731. MAHONIA LINDSAYAE CANTAB Berberidaceae. James Cullen

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "731. MAHONIA LINDSAYAE CANTAB Berberidaceae. James Cullen"

Transcription

1 731. MAHONIA LINDSAYAE CANTAB Berberidaceae James Cullen Summary. Mahonia lindsayae P.F. Yeo Cantab is illustrated, and its history is revealed. This continues a series of articles on plants connected with the Botanic Garden of Cambridge University plants either raised there or distributed from there over the past 100 years or so. As with many of the others, this present plant has a complex history, involving accidental notice of seedlings and inferences about parentage; the original living plants have mostly disappeared, but descendants of some of them are still growing. The story behind this Mahonia begins with George Forrest s last ( ) expedition to China the one on which he himself died. Apparently somewhat against his will, he was accompanied by the American gardener Major Lawrence Johnston, who had founded two notable gardens in Europe Hidcote Manor in England and La Serre de la Madone near Mentone in France. Forrest was a difficult man in many ways, dedicated to exploration and collecting, and he found Johnston rather a troublesome companion. On arriving in Burma in November 1930, Forrest immediately began setting up the plans for the expedition hiring porters and equipment, and contacting his former native collectors in Yunnan. He was rather dismayed by the fact that Johnston spent his time either ill or socialising with the expatriate community in Rangoon and Bhamo, contributing very little to the planning of the expedition. Because Johnston was a financial contributor to the expedition as well as a participant, Forrest felt that he was in no position to complain. In fact, once Forrest was ready to set off, he found Johnston ill again and recommended that he (Johnston) return to Europe forthwith, while he himself travelled to Tengyueh (Tenchong), his usual base in southern Yunnan. In spite of Forrest s recommendation, Johnston later recovered and made the arduous journey across the mountains to Tenchong before Forrest had left there. Almost immediately he became ill again, and spent a long period restricted to the expedition s base. However, he did send out his bearer to obtain seed, and one of these collections was seed of the Curtis s Botanical Magazine 2012 vol. 29 (2): pp The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

2 Plate 731 Mahonia lindsayae Cantab georita harriott

3

4 plant then known as Mahonia lomariifolia Takeda - now considered to be M. oiwakensis Hayata subsp. lomariifolia (Takeda) J.M.H. Shaw, (see Shaw, 2011), described on the basis of an earlier collection by Forrest from hills north and east of Tengyueh, Forrest 9244, housed in the RBG Edinburgh herbarium (E). Forrest also collected the plant on his final expedition (Forrest 29056, also at Edinburgh), but the exact location for this is unknown, as, like many specimens collected on this expedition, it remained unlabelled at his death. By May 1931, Johnston was so ill that he decided to return to Europe, leaving Forrest to continue his collecting. (More detail about Johnston s participation in the Forrest expedition is given in McLean s excellent biography of Forrest (McLean, 2004) and Pearson (2010) essentially corroborates these details). On his return, seeds of the plant collected as Mahonia lomariifolia were sown at La Serre de la Madone, and germinated. Much to Johnston s surprise, plants of two distinctly different kinds appeared in the pots; these were separated out and both grown on. As time went on, it became clear that some of the plants were indeed what they were supposed to be (M. lomariifolia), whereas the others were quite distinct (lomariifolia has numerous, rather narrow leaflets and stiffly upright secund racemes, whereas these other plants had fewer, broader leaflets with distinct yellowish venation above, and more arching, less secund racemes). Johston referred informally to these new plants as yunnanensis. They continued to grow and flower spectacularly at La Serre, without any further research being devoted to them. It is quite easy to understand how a non-experienced collector could have collected fruit from two adjacent plants thinking that they were all from the same plant. In 1948, Johnston moved finally to La Serre, and gifted the house and garden at Hidcote to the National Trust, with Miss Nancy Lindsay, the daughter of his friend and landscape architect, Peter Lindsay, as his...memory and shadow while away (Pearson, 2010: 234). An uneasy relationship continued between Miss Lindsay and the Trust, but most issues were finally resolved. Johnston continued to rely on Miss Lindsay, and at his death in 1958, she inherited the garden at La Serre. Almost immediately on inheriting the garden, Miss Lindsay invited Mr John Gilmour (then Director of the Cambridge University Botanic The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

5 Garden) and Mr Bob Younger (Superintendent) to visit and to take material of any plants they thought might be interesting (Gilmour, 1963). One such plant was the yunnanensis Mahonia, of which three plants were still growing. Gilmour and Younger took back the smallest of these, and grew it on in the Temperate House at the Cambridge Botanic Garden where it flowered for the first time in Other material (from seedlings under the original plant and cuttings from it) was also acquired; much of this was grown outof-doors in Cambridge, and soon died off. Gilmour sent flowering material of the temperate plant house to Kew for identification, and it was determined as M. siamensis Takeda by Robert Sealy. This was a reasonable identification in terms of the literature (mainly Takeda s revision of 1917), and specimens available at Kew, but it did raise a problem: M. siamensis was known only from Doi Sutep in northern Thailand, some 350 miles distant from the place where Johnston s plant was collected. The rather curious disjunct distribution so created was puzzling, but the identification was accepted, and the Cambridge plant (from the temperate house) was treated in this Magazine as n.s. plate 605, beautifully painted by Margaret Stones and with a text by Dr P. F. Yeo (1972b), the taxonomist at Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Yeo commented on the disjunction but offered no explanation. In fact this problem was not resolved until the recent publication of Mahonia in the Flora of China vol. 19, (Ying & Chen, 2001), where M. siamensis is treated as a synonym of M. duclouxiana Gagnepain, a species originally described from southern Yunnan (China), not known to Takeda when he wrote his paper, but treated by the Flora s authors as widespread in India, Burma, southern China, Vietnam and northern Thailand, thus eliminating the apparent disjunction. Plate 605 should therefore be considered to be M. duclouxiana. Very few specimens from this original introduction (under the name siamensis) appear to have survived in gardens. But Mr Glyn Jones, Head Gardener at Hidcote and Mr Martin Smith (Head Gardener at La Serre de la Madone) tell me that the original plant is still growing at La Serre, see Fig. 1...though in a part of the garden that is relatively inaccessible. Mr Smith has sent me photographs of the plant taken from some distance. Further, Mr Steve Protheroe, Specialist Garden Manager at Swansea Botanic Complex, reports that there is a plant growing 126 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

6 Fig. 1. The original plant of M. siamensis (i.e. M. duclouxiana) at Serre de la Madone. Photograph: M. Smith, February under the name siamensis in Singleton Botanic Park in Swansea. This plant was photographed in 2005 and the photo is available on the web ( a64.jpg). Finally, Dr Tom Daniel of the The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

7 Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences and Director of the Stanley Smith (US) Horticultural Trust, reports that a plant has been grown in the Strybing Arboretum, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco for many years under the name M. siamensis. Recently, this has been re-named as M. duclouxiana. A photograph of this is also on the web (www. flickr.com 4859d6aabb.jpg). In so far as identifications of photographs can be accurately made, I am satisfied that all these photographs represent the plant in question and must derive from the original, single introduction of M. siamensis. All this history and confusion (which re-inforces Lancaster s comment (2009) that the taxonomy, and therefore the nomenclature of Chinese Mahonias are not for the faint-hearted ) is preliminary to the origin of M. lindsayae. This is described by Yeo (1972a): one of the seedlings from La Serre was planted under the larger siamensis in the Cambridge temperate house. Yeo noticed this seedling in flower in 1964, and...immediately saw that it was not identical to the specimen that had been brought from France as a plant. Careful consideration of this plant by Yeo showed that...in numerous characters it was half-way intermediate between M. siamensis [i.e. M. duclouxiana] and M. japonica. The plant was provisionally assumed to be a hybrid between these two species, and to have arisen from a chance cross-pollination that must have taken place at the Serre de la Madone. I thereupon pollinated flowers of M. siamensis with pollen from M. japonica but no viable seed was obtained. However, M. siamensis set no seed when pollinated with itself, and the hybrid set no good seed when crossed with either parent. Therefore, although the negative results of the interspecific cross need not be regarded as a serious objection to my theory, it did mean that no plants of M. japonica M. siamensis of certified parentage could be raised. However, I see no reason to doubt my first diagnosis of the origin of the seedling. On the basis of all the information before me, I agree with Yeo s diagnosis, and have been much helped in this because Yeo was meticulous in making herbarium specimens of all the material he dealt with, and these (including the type specimen) remain in the Botanic Garden s herbarium (CGG) where they are available for study and comparison. The suggested parentage still remains an inference, and 128 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

8 is not derived from direct evidence; plants of the hybrid combine characters of the two parents rather than being intermediate between them. A comparison of the important characters in the hybrid and its presumed parental species is given in Table 1. The fragrance of the flowers of Mahonia lindsayae is somewhat problematic. Yeo (1972a) writes: The strong scent seems to be a blend of the hyacinth of M. siamensis and the lily-of-the-valley of M. japonica. I have been unable to confirm this: to me (and this is also the experience of the artist, Georita Harriott, who has kept inflorescences by her for some considerable periods), the flowers of the hybrid have a very faint and fugitive honey scent, while those of M. japonica have a much stronger and persistent honey scent. It is possible that the cold and generally windy weather of January and February 2012 have contributed to this discrepancy. In his publication (1972a), Yeo described the hybrid as M. lindsayi Cantab and explained that the collective epithet (lindsayi) commemorated Miss Lindsay. However, this being the case, the collective epithet should have been spelled lindsayae (feminine, to agree with Miss Lindsay), and this indeed is the spelling used by Yeo on all the herbarium specimen labels. Why he used the spelling with an I in his publication is completely obscure (I am grateful to Dr R. K. Brummitt for help over this general point). Before describing the plant and its differences from its (putative) parents, it is necessary to comment on the morphology of the leaves of the taxa dealt with here (much of this comment applies to many of the species of the genus). The leaves are imparipinnate with opposite leaflets; at the base of the leaf, just above the node, there is, in most Asiatic species, a pair of leaflets which are generally smaller, rounder and less spiny-margined than the others. These are generally very stipule-like in size and position (though they don t, as far as I have seen, join on to the stem at all), and are referred to as stipules in some of the literature, though I have not found any definite information about this many books describe the family Berberidaceae as usually without stipules or use some similar wording. These leaflets are discussed in Ahrendt (1961: 7 8). They are important taxonomically in that the length of rachis (leaflet-internode) between them and the next pair of leaflets is variable; in some species this length is much greater than that between the pairs of leaflets above, in others it is The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

9 Table 1. Characters of M. lindsayae and its presumed parents. japonica lindsayae duclouxiana Habit More or less erect Arching over Erect, widely branched Mature bark Scarcely fluted, not corky (fig. 5) Deeply fluted, corky Deeply fluted, corky (fig. 4) (fig. 3) Leaflets Leaflet venation above Not prominent or pale greenish Prominent, pale greenish yellow Prominent, pale greenish yellow yellow Internode above Equalling other internodes Conspicuously longer than others Conspicuously longer than others lowermost leaflets Racemes Greenish yellow in bud; spreading, then curving upwards, somewhat secund, with about 100 flowers; unbranched; sterile base with several small ovate bracts Fertile bracts Narrowly ovate, acute, to 7 mm, almost as long as pedicels Yellow in bud; spreading, then arching upwards, somewhat secund, with flowers; some with lateral racemes at base; sterile base with 1 or 2 linear bracts Linear, 1 2 mm, much shorter than pedicels (which are ca. 6 mm) Red-tinged in bud; slightly arching to erect, scarcely secund, with many more than 100 flowers; most with lateral racemes at base; sterile base with 1 or 2 linear bracts Linear, shorter than pedicels (which are ca mm) Flower buds Green, pruinose Yellowish, not pruinose Yellowish, not pruinose Outer 3 perianth-segments ca. 5 mm, green in bud, greenish in flower 2 4 mm, yellow with reddish lines mm, yellow flushed red at base 130 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

10 Fig. 2. Mahonia lindsayae Cantab. A, leaf rachis showing joint, 1; B, leaf rachis showing attachment of leaflet, 1; C, flower, side view, 3; D. flower, side view, showing stamens and ovary, 3; E, innermost perianth segment with stamen, 3; F, inner perianth segment, 3; G, exterior sepal, 3; H, apex of stamen, showing anther, 10; J, interior sepal (1 of 3 similar), 3; K, T.S. ovary, 4; L, apex of ovary, showing stigma, 6. Drawn by Georita Harriott from specimens at the University Botanic Garden, Cambridge. about the same. This part of the rachis is not a petiole as such, unless the lowermost pair of leaflets are considered to be stipules, and should not be confused with the genuine petiole found in such species as the widely cultivated M. aquifolium (Pursh) Nuttall. A further peculiarity of the leaf-rachis in these species and most of the others that I have looked at, is that the rachis is jointed at each pair of leaflets; further, the leaflets, when sessile, as they are in the species dealt with here, are also jointed to the rachis (see Fig. 2). The significance of this characteristic is uncertain. Cultivation. Mahonia lindsayae is generally easily cultivated, requiring conditions suitable for the much more commonly grown M. japonica. Generally speaking, open woodland conditions are best, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

11 allowing the plant some space; it will tolerate quite dense shade, but will not flower so well under these conditions. As regards propagation, my colleague Peter Kerley, who has propagated the plant several times reports: At Cambridge we have obtained good success by inserting cuttings into free-draining compost and placing them in a mist unit in February, or under bottom heat in early October. The single-node cuttings need to consist of a bud, a single leaf and a piece of stem about 2.5 cm long from the previous season s growth. The length of the leaf can be reduced to two pairs of leaflets for convenience. A high proportion of the cuttings can be expected to root in 8 10 weeks. Mahonia lindsayae P. F. Yeo, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. 97: (1972). Thought to be M. duclouxiana Gagnepain (M. siamensis Takeda) M. japonica (Thunb.) DC. Description. Shrub with yellow wood, branched at the base, the stems more or less erect but arching over above, to 2 m (or more?). Bark pale brown, deeply channelled with five to seven grooves with corky ridges between them (see Fig. 3). Leaves crowded towards the branch-apices, evergreen, imparipinnate with leaflets and a pair of smaller, stipule-like leaflets at the base, to 35 cm. Rachis reddish-brown above, jointed at each leaflet-node. Stipule-like leaflets borne on the rachis just above its insertion on the stem, ovate or broadly elliptic, smaller and less spiny than, but otherwise similar to the main leaflets; length of rachis between the stipule-like leaflets and the first pair of main leaflets is 8 14 cm, considerably longer than the lengths of rachis between subsequent leaflet-pairs. Main leaflets cm, dark green with venation conspicuous, pale greenish yellow above, pale green beneath, obliquely inserted and jointed on to the rachis, narrowly oblong-ovate, margins with 4 6 teeth per side, each tooth ending in a short, sharp, brownish spine. Inflorescence a whorl of racemes borne at the apices of the stems; racemes 4 8 arising from the axils of the leaves, spreading widely and sometimes arching upwards towards the apex, cm with about 60 flowers, somewhat secund, some of them with a small flowering branch at the base; the base of the racemestalk bears 1 3 small, sterile, linear bracts. Fertile bracts greenish, 1 2 mm, much shorter than the pedicels (which are ca. 6 mm). Outermost perianth-segments forming a whorl of three, each ovate, mm, yellow (even in bud), with reddish longitudinal lines; within these are two whorls of three segments each which spread widely; these are all yellow, obovate, those of the outer of the two whorls ca. 6 4 mm, those of the inner whorl ca mm. Finally, within these are six innermost perianth segments which are not obviously in two whorls; these are yellow ca. 8 mm, and have more or less erect bases forming a cup and spreading apices which are rather obscurely notched; a stamen (ca. 6 mm) is loosely attached to each of these, and at the sides of the stamen-attachment are two nectaries, which are very difficult to see (they are 132 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

12 Fig. 3. Bark of Mahonia lindsayae in Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Photograph: P. J. Atkinson. slightly raised and slightly darker in colour than the rest of the segment). The anthers open by valves which fold upwards, and the apex of the connective is slightly pointed. Ovary is ovoid with 2 3 ovules; style 1 2 mm. Fruit ovoid, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

13 Fig. 4. Bark of Mahonia duclouxiana in Strybing Arboretum, California. Photograph: T. F. Daniel. 134 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

14 Fig. 5. Bark of Mahonia japonica in Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Photograph P. J. Atkinson. dark bluish purple and pruinose, containing 2 3 seeds which appear to be non-viable. Distribution. Garden origin. Flowering time. December to March. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

15 Acknowledgements. I would like to acknowledge the help of Suzanne Cubey (RBG Edinburgh) for help with details of relevant herbarium specimens collected by George Forrest; Peter Atkinson of Cambridge University Botanic Garden for photographs of the bark of relevant plants, Dr T. Daniel of the Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences for information about plants in the Strybing Arboretum and for the photograph of the bark of M. duclouxiana, and Mr Glyn Jones (Hidcote) & Mr Martin Smith (La Serre de la Madone) for photographs and other information. REFERENCES Ahrendt, L.W.A. (1961). Berberis and Mahonia. A taxonomic revision. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany) 57: Gilmour, J.S.L. (1963). Notes from fellows: Mahonia siamensis. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 88: 129. Lancaster, R. (2009). New Chinese Mahonia in British cultivation. The Plantsman (New Series) 8: McLean, B. (2004). George Forrest, Plant Hunter. Antique Collector s Club, Woodbridge. Pearson, G.S. (2010). Lawrence Johnston, Creator of Hidcote. Hidcote Books, Chipping Camden. Shaw, J.M.H. (2011). Developments in Mahonia. The Plantsman (New Series) 10: Takeda, H. (1917). Contributions to the knowledge of the Old World species of the genus Mahonia. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 6: Yeo, P.F. (1972a). A hybrid of Mahonia siamensis. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 97: Yeo, P.F. (1972b). Mahonia siamensis. Curtis s Botanical Magazine 175: t Ying, T. & Chen, D. (2001). Berberidaceae. In: English translation edited by Boufford, D.E. & Brach, A.R. (eds) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Vol. 19. pp Accessed The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012.

Two new species of Mahonia (Berberidaceae) from Yunnan, China

Two new species of Mahonia (Berberidaceae) from Yunnan, China Ann. Bot. Fennici 46: 469 473 ISSN 0003-3847 (print) ISSN 1797-2442 (online) Helsinki 30 October 2009 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2009 Two new species of Mahonia (Berberidaceae) from

More information

OENOTHERA CANTABRIGIANA. BRADLEY MOORE DAVIS University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Received March 18, 1940

OENOTHERA CANTABRIGIANA. BRADLEY MOORE DAVIS University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Received March 18, 1940 OENOTHERA CANTABRIGIANA BRADLEY MOORE DAVIS University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Received March 18, 1940 0 ENOTHERA CANTABRIGIANA (figures I and 2) is a structural hybrid closely related to Oenothera

More information

Flower Model: Teacher Instructions Sepals Anther Stamens (male) Filament Stigma Pistil Style (female) Ovary Petals sepals petals stamens pistil

Flower Model: Teacher Instructions Sepals Anther Stamens (male) Filament Stigma Pistil Style (female) Ovary Petals sepals petals stamens pistil Flower Model: Teacher Instructions In order to better understand the reproductive cycle of a flower, take a look at some flowers and note the male and female parts. Most flowers are different; some have

More information

Common Name: AMERICAN BARBERRY. Scientific Name: Berberis canadensis Miller. Other Commonly Used Names: none. Previously Used Scientific Names: none

Common Name: AMERICAN BARBERRY. Scientific Name: Berberis canadensis Miller. Other Commonly Used Names: none. Previously Used Scientific Names: none Common Name: AMERICAN BARBERRY Scientific Name: Berberis canadensis Miller Other Commonly Used Names: none Previously Used Scientific Names: none Family: Berberidaceae (barberry) Rarity Ranks: G3/S1 State

More information

A Morphological Study On Endemic Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (Apiaceae) From Bingol (Turkey)

A Morphological Study On Endemic Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (Apiaceae) From Bingol (Turkey) Araştırma Makalesi/Research Article A Morphological Study On Endemic Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (Apiaceae) From Bingol (Turkey) Ömer KILIÇ 1 Abstract- In this study morphological characters of Malabaila

More information

VEGETATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

VEGETATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS VEGETATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS Stems, roots, and leaves are the vegetative parts of vascular plants. Stems are the basic organs, as they give rise to other plant organs, such as roots, leaves,

More information

West Virginia Trees. Basic Tree Identification For FFA Forestry Contest

West Virginia Trees. Basic Tree Identification For FFA Forestry Contest West Virginia Trees Basic Tree Identification For FFA Forestry Contest Developed in cooperation with the West Virginia Division of Forestry and the Tyler County FFA Chapter. Identification of trees base

More information

What's in a Flower. Ages: 8 to 12. Contributor: Susan Jaquette, Cornell Plantations volunteer

What's in a Flower. Ages: 8 to 12. Contributor: Susan Jaquette, Cornell Plantations volunteer Ages: 8 to 12 What's in a Flower Contributor: Susan Jauette, Cornell Plantations volunteer Main idea: Flowers are composed of several distinct parts, each of which plays an important role in nature. Objective:

More information

The Flower! What is the flower?

The Flower! What is the flower? The outstanding and most significant feature of the flowering plants (and that which sets them out from other vascular plants) is the flower. Understanding the flower structure and names of the parts is

More information

Pruning Trees. Center for Landscape and Urban Horticulture. University of California Cooperative Extension Central Coast & South Region

Pruning Trees. Center for Landscape and Urban Horticulture. University of California Cooperative Extension Central Coast & South Region University of California Cooperative Extension Central Coast & South Region Center for Landscape and Urban Horticulture Pruning Trees Pruning Trees at Planting Landscape trees should not be pruned at planting

More information

4-1-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, 300-0005 JAPAN; b Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen & Chinese Academy of Sciences,

4-1-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, 300-0005 JAPAN; b Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen & Chinese Academy of Sciences, J. Jpn. Bot. 87: 187 192 (2012) Cytological Studies on Skimmia arborescens Gamble subsp. nitida N. P. Taylor & Airy Shaw (Rutaceae) from Mt. Shiwandashan, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China Tomoko Fukuda

More information

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS PLANT BITS 4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS There are four main parts to a plant. They are the root, stem, leaf and flower. Each part has an important task to do in the life of

More information

To meet the expectations of this unit, students should already know how the appearance of some organisms change over time.

To meet the expectations of this unit, students should already know how the appearance of some organisms change over time. GRADE 4: Life science 3 Life cycles of animals and plants UNIT 4L.3 12 hours About this unit This unit is the third of four units on life science for Grade 4. The unit is designed to guide your planning

More information

Dry Forest. Objectives Students will be able to draw and label a flower. Student will learn the importance of flowers and their anatomy.

Dry Forest. Objectives Students will be able to draw and label a flower. Student will learn the importance of flowers and their anatomy. Concepts Floral structure and importance of flowers HCPS III Benchmarks SC6.6.4 Duration 1 hour Dry Forest Source Material Digital Vocabulary pollinators whorls sepals petals stamen pollen anthers stigma

More information

Operation Flower Dissection

Operation Flower Dissection Operation Flower Dissection Classroom Activity: K-4 Time: One to two 50-minute class periods Overview: In this activity, students will observe the similarities and differences between flowers of different

More information

Writing a Dichotomous Key to Wildflowers

Writing a Dichotomous Key to Wildflowers Writing a Dichotomous Key to Wildflowers Objectives: 1. Understand how to use and make dichotomous keys. 2. Understand common terminology of plant morphology. 3. Learn to recognize some fall wildflowers.

More information

Geraniaceae geranium family

Geraniaceae geranium family Geraniaceae geranium family Long-known for the prized ornamentals and house plants obtained from South African species. Nova Scotia hosts two genera and a half-dozen species. Most are herbs with lobed

More information

Petals Petals are designed to attract as many insects as possible to visit the flower. They have two main ways of doing this.

Petals Petals are designed to attract as many insects as possible to visit the flower. They have two main ways of doing this. Teacher s Fact File Learn: Flower There are many different types of flowers your class may find when walking through the park. Blues, yellows, purples and whites are usually the more common colours as

More information

Diagram of a Typical Plant

Diagram of a Typical Plant Grade: 9 to 12 Length: variable Subjects: life science Topics: weed identification Objectives Exercises in this lesson help students achieve the following objectives: Understand the basic parts of a plant

More information

Strawberry Leaf Spot

Strawberry Leaf Spot Strawberry Leaf Spot Cathy Heidenreich and Bill Turechek Introduction - Leaf spot is one of the most common and widespread diseases of strawberry. Mycosphaerella fragariae is also the cause of black seed

More information

THE FLOWER: PARTS OF THE FLOWER

THE FLOWER: PARTS OF THE FLOWER THE FLOWER: PARTS OF THE FLOWER Materials Large flower A flower for each child Presentation (This is usually a group presentation) 1. Say, I would like to talk about the parts of the flower. 2. Place a

More information

A new species of Mahonia Nutt. (Berberidaceae) from China

A new species of Mahonia Nutt. (Berberidaceae) from China Botanical Studies (2009) 50: 487-492. SYSTEMATICS A new species of Mahonia Nutt. (Berberidaceae) from China Jian-Yong WU 1, Mikinori OGISU 2, Hai-Ning QIN 3, *, and Shi-Nian LU 4 1 Nanjing Institute of

More information

The Flower - what is it?! Floral structure will be examined in lab this Mon/Tues save space in your notes!

The Flower - what is it?! Floral structure will be examined in lab this Mon/Tues save space in your notes! The Flower - what is it?! Floral structure will be examined in lab this Mon/Tues save space in your notes! Magnoliophyta - Flowering Plants! Introduction to Angiosperms "angio-" = vessel; so "angiosperm"

More information

Byfield fern Tree zamia Cabbage palm Zamia Zamia

Byfield fern Tree zamia Cabbage palm Zamia Zamia Byfield fern (Bowenia serrulata)................ 6 Tree zamia (Cycas media).................... 7 Cabbage palm (Livistona decipiens)............. 8 Zamia (Macrozamia miquelii).................. 9 Zamia

More information

Dissect a Flower. Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

Dissect a Flower. Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Dissect a Flower Overview Students dissect an Alstroemeria or similar flower to familiarize themselves with the basic parts of a flower. They

More information

The Toledo Zoo/ThinkingWorks. Teacher Overview for the Conservatory Lessons

The Toledo Zoo/ThinkingWorks. Teacher Overview for the Conservatory Lessons The Toledo Zoo/ThinkingWorks Teacher Overview for the Conservatory Lessons Teacher Overview: Conservatory Plants have many traits that are unique to this particular kingdom of living things. Below is a

More information

April s Featured Plants

April s Featured Plants Genus: Geum (Avens) Genus of about 50 perennials, mostly with dense clusters of hairy leaves Geum chiloense Species originating from Island of Chiloe, Chile which enjoys a cold, wet climate. These plants

More information

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed?

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed? JAPANESE KNOTWEED What is Japanese Knotweed? Japanese Knotweed (botanical name Fallopia japonica) was introduced into Britain from Japan in the early 1800 s. It was originally grown as an ornamental plant,

More information

Programme Cycle Three

Programme Cycle Three Teachers Instructions Activity 1 Plants & Vegetation Plants can be either herbaceous or woody. Most Herbaceous Plants have stems that are soft, green, and contain little woody tissue. These plants are

More information

Laboratory Broadleaf Weed Identification

Laboratory Broadleaf Weed Identification 1 Tips for Identifying Broadleaf Weeds Laboratory Broadleaf Weed Identification The cotyledon is an important identifying characteristic for broadleaf weeds. Shape and position of leaves, presence of pubescence

More information

www.vireya.net Successful Propagation Techniques Brian Clancy

www.vireya.net Successful Propagation Techniques Brian Clancy Successful Propagation Techniques Brian Clancy From 'The Rhododendron' Journal of the Australian Rhododendron Society Volume 31, Spring 1991 The techniques of striking rhododendrons from cuttings is basically

More information

Botanical Illustration for the Classroom

Botanical Illustration for the Classroom Botanical Illustration for the Classroom Bringing Art to Science... Partially supported with funds provided by the American Society of Botanical Artists Applying botanical illustration techniques to teach

More information

Making and using keys Teacher Guidance

Making and using keys Teacher Guidance Teacher Guidance Activities in earlier sections should have laid foundations that lead children to these more complex activities, in which they apply their observation and sorting skills to the practical

More information

Parts of a Flower and Pollination

Parts of a Flower and Pollination Science Unit: Lesson 3: Soils, Plants, and First Nations Parts of a Flower and Pollination School year: 2007/2008 Developed for: Britannia Elementary School, Vancouver School District Developed by: Catriona

More information

Magnolia sprengeri var. elongata in the wild, in cultivation and some hybrids developed at Arboretum Wespelaar, Belgium Philippe de Spoelberch

Magnolia sprengeri var. elongata in the wild, in cultivation and some hybrids developed at Arboretum Wespelaar, Belgium Philippe de Spoelberch Issue 89 Magnolia sprengeri var. elongata in the wild, in cultivation and some hybrids developed at Arboretum Wespelaar, Belgium Philippe de Spoelberch Much has been written about both varieties of Magnolia

More information

Tree factsheet images at pages 3, 4, 5

Tree factsheet images at pages 3, 4, 5 Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group Tree factsheet images at pages 3, 4, 5 Prunus serotina Ehrh. taxonomy author, year Ehrhart 1783 synonym - Family Rosaceae Eng. Name Black Cherry, Wild Cherry

More information

Biology 213 Angiosperms. Introduction

Biology 213 Angiosperms. Introduction Biology 213 Angiosperms Introduction The flowering plants, the angiosperms, are the most recent plants to evolve and quickly became the dominant plant life on this planet. They are also the most diverse

More information

A NEW LARGE-FLOWERED ODONTOGLOSSUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM THE CUSCO REGION IN PERU

A NEW LARGE-FLOWERED ODONTOGLOSSUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM THE CUSCO REGION IN PERU LANKESTERIANA 13(3): 395 399. 2014. A NEW LARGE-FLOWERED ODONTOGLOSSUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM THE CUSCO REGION IN PERU Stig Dalström 1,3 & Saul Ruíz Pérez 2 1 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119,

More information

Exercise 7 Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers and Fruits Biol 1012, S2008, Lee, Etterson, and Little

Exercise 7 Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers and Fruits Biol 1012, S2008, Lee, Etterson, and Little Exercise 7 Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers and Fruits Biol 1012, S2008, Lee, Etterson, and Little Goals Relate structures in a flower to the plant life cycle: alternation of generations. Identify floral,

More information

Growing the genus Hepatica is a very great joy; more and more

Growing the genus Hepatica is a very great joy; more and more Yukiwariso Subdivision in Hepatica Types Gunhild Poulsen Growing the genus Hepatica is a very great joy; more and more gardeners are discovering these wonderful flowers - and so did I. At first it was

More information

Introduction to Plant Propagation. Glenn T. Sako Assistant County Extension Agent CTAHR, UHM

Introduction to Plant Propagation. Glenn T. Sako Assistant County Extension Agent CTAHR, UHM Introduction to Plant Propagation Glenn T. Sako Assistant County Extension Agent CTAHR, UHM Purposes for Plant Propagation Multiply the number of a species Perpetuate a species Maintain the youthfulness

More information

Teacher packs in Experimental Science. Bio Pack 5. Examining flower structure

Teacher packs in Experimental Science. Bio Pack 5. Examining flower structure Teacher packs in Experimental Science Bio Pack 5 Examining flower structure Pack contents: A. Teachers Guide B. Students Guide C. Assessment Student s sheet D. Extensions to experiment E. Links to other

More information

MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE ROOT 3. THE STEM 4. THE LEAF 5. THE INFLORESCENCE 6. THE FLOWER 7. THE FRUIT 8.

MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE ROOT 3. THE STEM 4. THE LEAF 5. THE INFLORESCENCE 6. THE FLOWER 7. THE FRUIT 8. MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE ROOT 3. THE STEM 4. THE LEAF 5. THE INFLORESCENCE 6. THE FLOWER 7. THE FRUIT 8. SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Morphology deals with the study of shape, size

More information

ISSECTING A LOWER Florida Sunshine State Standards Benchmark SC.F.1.3.1 Background Information:

ISSECTING A LOWER Florida Sunshine State Standards Benchmark SC.F.1.3.1 Background Information: ISSECTING A LOWER Florida Sunshine State Standards Benchmark SC.F.1.3.1 The student understands that living things are composed of major systems that function in reproduction, growth, maintenance, and

More information

Bee Life. Grade 3 Science and Technology Unit

Bee Life. Grade 3 Science and Technology Unit Bee Life Grade 3 Science and Technology Unit Instructions to Teachers This unit is a Science and Technology lesson plan for the Understanding Life Systems Growth and Changes in Plants strand. Over a duration

More information

Bombax ceiba. Family: Malvaceae Red Silk-Cotton; Red Cotton Tree; Kapok; Flower Display: A+ Silk Cotton

Bombax ceiba. Family: Malvaceae Red Silk-Cotton; Red Cotton Tree; Kapok; Flower Display: A+ Silk Cotton Stephen H. Brown, Horticulture Agent Lee County Extension, Fort Myers, Florida (239) 533-7513 brownsh@ufl.edu http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/hort/gardenhome.shtml Bombax ceiba Family: Malvaceae Red Silk-Cotton;

More information

Introducing the parts of a flower

Introducing the parts of a flower Parts of a flower Teacher Guidance Introducing the parts of a flower pollen petal stamen anther filament stigma style ovary carpel ovule sepal stem Figure 2. A half flower, showing the basic parts: sepal,

More information

Other Commonly Used Names: swamp cedar, southern white cedar, juniper

Other Commonly Used Names: swamp cedar, southern white cedar, juniper Common Name: ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR Scientific Name: Chamaecyparis thyoides (Linnaeus) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg Other Commonly Used Names: swamp cedar, southern white cedar, juniper Previously Used

More information

Hydrangea Selection, Pruning and Care

Hydrangea Selection, Pruning and Care Hydrangea Selection, Pruning and Care Mike Andruczyk Horticulture Extension Agent, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Chesapeake Types of Hydrangeas Hydrangeas can be easy to grow in Virginia if you give

More information

ARNOLDIA VE RI. A publication of THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 02130

ARNOLDIA VE RI. A publication of THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 02130 ARNOLDIA W VE RI A publication of THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 02130 VOLUME 28 t~ia~ 1;, 1968 NUMBERS 4-5 ALBIZIA JULIBRISSIN AND ITS CULTIVAR ERNEST V~ ILSON

More information

Brambles: General. M. Elena Garcia Professor/ Extension Fruit and Nut Specialist

Brambles: General. M. Elena Garcia Professor/ Extension Fruit and Nut Specialist Brambles: General M. Elena Garcia Professor/ Extension Fruit and Nut Specialist Blackberry and Raspberry Family: Rosaceae Genus: Rubus L. Roman: ruber =red Subgenera: Rubus (formerly Eubatusblackberries

More information

B.10B Interactions with Plants

B.10B Interactions with Plants B.10B Interactions with Plants Picture Vocabulary stimuli Anything that prompts a response or action response An action that is prompted by a stimulus xylem Plant tissue that transports water absorbed

More information

Trees & Development - A Guide to Best Practice is sponsored by:

Trees & Development - A Guide to Best Practice is sponsored by: Trees & Development - A Guide to Best Practice is sponsored by: The Forest of Belfast The Planning Service Landscape Architects Branch, Construction Service, Central Procurement Directorate, DFP and and

More information

STATION 1: Gymnosperm Survey

STATION 1: Gymnosperm Survey The Seed Plants: Laboratory Gymnosperms & Angiospserms 5 Introduction Gymnosperms and angiosperms are vascular, sporophyte-dominant plants that produce seeds. Although these heterosporous plants still

More information

Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca

Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca Up to 25-30 tall x 15-20 wide or partial shade 10 degrees F. General: The Apricot Tree is a subspecies of the peach and dates back 3,000 years to northeastern China. Apricots

More information

Light in the Greenhouse: How Much is Enough?

Light in the Greenhouse: How Much is Enough? Light in the Greenhouse: How Much is Enough? by: James W. Brown http://www.cropking.com/articlelghe Most of us know that green plants need light for photosynthesis, growth, and development. As important

More information

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdcourt

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdcourt Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdcourt A guide to Identification, Risk Assessment and Management Jonathan Newman Plant Protection Service, Wageningen, NL Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Wallingford,

More information

(12) United States Plant Patent Cho

(12) United States Plant Patent Cho USO0PP24596P2 (12) United States Plant Patent Cho (10) Patent N0.: (45) Date of Patent: (54) COLOCASIA PLANT NAMED HAWAIIAN PUNCH (50) Latin Name: Colocasia esculenta Varietal Denomination: HAWAIIAN PUNCH

More information

RARE PLANTS AND BOTANICALLY SIGNIFIGANT ASSEMBLAGES

RARE PLANTS AND BOTANICALLY SIGNIFIGANT ASSEMBLAGES Guidelines for Rare Plant Surveys Edited by Diana Bizecki Robson INTRODUCTION With the recent protection of some of Saskatchewan s rare plants under The Wildlife Act, industry will be required to conduct

More information

REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS Flowers represent the reproductive organ of flowering plants, and are very important in identification because they typically provide characters that are consistently

More information

Grade 4 Title: My Name is Magnolia Whittney McCray

Grade 4 Title: My Name is Magnolia Whittney McCray Grade 4 Title: My Name is Magnolia Whittney McCray Student Learning Objective(s): The students will understand why Magnolias are a type of evergreen. The students will create a story based on the information

More information

Habitat Comparison at the Garden

Habitat Comparison at the Garden Habitat Comparison at the Garden Several types of habitats are represented at the Atlanta Botanical Garden: tropical rainforest, desert, temperate deciduous forest and wetlands. During this activity students

More information

Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu CCCXCII. Botanika Steciana.

Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu CCCXCII. Botanika Steciana. Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu CCCXCII www.up.poznan.pl/steciana Botanika Steciana,, - ISSN - RUBUS MAXIMUS ROSACEAE FOUND ALSO IN POLAND P K, J Z P. Kosiński, Department of Botany, Poznań University

More information

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type.

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type. Plant nutrients All plants require nutrients to survive and grow. Plants take nutrients from the air, the soil, and the water. Because you cannot see nutrients they are colourless gases or are like dust

More information

Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview Objectives bold Part I Floral Anatomy . calyx sepals corolla, petals, stamens, filament

Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview Objectives bold Part I Floral Anatomy . calyx sepals corolla, petals, stamens, filament Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview In this lab you will observe assorted flowers, fruits, and seeds to better understand the unique adaptations of and the life cycle of angiosperms.

More information

March 9, 2015 Unit A: Life Science Chapter 1: How Plants Live and Grow Sequencing Many things have a certain order. When you place things in the

March 9, 2015 Unit A: Life Science Chapter 1: How Plants Live and Grow Sequencing Many things have a certain order. When you place things in the March 9, 2015 Unit A: Life Science Chapter 1: How Plants Live and Grow Sequencing Many things have a certain order. When you place things in the correct order you are sequencing the items. When we talk

More information

Expt. How do flowering plants do it without flagella? The journey to find an egg. What causes pollen grain germination and tube growth?

Expt. How do flowering plants do it without flagella? The journey to find an egg. What causes pollen grain germination and tube growth? 1 Expt. How do flowering plants do it without flagella? The journey to find an egg. What causes pollen grain germination and tube growth? File: F12-07_pollen Modified from E. Moctezuma & others for BSCI

More information

Plant vocabulary. Overview. Aims. Preparation for activity. Teaching sequence. Conservation

Plant vocabulary. Overview. Aims. Preparation for activity. Teaching sequence. Conservation Module 1 Conservation Plant vocabulary Time 2 hours Materials Photocopies of sheets C1A, C1B & C1C, C2, C3 Science notebook Pens Plants Glue Scissors Herbarium specimens Skills Observation Group work Plant

More information

IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions. Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9. Chapter 6 Plant structure and function

IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions. Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9. Chapter 6 Plant structure and function 1 IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9 Chapter 6 Plant structure and function Page 54 1. a Epidermis. Helps maintain shape, reduces evaporation, resists

More information

Table 3. List of descritors for maize

Table 3. List of descritors for maize Table 3. List of descritors for maize Descriptor Descriptor Descriptor state Recording stage Remarks number 1 Accession number 2 Total no. of leaves Record the total number of At flowering leaves per plant

More information

Development of New Coleus Cultivars for Shade Tolerance and Cut Foliage Production

Development of New Coleus Cultivars for Shade Tolerance and Cut Foliage Production FNGLA Endowed Research Report Development of New Coleus Cultivars for Shade Tolerance and Cut Foliage Production David G. Clark and Penny Nguyen University of Florida Environmental Horticulture Department

More information

Name Date Hour Table #

Name Date Hour Table # Flower Structure Flowers vary in size, shape and color. The largest flower, with at diameter of one meter (three feet and three inches) and weighing about 9 kilograms (20 pounds), is born on a plant from

More information

Sexual reproduction in Angiosperms

Sexual reproduction in Angiosperms Sexual reproduction in Angiosperms Name: ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperms are plants that have their seeds enclosed in an ovule inside their flower. About 80% of the plants we see and know are angiosperms. The

More information

report on PLANT DISEASE VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF ROSES

report on PLANT DISEASE VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF ROSES report on PLANT DISEASE RPD No. 632 September 1988 DEPARTMENT OF CROP SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF ROSES Virus and viruslike diseases of roses have

More information

Lab Exercise 7: Leaves (also see Atlas pp )

Lab Exercise 7: Leaves (also see Atlas pp ) Lab Exercise 7: Leaves (also see Atlas pp. 141-150) In most green plants, leaves are the primary photosynthetic organs. They are well adapted for efficient light absorption, carbon fixation, and conduction

More information

Fort Collins Tree ID Test Study Guide

Fort Collins Tree ID Test Study Guide Fort Collins Tree ID Test Study Guide 2011 White Fir Whole Tree Conical to pyramidal growth habit. White Fir Needles Curving upwards and outwards. Bluish green to silvery blue in color. Soft to the touch

More information

Mighty Oaks From Little Acorns

Mighty Oaks From Little Acorns Science Process: Observe and Measure / Life Science / Math: Measurement (Length), data Analysis (graphing) / reading: Sequencing / Listening / Writing / Visual Arts expression Background Buds are on the

More information

Preliminary morphological assessment of six new, yellow flowering Camellia (Theaceae) species from Viet Nam

Preliminary morphological assessment of six new, yellow flowering Camellia (Theaceae) species from Viet Nam Preliminary morphological assessment of six new, yellow flowering Camellia (Theaceae) species from Viet Nam George Orel and Anthony S. Curry (Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000,

More information

Invasive Tree Species

Invasive Tree Species Invasive Tree Species A Contents Invasive Tree Species................. 1 Removal Permit Process.............. 2 Mitigation......................... 3 Identification Guide: Norway maple - Acer platanoides............

More information

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616)

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Chapter 24 Reproduction of Seed Plants Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Key Concepts What are the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms? How does pollination

More information

Pea Patch Pollination Game

Pea Patch Pollination Game Pea Patch Pollination Game Classroom Activity: 5-8 Time: One 45-60-minute class period Overview: In this activity, students play a simulation game modeling changes in a plant population (a Pea Patch) caused

More information

Prioritizing watering needs for different types of trees

Prioritizing watering needs for different types of trees Watering Trees for Long-term Survival The Village of Downers Grove is proud of its Tree City USA distinction, and we want residents to help keep Downers Grove beautiful with happy, healthy trees. Watering

More information

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616)

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Chapter 24 Reproduction of Seed Plants Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) This section describes the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms. It also explains

More information

Strawberry Anthracnose

Strawberry Anthracnose Strawberry Anthracnose Bill Turechek and Cathy Heidenreich Introduction - The term anthracnose is a general term used to describe plant diseases. Strawberry anthracnose refers to several diseases of strawberry

More information

Text analysis: D Visual texts Solutions D

Text analysis: D Visual texts Solutions D 1 Pictures (pp.63 71) 1.1 Getting started: Four-step analysis (p.63) 1.2 Photographs, paintings and drawings (pp. 63 64) a) Have a look at the photograph below and then fill in the gaps in the sentences

More information

Planting Techniques for Living Snow Fences Planting Techniques for Rooted Stock

Planting Techniques for Living Snow Fences Planting Techniques for Rooted Stock Planting Techniques for Living Snow Fences Two general categories of plant materials, rooted and unrooted, can be used for living snow fences. The planting techniques used with rooted plant materials are

More information

Plant Responses to Environmental Cues Tropisms, Photoperiodism, and Plant Hormones

Plant Responses to Environmental Cues Tropisms, Photoperiodism, and Plant Hormones Plant Responses to Environmental Cues Tropisms, Photoperiodism, and Plant Hormones Plant Responses to Environmental Cues Phototropism - plant growth response to light shoots bend toward light - positive

More information

Two Main Precautions Before You Begin Working

Two Main Precautions Before You Begin Working Pruning Mango Trees Roy Beckford, Ag/Natural Resources Agent, UF/IFAS Lee County Two Main Precautions Before You Begin Working 1. Mango peel and sap contain urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison

More information

Growth and Development Guide for Spring Wheat

Growth and Development Guide for Spring Wheat WWW F0 02547 Reviewed 1995 Growth and Development Guide for Spring Wheat S.R. Simmons, E.A. Oelke, and P.M. Anderson Copyright 1995, with the exception of Figure 1, Minnesota Extension Service, University

More information

Dichotomous Keys. How This Tool Can Help You Identify Plants! Marion Lobstein.

Dichotomous Keys. How This Tool Can Help You Identify Plants! Marion Lobstein. Dichotomous Keys 1a. small flowers at base of spadix usually surrounded by spathe(modified leaf)...arum F.(Araceae) 1b. flowers not as above...(2) 2a. flower parts in 3's, parallel leaf venation (monocots)...(3)

More information

DID YOU KNOW that the plants most important to

DID YOU KNOW that the plants most important to Flower Anatomy DID YOU KNOW that the plants most important to agriculture all produce flowers? Every major food crop is a flowering plant. We do not think about the flowers of wheat, rice, corn, and soybeans.

More information

FLOWERS AND THEIR PARTS

FLOWERS AND THEIR PARTS FLOWERS AND THEIR PARTS FLOWERS ARE SHAPED AND DESIGNED TO ATTRACT POLLINATORS. ALL THE COLORS, THE NECTAR REWARDS, THE ARRANGEMENTS, AND NUMBER OF PARTS RELATE TO THIS ALL-IMPORTANT PURPOSE The typical

More information

CITRUS PRUNING. control, fruit production and size control

CITRUS PRUNING. control, fruit production and size control CITRUS PRUNING Pruning techniques for tree health pest Pruning techniques for tree health, pest control, fruit production and size control Tree Shapes Citrus trees are generally pruned to a central leader

More information

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES OAK TREES CARE AND MAINTENANCE

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES OAK TREES CARE AND MAINTENANCE DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES OAK TREES CARE AND MAINTENANCE This guide will offer basic information for the preservation and maintenance of oak trees as a part of an overall landscape use. Unfortunately, oak

More information

Cercis Ruby Falls. www.planthaven.com. Origin: Redbud breeding program at NCSU Species: Cercis canadensis Protection Status: US PPAF

Cercis Ruby Falls. www.planthaven.com. Origin: Redbud breeding program at NCSU Species: Cercis canadensis Protection Status: US PPAF Cercis Ruby Falls Origin: Redbud breeding program at NCSU Protection Status: US PPAF Key Features Unique weeping habit. Full crown of foliage at the top. Large heart shaped purple leaves. Attractive reddish-purple

More information

Florida Native Plant Society

Florida Native Plant Society Florida Native Plant Society Native Plant Owners Manual Asclepias humistrata Sandhill Milkweed Mark Hutchinson For Your Information All date and seasonal references are applicable to the eastern panhandle

More information

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Program Support Notes by: Janine Haeusler M. Sc (Ed), B. Ed Produced by: VEA Pty Ltd Commissioning Editor: Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. Executive Producers: Edwina Baden-Powell B.A, CVP. Sandra Frerichs

More information

As closely related members of the rose family,

As closely related members of the rose family, E-612 2-13 Texas Fruit and Nut Production lums, Nectarines, Apricots Cherries, Almonds and Prunus hybrids Larry Stein, Jim Kamas, and Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, The Texas A&M University

More information

o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet

o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet o d Propagation and Moon Planting Fact Sheet Propagation Propagation is actually quite simple and requires very little effort on your part. Most seeds are ready to go, complete with all the nutrients and

More information

Poisonous Plants of Southern Arizona

Poisonous Plants of Southern Arizona Poisonous Plants of Southern Arizona Created using University of Arizona College of Pharmacy website. http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/centers/arizona-poison-druginformation-center/plantsbad#top Candelabras

More information