Country report for Finland, March 2016

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1 Country report for Finland, March 2016 NordGen Forest Kari Leinonen and Katri Himanen 1. Supply of seed and seedlings At the end of 2015, the Finnish national register had 143 forest tree seed orchards with a total area of ha (Table 1). The seed production area for Scots pine was highest, ha. The areas of Norway spruce and Siberian larch seed orchards were 365 ha and 55 ha, respectively. In addition we had seed orchards for oak, maple and alder. The detailed information on the national registers EU member countries can be found from the new FOREMATIS information system ( In Finland, 156 million forest tree seedlings were produced for domestic market in The production decreased by three million from the previous year. Norway spruce was still the most prominent species with 100 million seedlings. The production of Scots pine seedlings was 48 million (Fig. 1 A). The Norway spruce production decreased more than 4.5 million seedlings. In addition, 6.5 million silver birch and 0.6 million seedlings of other tree species were delivered for planting last year. The production of silver birch seedlings increased by more than a million. The amounts of Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch seeds used for nursery sowings were 884 kg, 451 kg and 19 kg, respectively. The sowings decreased by 41 kg in spruce and increased by 28 kg in pine and nearly by 6 kg in birch (Fig. 1 B). The proportion of seed orchard seed in nursery sowings were high 75%, 77%, and 93% in Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch, respectively (Fig 1 C). In southern Finland 1, the proportions were even higher (Norway spruce 93% and Scots pine 100%). The number of nurseries has decreased from 94 to 47 during the last thirteen years. In 2015, the seedling production ended in six nurseries. Table 1. The registered seed orchards in Finland 2014 Tree species Number Area, ha Acer platanoides, Norway maple 1 1,5 Alnus glutinosa, black alder 2 4,1 Larix sibirica, Siberian larch 6 55,0 Picea abies, Norway spruce ,6 Pinus sylvestris, Scots pine ,7 Quercus robur, pedunculate oak 1 1,5 Total ,4 1 Nine northernmost nurseries from 47 were excluded.

2 Seed orchard seeds, % Seeds, kg Seedlings, million A) B) C) Year Total Scots pine Norway spruce Silver birch Figure 1. (A) Number of seedlings delivered for planting, (B) amount of seed used in nurseries and (C) proportion of seed orchard seed (qualified and tested category) of the total seed amount used in nurseries in

3 2. Research and outreach The downsizing in Luke (Natural Resources Institute Finland) has continued. By the end of of the current 37 research stations will be shut. Two of these (Kannus and Kolari) are facilities of former Metla (Finnish Forest Research Institute). The strategy of Luke involves relocation of researchers from the smallest units to the 11 largest research stations. 118 people were laid off in No need for decreasing personnel further is in sight. University of Helsinki announced in January 2016 plans to reduce staff by 970 people by the end of 2017, with 570 laid off. The university employs over 8000 people. The cuts will affect also the research and teaching in forest sciences and biology. The situation is due to current government's drastic funding cuts to education and research. 3. Forest policies The law on Metsähallitus (Finnish Forest Service) was revised to meet the EU's requirements and clarifies its management. The revised act will come into force in April The Parliament votes for the act proposal on 29 March, The act has raised controversy particularly in environmental foundations. The concern is that more pressure for harvesting in forest conservation areas and in recreational forests will emerge. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has negated the suspicions. According to the new Act, Metsähallitus will be a special State Forest Enterprise where the public administrative tasks are separated from the market-based business to own unit. The market-based business will be positioned to subsidiary companies. Metsähallitus will remain as a single functional entity and state-owned land and water assets is directly owned by the state. The subsidiary company responsible for state forestry activities has permanent access to state-managed forests, and it is obligated to take care of social obligations as at present. Bioeconomy and clean solutions are one of the key projects of the Finnish Government Programme. The bioeconomy encompasses all kinds of production based on renewable natural materials, including the further development and use of innovations and technologies related to such materials. The project is divided in into five different sub-projects. From forestry point of view the most important sub-project is called Wood on the move and new products from forests. The goal is to diversify and increase the use of wood and to raise its value added. The funding for this sub-project is 32 mill. in As part of this, national forest inventory (VMI) in Luke was granted an extra 0,7 mill. this year.

4 Country report for Sweden, March 2016 NordGen Forest 1. Supply of seed and seedlings It is too early to present statistics on production and import of seed 2014 based on registration of master certificates and notifications on trade across borders due to the lag in handling and applications. There is a tendency of increased shipping of cones to Finland for kiln drying. We do not know if the seed produced will stay in Finland or return to Sweden. The reason for this is not known but capacity and prize may have impact. 2. Research and outreach Ongoing research on Populus in Sweden: There is a lack of knowledge about the establishment of Populus spp. on forest sites. There is also a lack of knowledge of how second generations can be established by root and stump sprouts, and about management of the young stand. The thesis Establishment and Early Management of Populus Species in Southern Sweden by Rebecka McCarthy, SLU/SkogForsk, is focusing on these issues. She is defending the thesis on 20 May. How ph-value in the soil affects the growth of Populus and hybrid aspen was recently studied by researchers at Skogforsk. The results indicate that increased ph affected growth positively for Populus but had little effect on hybrid aspen. At SLU there are ongoing research investigating what Populus clones and plant types are best suited for planting on forest sites. 3. Forest policies A new Director General has been appointed for the Swedish Forest Agency (Skogsstyrelsen). Herman Sundqvist has held various leading positions at state owned Sveaskog AB since He has previously worked with forestry and environmental issues within Assi Domain and holds a doctorate from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The process for the National Forest Program is in progress. Four working groups are currently working on a report. Grupp 1. Tillväxt, mångbruk och värdeskapande av skogen som resurs Grupp 2. Virkesproduktion, övriga ekosystemtjänster och naturens gränser Grupp 3. Främjande av biobaserade produkter och energi, smarta transporter, en skogsindustri i världsklass och ökande transport Grupp 4. Internationella skogsfrågor

5 Country report for Norway, March 2016 NordGen Forest 1. Supply of seed and seedlings New seed lots at the Norwegian Forest Seed Center in 2015 Seed lot Species Provenance F Scots pine FP-621 Västerhus, Sverige Crop year Seeds (kg) Seed Source Category ,50 Frøplantasje Tested F Abies bornmuelleriana Tyrkia, Bolu Kökez ,30 Bestand Source F Abies nordmanniana Tyrkia, Artvin- Savsat-Yayla ,30 Bestand Source F Scots pine Av7, Skjåk ,20 Stand F Abies lasiocarpa F Norway Spruce Canada, BC, George Mountain FP-1221 Kaupanger frosth ,80 Stand Source Source ,33 Seed Orchard Tested Certified exports of seeds and plants in 2015 (other than the Norwegian Fores Seed Center) Species Norway Spruce Quercus petrea Quercus petrea Type of material Quantity Seedlings Quantity Seeds Crop Year Provenance Seed Source Category Seedlings 9000 Sanderud Seed Orchard Qualified Seeds 1020 kg 2015 F1, Grimstad Seeds 1110 kg 2015 F1, Arendal- Froland Spredt forekomst Spredt forekomst Source Source Certified import of seeds and plants (other than the Norwegian Forest Seed Center) It was granted permission for import of million seedlings of Norway spruce from Sweden for forestry use, of which seedlings were of Norwegian seed orchard origin seedlings and 22 kgs of seeds of Scots pine were permitted for import from Sweden. The actual size of the import is not known. Imports of seedlings for Christmas tree production are not known. Seed Sales from the Norwegian Forest Seed Center in kgs of seeds from 23 different species were sold in 2015 of which 229 kgs were Norways spruce, 29 kgs were Scots pine and 14 kgs were Abies lasiocarpa. The figures for export are not available yet. Collection of Cones in 2015 More than 95 tons of Norway spruce cones were collected in the seed orchards and in 2016, kgs of freshly harvested seed orchard seeds will be available. About 5 tons of cones were collected in Norway spruce stands. Minor quantities of other species were collected. 2. Research and outreach

6 The project Approaching next generation breeding in Norway spruce: balancing genetic gain and genetic diversity (SustBreed) is planning a final seminar in Hamar, 2 November Breeding of Norway spruce is at a crossroad as second generation seed orchards are being established, and the trade-off between genetic diversity and genetic gain is enlightened by means of novel results on genetic studies from seed orchards and natural forest stands. The seminar will also address forest seed supply in general, with a fresh update on the seed year of The seminar will be in Norwegian. NIBIO is taking part in the EU funded project consortium GenTree (Optimising the management and sustainable use of forest genetic resources in Europe). The project will go from The overall goal of GenTree is to provide the European forestry sector with better knowledge, methods and tools to improve the conservation and use of adapted and genetically diverse FGR in European forests in the context of global environmental change and evolving societal demands for a diversified range of forest products. Skogforsk and University of Oulu are also taking part in the project, in addition to various other European partners. 3. Forest policies In 2016 NOK 33 mill have been allocated to climate mitigation measures within the forest sector in Norway. The funds are divided into three different uses; denser planting of forest, fertilization and breeding. These measures are in addition to funds allocated for the pilot project on planting in new areas, which was reported on in the last Norwegian (NordGen Forest) country report in September A report on Agriculture and climate change has been delivered to the ministry mid February The report aims to give a broad and updated knowledge base about the challenges and possibilities agriculture, including forestry, is faced with within the prospects of climate change, dealing with both mitigation and adaptation perspectives, based on the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report.

7 Country report for Denmark, March 2016 NordGen Forest 1. Supply of seed and seedlings The statistic for 2014/15 is shown below. ( A good harvest in several species is expected in 2015/2016. But for beech and oak only a minimal harvest is made, shortage is expected.

8 2. Research and outreach Palle Madsen is appointed as professor in forestry, at Skovskolen, University of Copenhagen. Palle Madsen is giving a presentation about forest productivity challenges and opportunities at the NordGen thematic day in Silkeborg. 3. Forest policies A new government was formed after the election in june The new minister, Eva Kjer Hansen left the position in February due to some political difficulties with figures on environmental consequences of a new arrangement of fertilization rules. The new minister is Esben Lunde-Larsen. A nature program is under preparation. Untouched forest and biodiversity is on the agenda. The Nature Agency will be divided into two Agencies this year and the head office will move from Copenhagen to Jutland as part of the government s policy for development of rural districts.

9 Country report for Iceland, March Supply of seed and seedlings The main seed source for afforestation in Iceland is the native birch, collected by volunteers in the wild or from planted trees. This seed is mainly for direct seeding of derelict land and the largest user is the ecological rehabilitation project Hekluskógar. The quantity of unprocessed birch seed in 2015 collected for this purpose was around 25 kg. Other seed collected in 2015 mostly originated in Vaglir greenhouse seedorchard in North Iceland. This consisted of larch hybrid and birch seed. Seed of Alnus and contorta pine were collected form planted stands. Seed collected 2015 Species Origin Germination kg Betula pubescens Various locations ca 25 B. pubescens Vaglir greenhouse seed-orchard 65% 2.5 Larix sukaczewii x decidua Vaglir greenhouse seed-orchard 6-15% 1.2 Pinus contorta Western Iceland 45-83% 0.4 Alnus sinuata South-west Iceland 68% 1.1 In Vaglir greenhouse seed-orchard, larch hybrid and selected birch trees are grown on 400 m 2. These are control pollinated each year for seed production. In Tumastaðir South Iceland, a 0.5 ha seed orchard of grafted Sitka spruce plus trees was planted in In the same year, a greenhouse seed-orchard In Tumastaðir for selected birch trees was also established. Seed orchards in Iceland Species Location Larix sukaczewii x decidua Vaglir greenhouse seed-orchard Betula pubescens Vaglir greenhouse seed-orchard Abies lasiocarpa Vaglir greenhouse seed-orchard B. pubescens Embla Tumastaðir greenhouse seed-orchard Picea sitchensis Tumastaðir outdoor seed-orchard

10 2. Research and outreach Current tree improvement programs involve testing of the North-American tree species Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa, Picea sithensins and Pinus contorta. Part of the work with P. contorta involves testing of selected Swedish material, and this experiment also includes Pinus sylvestris from Sweden. Other species in newly established tree improvement trials are Abies lasiocarpa provenances for future Christmas tree plantations and Betula pendula of Nordic origin. A number of field experiments have also been established in recent years at exposed and difficult afforestation sites in Southern Iceland. These involve comparison of site preparation methods, species selection, fertilizers, and mycorrhizal inoculation. 3. Forest policies A new Forestry director, Þröstur Eysteinsson, was appointed in December One of his current roles is to merge all state run forestry operations into one forestry institution. This merging includes five regional forestry projects and the old Forestry Service. The new institution will have around 70 employees in 11 or 12 locations around the country. The annual budget for afforestation is now growing again after years of cutbacks. This increase is in relation to a three year government climate action plan to reduce emissions by increasing carbon sequestration.

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