 - E to E anastomosis native aorta and prosthesis Period 2 - clamp proximal prosthesis and T12 - reimplantation IC 10 (L/R) Period 3 - clamp distal reimplanted IC10 and infrarenal - reimplantation renal arteries and AMS/TC (single island) Period 4 - clamp infrarenal and above bifurcation - E to E anastomosis native aorta

19 Left-left bypass LUPV and LFA Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

20 Postoperative course ICU return 29/11:16.00 Stable hemodynamics (CI 3 l/min/m2, PAP 35/20, MAP > mmhg) Paroxysmal AF (rate control - spontaneous SR) Sedation immediate stop - no SC damage Extubation 30/11: 08.00

21 Postoperative course Stable renal function (creatinine 47 - adequate diuresis) Restart oral intake 30/11 Removal ELD 02/12 Discharge home 12/12

22 Outcome Open TAAA repair (N) 30-D survival (%) AKI (%) Spinal cord ischemia (%) Crawford Coselli Safi Frederick JR. Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2012;1:

4 Proximal First 50. Proximal First. Proximal First. permanent neurological defect Proximal First. Proximal First.

4 Proximal First 50. Proximal First. Proximal First. permanent neurological defect Proximal First. Proximal First. 11 511 516 2002 Proximal First 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1995 Proximal First 50 1980 1995 3 3546 78 65 75 9 5 / 3 11 24 1995 4 Proximal First 5014 86 69 7529 12/ 16 11 36 640 285 540 255 p

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