The Elderly in Africa: Issues and Policy Options. K. Subbarao

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Elderly in Africa: Issues and Policy Options. K. Subbarao"

Transcription

1 The Elderly in Africa: Issues and Policy Options K. Subbarao

2 The scene prior to 1990s The elderly were part of the extended family and as such enjoyed care and protection. The informal old age support system was strong. Evidence assembled by Deaton and Paxson (1997) show that for Ghana, South Africa the elderly were not overrepresented among the poor in 1988.

3 The scene has vastly changed in the 1990s. A number of trends in developing African countries could well make matters worse as regards old age poverty. First, changes in household structures brought about by AIDS have undermined informal old age support.

4 The scene in the 1990s. AIDS has in fact reversed the traditional role of the extended family: far from supporting the elderly, the opposite is now true: the elderly (grandparents) have now become care givers for grandchildren and families. Figure 1 shows how the middle age cohort is disappearing due to AIDS.

5 Projected population structure with and without the AIDS epidemic, Botswana, 2020 Age in years Males Females Projected population structure in 2020 Deficits due to AIDS Population (thousands) Source: US Census Bureau, World Population Profile 2000

6 In 10 countries of sub-saharan Africa more than 15% of all children were orphans in 2001

7 Risks faced by OVC Most common risks associated with orphanhood: Loss of educational opportunities Risk of abuse and exploitation Health and Psychological risks Risks of stigma and discrimination

8 Understanding old age poverty is now critical.. Apart from AIDS, economic adjustments due to globalization, changes in labor market conditions, social sector reforms (including such policies as cost recovery) have adversely affected older people. Contributions of older people are systematically under-valued.

9 Understanding old age poverty Perceptions that older people are largely dependent on their households, communities or the state have not changed, though in reality AIDS pandemic has proven these perceptions wrong. One should expect poverty incidence to be higher among the old today.

10 Evidence on elderly poverty Unfortunately very few data sets in post- AIDS pandemic exist, and these have not yet been analyzed. However, many qualitative and participatory studies provide a broad picture of the elderly in Africa. Help Age International has done pioneering work in Tanzania, Ghana and South Africa.

11 Poverty among the elderly. The studies by Help Age International confirm that poverty in later life is deep and enduring; widowed elderly women are among the poorest; in the surveyed African countries the elderly poor lacked family and social support, income security and health care.

12 Poverty among the elderly. According to W.Bank Ghana Poverty Assessment, the combination of age, widowhood, and lack of adult education was frequently associated with chronic vulnerability among elderly women. Because of AIDS, older women were twice as likely as men to be widowed

13 Tackling Poverty in Later Life: Policy Options Households and community organizations do continue to provide the greater part of old age support in much of Africa; so it is important to develop policy initiatives that complement community initiatives. In this context, what is the role and what are the implications of non-contributory social pensions for very poor countries of Africa?

14 Non-contributory Pensions: Design issues Essentially three design options: In countries which already have these pensions, increase coverage In countries with currently no noncontributory old pensions, consider: Universal pensions regardless of income levels Means-tested pensions only for the indigent elderly

15 Design options In this presentation, I focus on the latter two issues: universal versus means-tested old age pensions. What are the issues: Fiscal cost Information requirements Administrative issues: fraud prevention Political economy

16 Fiscal cost: affordability issue This issue is not specific to old age pensions: it applies to all social assistance programs. Cost depends on (a) level of support, and (b) age cut-off point, and (c) numbers covered. If universal, (b) determines (c).

17 Level of support There are two ways of addressing this issue: Consider a norm such as $1 a day and assess total cost, given a cut-off point. This is relatively easy arithmetic if we know the demographic picture. Typically unaffordable for most poor countries:

18 Affodability issue. For 60+ coverage, as per cent of GDP, it works out to 9.8% for Malawi, 9.2% for Mozambique, 16.7% for Ethiopia, 12.2% for Sierra Leone, 4.7% for Nigeria, 5.4% for Rwanda. The proportions are high for 65+ coverage: 5.9%, 6.3%, 10.6%, 7.2%, 2.9%, 3.2% respectively.

19 Affordability issue Maintaining a cut-off point beyond 65 may render the program not relevant in some AIDS-ravaged African countries where life expectancy levels have fallen before 45. The level of support, however, may be too generous (1$ day) in countries where the average per capita consumption expenditure below poverty threshold is less than a $1 a day.

20 Affordability. It is probably desirable to assess the cost by looking at poverty thresholds, and estimate the cost by scenerios such as: how much does it cost to fill 50% or 75% of the poverty gap ratio among the elderly; how much does it cost to bring the elderly poor s threshold to the average below the pov.threshold, or to the national average poverty threshold. Such estimates are not available for any African country, but work is in progress.

21 Affordability. Can means-testing reduce the fiscal cost? Depends on a variety of considerations In countries where informal support is still very strong, means-testing may be necessary in order not to crowd out community/household support system. In countries where numbers of large, means-testing may be necessary.

22 Means-testing. Yet means-testing in African countries is not easy. Information constraints are severe. Community-driven targeting might work: e.g., which grandparents in a given community are currently providing care to children, and how effectively.

23 Means-testing In this context, age-cut-off may be supplemented with exposure to risk and vulnerability: a grandparent aged 58 might be vulnerable if sick and has to provide care to grandchildren, whereas another 65 year-old may not be vulnerable if living in an extended family receiving proper care.

24 Means-testing Because of these considerations, community-driven approaches might work rather than mechanical age cut-off points. Moreover, age cut-off may be difficult to implement in countries with no tradition of birth certificates or even birth registration.

25 Means-testing Because of these limitations, it is not surprising Case and Deaton found no difference in cost-savings between means-tested and universal social pension in South Africa. One option is to consider a proxy means-test, for all elderly below a lower age limit (say 55 or 60).

26 Means-testing Proxy means tests could include an asset test, children s current condition, in-residence status, age and health status of the recipient, etc. all assessed by the community with a simple, field-tested questionnaire. Finally, means-tests are not generally politically popular: so it is necessary to build appropriate constituency before launching a means-tested program.

27 Concluding remarks. So what options should low income countries consider? Perhaps begin with a universal pension at an (advanced) age determined by the current and future demographic structure, but provide minimal benefits. Size of benefits needs to vary depending on the current other benefits/coverage under health, education, and other social protection programs.

28 Concluding remarks Independently of fiscal costs and targeting options, it is essential to do a proper risk and vulnerability assessment, and check if (a) the elderly are in fact a vulnerable group that can be targeted with an age-cut off criterion, and/or (b) if a small benefit to elderly poor may lead to significant poverty relief, and if that small benefit is affordable. Pilot test to if community-driven approach target the elderly Never ignore the multi-faced vulnerability of the poor in policymaking! Thank you.

29 Multi-faceted Vulnerability of the Elderly Morbidity and mortality; Psychological distress; Poverty; School drop-out; Malnutrition and foodinsecurity; of inheritance; Fear, isolation and stigma; Abuse and neglect; Risk of HIV/AIDS.

From Protection to Production: the impact of cash transfer programs on economic activities in Africa

From Protection to Production: the impact of cash transfer programs on economic activities in Africa From Protection to Production: the impact of cash transfer programs on economic activities in Africa Solomon Asfaw Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA)

More information

Pensions Core Course Mark Dorfman The World Bank. March 7, 2014

Pensions Core Course Mark Dorfman The World Bank. March 7, 2014 PENSION PATTERNS & REFORM CHALLENGES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Pensions Core Course Mark Dorfman The World Bank Slide 1 Organization 1. Design summary 2. Challenges 3. Design reform principles 4. A process

More information

Social protection and poverty reduction

Social protection and poverty reduction Social protection and poverty reduction Despite the positive economic growth path projected for Africa, the possibility of further global shocks coupled with persistent risks for households make proactive

More information

50 TH ANNIVERSARY OF INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY: Literacy rates are on the rise but millions remain illiterate

50 TH ANNIVERSARY OF INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY: Literacy rates are on the rise but millions remain illiterate 50 TH ANNIVERSARY OF INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY: Literacy rates are on the rise but millions remain illiterate UIS FACT SHEET SEPTEMBER 2016, No. 38 To mark the 50 th anniversary of International Literacy

More information

DHS EdData Education Profiles

DHS EdData Education Profiles DHS EdData Education Profiles This series of country education profi les uses internationally comparable data from USAID s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to characterize children s participation

More information

The Little Data Book on Africa

The Little Data Book on Africa From Africa Development Indicators The Little Data Book on Africa Basic indicators National accounts Millennium Development Goals Paris Declaration indicators Private sector development Trade Infrastructure

More information

Population and Development in Jamaica with reference to the MDGS

Population and Development in Jamaica with reference to the MDGS Population and Development in Jamaica with reference to the MDGS Presenter Mr. Easton Williams Population Unit Planning Institute of Jamaica June 14, 2009 World Population Day General Perspectives on Population

More information

VI. IMPACT ON EDUCATION

VI. IMPACT ON EDUCATION VI. IMPACT ON EDUCATION Like every other sector of the social and economic life of an AIDS-afflicted country, the education sector has felt the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. An increasing number of

More information

The Evolution and Future of Social Security in Africa: An Actuarial Perspective

The Evolution and Future of Social Security in Africa: An Actuarial Perspective w w w. I C A 2 0 1 4. o r g The Evolution and Future of Social Security in Africa: An Actuarial Perspective Presented by Members of the Actuarial Society of South Africa Social Security Committee Fatima

More information

HIV/AIDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE GROWING EPIDEMIC?

HIV/AIDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE GROWING EPIDEMIC? HIV/AIDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE GROWING EPIDEMIC? Paul Bennell 1 It is widely believed that the AIDS epidemic continues to spread rapidly throughout the African continent with rising levels of HIV

More information

Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa

Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa Deon Filmer The World Bank December 2013 Main Findings Unemployment (of urban educated graduates who want to work in the wage sector) is just the tip of the iceberg

More information

50 years THE GAP REPORT 2014

50 years THE GAP REPORT 2014 THE GAP REPORT 2014 People aged 50 years and older The ageing of the world s population is one of the most significant demographic trends of this era, and there are a growing number of people aged 50 and

More information

Africa s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations CHILDREN AFFECTED BY AIDS

Africa s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations CHILDREN AFFECTED BY AIDS Africa s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations CHILDREN AFFECTED BY AIDS Africa s Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations CHILDREN AFFECTED BY AIDS CONTENTS Executive summary..................................................iv

More information

Progress and prospects

Progress and prospects Ending CHILD MARRIAGE Progress and prospects UNICEF/BANA213-182/Kiron The current situation Worldwide, more than 7 million women alive today were married before their 18th birthday. More than one in three

More information

UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY

UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY Questionnaire JAN/2011 Post-crisis adjustment and fiscal consolidation processes (2010 onwards) 1. Has your country

More information

MINISTRY OF STATE FOR PLANNING, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISION 2030

MINISTRY OF STATE FOR PLANNING, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISION 2030 REPUBLIC OF KENYA MINISTRY OF STATE FOR PLANNING, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISION 2030 8 TH POVERTY AND ECONOMIC POLICY (PEP) RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE IN DAKAR, SENEGAL PAPER ON THE ACTUAL USES OF CBMS

More information

The impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force in Sub-Saharan Africa: a preliminary assessment

The impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force in Sub-Saharan Africa: a preliminary assessment Research and policy analysis 3 International Labour Organization IBRAHIMA COULIBALY The impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force in Sub-Saharan Africa: a preliminary assessment ILOAIDS www.ilo.org/aids Bureau

More information

Latest trends in technology for news media in Africa. Sibusiso Nkomo

Latest trends in technology for news media in Africa. Sibusiso Nkomo Latest trends in technology for news media in Africa Sibusiso Nkomo The latest trend in news media and communications technology in Africa shows a continent on an upward economic trajectory but still haunted

More information

F. MORTALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

F. MORTALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES F. MORTALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Ian TimFus reviewed existing evidence on mortality trends in sub-saharan Africa, a region characterized by the highest mortality levels in the world. There were several

More information

Mapping African Networks for Children Affected by AIDS and/or Orphans and Vulnerable Children Summary of questionnaire results April 2013

Mapping African Networks for Children Affected by AIDS and/or Orphans and Vulnerable Children Summary of questionnaire results April 2013 Mapping African Networks for Children Affected by AIDS and/or Orphans and Vulnerable Children Summary of questionnaire results April 2013 This report presents the results of the questionnaire that was

More information

Social Isolation and Loneliness. Brent JSNA 2015

Social Isolation and Loneliness. Brent JSNA 2015 Social Isolation and Loneliness Brent JSNA 2015 Summary Social Isolation and Loneliness In England, over a third of people aged 65 or over lives alone, and 70% of these people are female. Brent has 30,616

More information

Sierra Leone. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Sierra Leone. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Sierra Leone Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

INDICATOR REGION WORLD

INDICATOR REGION WORLD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA INDICATOR REGION WORLD Demographic indicators Total population (2005) 713,457,000 6,449,371,000 Population under 18 (2005) 361,301,000 2,183,143,000 Population under 5 (2005) 119,555,000

More information

UNAIDS 2013 AIDS by the numbers

UNAIDS 2013 AIDS by the numbers UNAIDS 2013 AIDS by the numbers 33 % decrease in new HIV infections since 2001 29 % decrease in AIDS-related deaths (adults and children) since 2005 52 % decrease in new HIV infections in children since

More information

Striving for Good Governance in Africa

Striving for Good Governance in Africa Striving for Good Governance in Africa This presentation will: Introduce the ECA project Measuring and Monitoring Progress towards good governance in Africa Present a synopsis of the Africa Governance

More information

Two s a crowd: Living alone in New Zealand

Two s a crowd: Living alone in New Zealand Two s a crowd: Living in New Zealand Crown copyright This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. International licence. You are free to copy, distribute, and adapt the work, as long

More information

AfDB. Aging Population Challenges in Africa. African Development Bank. Content. Abstract. Alice Nabalamba a and Mulle Chikoko b

AfDB. Aging Population Challenges in Africa. African Development Bank. Content. Abstract. Alice Nabalamba a and Mulle Chikoko b Vol. 1, Issue 1 November 211 AfDB Chief Economist Complex Aging Population Challenges in Africa Alice Nabalamba a and Mulle Chikoko b Content Abstract 1. Background 2. Africa: demographic trends 3. Country-specific

More information

Education is the key to lasting development

Education is the key to lasting development Education is the key to lasting development As world leaders prepare to meet in New York later this month to discuss progress on the Millennium Development Goals, UNESCO s Education for All Global Monitoring

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Mozambique

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Mozambique Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Mozambique Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

A review of social protection experiences in Africa Draft paper by G. Mutangadura

A review of social protection experiences in Africa Draft paper by G. Mutangadura A review of social protection experiences in Africa Draft paper by G. Mutangadura Introduction Social protection has been defined by the UN in 2001 to be The set of public and private policies and programmes

More information

SIDE EVENT ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE AFRICAN LABOUR MARKETS, GENEVA, 2 JUNE 2016 STATEMENT OF H.E AICHA ABULAHI, COMMISSIONER FOR POLITICAL AFFAIRS,

SIDE EVENT ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE AFRICAN LABOUR MARKETS, GENEVA, 2 JUNE 2016 STATEMENT OF H.E AICHA ABULAHI, COMMISSIONER FOR POLITICAL AFFAIRS, AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA SIDE EVENT ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE AFRICAN LABOUR MARKETS, GENEVA, 2 JUNE 2016 STATEMENT OF H.E AICHA ABULAHI, COMMISSIONER FOR POLITICAL AFFAIRS, AFRICAN UNION

More information

Trends in living arrangements of the Belgian elderly: the impact of Second Demographic Transition ( )

Trends in living arrangements of the Belgian elderly: the impact of Second Demographic Transition ( ) Trends in living arrangements of the Belgian elderly: the impact of Second Demographic Transition (1991-2013) Michel POULAIN Barcelona 26 June 2015 Questions addressed Living arrangements, with whom you

More information

The price of income security in older age:

The price of income security in older age: Briefing no. 2 Contents 1 Key lessons and introduction 2 Costing a universal pension 3 Results of costing 5 Sustainability of cost over time 8 Conclusion The price of income security in older age: Cost

More information

UNAIDS 2014 ETHIOPIA HIV EPIDEMIC PROFILE

UNAIDS 2014 ETHIOPIA HIV EPIDEMIC PROFILE UNAIDS 214 ETHIOPIA HIV EPIDEMIC PROFILE 214 ETHIOPIA Overview The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a country located at the horn of Africa. According to population projections the total population

More information

REGIONAL WORKSHOP AGEING AND POVERTY. Ageing and Poverty in Tanzania

REGIONAL WORKSHOP AGEING AND POVERTY. Ageing and Poverty in Tanzania REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON AGEING AND POVERTY COUNTRY POSITION PAPER Ageing and Poverty in Tanzania Vice President s Office United Republic of Tanzania Introduction The national pressure, due to the break-up

More information

NCDs POLICY BRIEF - INDIA

NCDs POLICY BRIEF - INDIA Age group Age group NCDs POLICY BRIEF - INDIA February 2011 The World Bank, South Asia Human Development, Health Nutrition, and Population NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES (NCDS) 1 INDIA S NEXT MAJOR HEALTH CHALLENGE

More information

Tanzania (United Republic of)

Tanzania (United Republic of) Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Tanzania (United Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for

More information

Growth in Tanzania: Is it Reducing Poverty?

Growth in Tanzania: Is it Reducing Poverty? Growth in Tanzania: Is it Reducing Poverty? Introduction Tanzania has received wide recognition for steering its economy in the right direction. In its recent publication, Tanzania: the story of an African

More information

INDICATOR REGION WORLD

INDICATOR REGION WORLD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA INDICATOR REGION WORLD Demographic indicators Total population (2006) 748,886,000 6,577,236,000 Population under 18 (2006) 376,047,000 2,212,024,000 Population under 5 (2006) 125,254,000

More information

Financing Education for All in Sub Saharan Africa: Progress and Prospects

Financing Education for All in Sub Saharan Africa: Progress and Prospects Financing Education for All in Sub Saharan Africa: Progress and Prospects Albert Motivans Education for All Working Group Paris, 3 February 211 1 Improving the coverage and quality of education finance

More information

EARLY MARRIAGE A HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICE A STATISTICAL EXPLORATION

EARLY MARRIAGE A HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICE A STATISTICAL EXPLORATION EARLY MARRIAGE A HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICE A STATISTICAL EXPLORATION EARLY MARRIAGE A HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICE A STATISTICAL EXPLORATION CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION......................................................1

More information

Older people in Africa: a forgotten generation

Older people in Africa: a forgotten generation Older people in Africa: a forgotten generation Older people play a pivotal role in African society today but their needs are often overlooked by development programmes and services. Older people play a

More information

VII. IMPACT ON THE HEALTH SECTOR

VII. IMPACT ON THE HEALTH SECTOR VII. IMPACT ON THE HEALTH SECTOR The HIV/AIDS epidemic has posed and will continue to pose tremendous challenges to the health systems of the developing countries, especially in the most severely affected

More information

DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS

DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS 1 MALTA DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS Nominal GDP (millions Maltese Lira) 5,634 GDP per capita (USD) 20,254 Population (thousands) 407 Labour force (thousands) 171 Employment rate 93.94 Population over

More information

SOCIAL PROTECTION BRIEFING NOTE SERIES NUMBER 4. Social protection and economic growth in poor countries

SOCIAL PROTECTION BRIEFING NOTE SERIES NUMBER 4. Social protection and economic growth in poor countries A DFID practice paper Briefing SOCIAL PROTECTION BRIEFING NOTE SERIES NUMBER 4 Social protection and economic growth in poor countries Summary Introduction DFID s framework for pro-poor growth sets out

More information

Profile of Rural Pennsylvania Elderly Women

Profile of Rural Pennsylvania Elderly Women Profile of Rural Pennsylvania Elderly Women Introduction This analysis looks at the population of elderly women who are 65 years old and older living in rural Pennsylvania. It was completed to better understand

More information

Children s Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002

Children s Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002 Children s Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002 Population Characteristics Issued June 2003 P20-547 This report provides information on several characteristics of children, covering different

More information

Congo (Democratic Republic of the)

Congo (Democratic Republic of the) Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Congo (Democratic Republic of the) Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report

More information

AIO Life Seminar Abidjan - Côte d Ivoire

AIO Life Seminar Abidjan - Côte d Ivoire AIO Life Seminar Abidjan - Côte d Ivoire Life Insurance Market Survey of Selected African Countries Bertus Thomas Africa Committee of the Actuarial Society of South Africa Agenda SECTION 1 SURVEY OBJECTIVE

More information

Universal Age Pensions

Universal Age Pensions Universal Age Pensions Larry Willmore Strategies for the Extension of Social Protection International Training Centre of the ILO Turin, Italy, 29 November 2007 Traditional three pillars 1. Public pensions

More information

Visions for Gender Equality. Pensions and gender: a critical gap in our radar screens?

Visions for Gender Equality. Pensions and gender: a critical gap in our radar screens? Visions for Gender Equality Francesca Bettio and Silvia Sansonetti (editors) Language editor: Jacki Davis Pensions and gender: a critical gap in our radar screens? The key battles for gender balance were

More information

Most studies on the economic impact of HIV/AIDS focus on such variables

Most studies on the economic impact of HIV/AIDS focus on such variables 5 The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Poverty and Inequality ROBERT GREENER Most studies on the economic impact of HIV/AIDS focus on such variables as GDP growth or income per capita. Early studies, incorporating

More information

Summary. Developing with Jobs

Summary. Developing with Jobs Do not publish or DiStribute before 00:01 Gmt on tuesday 27 may 2014 Summary Developing with Jobs World of Work Report 2014 Developing with jobs Executive Summary INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION RESEARCH

More information

Child Poverty in Kyrgyzstan: Analysis of the 2008 Household Budget Survey

Child Poverty in Kyrgyzstan: Analysis of the 2008 Household Budget Survey Child Poverty in Kyrgyzstan: Analysis of the 2008 Household Budget Survey A Report for UNICEF Yekaterina Chzhen January 2010 Working Paper No. EC 2410 Acknowledgements Many thanks to Professor Jonathan

More information

Statistical Profile of Unmarried Women: New Jersey 1 March 2016

Statistical Profile of Unmarried Women: New Jersey 1 March 2016 1 March 2016 I. Population, 18 years and older, 2014 2 Total: 5.909 million Men: 2.825 million (47.8% of total) 3.084 million (52.2% of total) Married women: 3 1.530 million (25.9% of total; 49.6% of women)

More information

E c o n o m i c. S o c i a l A f f a i r s THE IMPACT OF AIDS. United Nations

E c o n o m i c. S o c i a l A f f a i r s THE IMPACT OF AIDS. United Nations E c o n o m i c & THE IMPACT OF AIDS S o c i a l A f f a i r s United Nations ST/ESA/SER.A/229 Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division THE IMPACT OF AIDS United Nations New York,

More information

Madagascar. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Madagascar. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Madagascar Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

HAWAI I S OLDER ADULTS: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE

HAWAI I S OLDER ADULTS: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE HAWAI I S OLDER ADULTS: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 2 Hawai i s Older Adults OVERVIEW Respect for elders is a cultural value that continues in Hawai i today and is demonstrated in myriad ways, from seeking the

More information

Unintended Pregnancy: More than a Medical Issue. Holly Duncan

Unintended Pregnancy: More than a Medical Issue. Holly Duncan Unintended Pregnancy: More than a Medical Issue Holly Duncan Unintended pregnancy is a wide-spread problem which is considered a silent pandemic throughout both developed and developing countries. Of the

More information

MDRI HIPC. heavily indebted poor countries initiative. To provide additional support to HIPCs to reach the MDGs.

MDRI HIPC. heavily indebted poor countries initiative. To provide additional support to HIPCs to reach the MDGs. Goal To ensure deep, broad and fast debt relief and thereby contribute toward growth, poverty reduction, and debt sustainability in the poorest, most heavily indebted countries. HIPC heavily indebted poor

More information

Characteristics of African American Families

Characteristics of African American Families Characteristics of African American Families Based on the Work of Oscar Barbarin, PhD Professor University of North Carolina School of Social Work Presentation developed by Jenny Nicholson, MSW student

More information

Urban Food Security in Southern Africa

Urban Food Security in Southern Africa Urban Food Security in Southern Africa Bruce Frayne and Wade Pendleton Programme in Urban Food Security (PUFS) University of Cape Town African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN) Regional Policy Conference,

More information

About 870 million people are estimated to have

About 870 million people are estimated to have Undernourishment around the world in 212 Undernourishment around the world Key messages The State of Food Insecurity in the World 212 presents new estimates of the number and proportion of undernourished

More information

DataWatch. A Five-Nation Perspective On The Elderly by Diane Rowland

DataWatch. A Five-Nation Perspective On The Elderly by Diane Rowland DataWatch A Five-Nation Perspective On The Elderly by Diane Rowland As the world faces the challenges of an increasingly aged population, this study examines the attitudes and experiences of those age

More information

Child poverty: a role for cash transfers in West and Central Africa?

Child poverty: a role for cash transfers in West and Central Africa? Briefing Paper Strengthening Social Protection for Children inequality reduction of poverty social protection February 2009 reaching the MDGs strategy social exclusion Social Policies security social protection

More information

Debt and Older People

Debt and Older People Debt and Older People Executive summary P f R C PERSONAL FINANCE RESEARCH CENTRE Your Money Matters The Your Money Matters programme is designed to improve the skills, confidence and financial situation

More information

Conditional Cash Transfer PATH - Jamaica World Bank s s Human Development Forum

Conditional Cash Transfer PATH - Jamaica World Bank s s Human Development Forum Conditional Cash Transfer PATH - Jamaica World Bank s s Human Development Forum Dr. Sheila Campbell-Forrester Chief Medical Officer Ministry of Health, Jamaica 2006 October 30 Jamaica Objectives for PATH

More information

Measuring the coverage of formal old-age income protection systems around the world

Measuring the coverage of formal old-age income protection systems around the world World Bank-Hitotsubashi-MOF Workshop on Closing the Coverage Gap: The Role of Social Pensions February 20-22, 22, 2008 Measuring the coverage of formal old-age income protection systems around the world

More information

IS SOVEREIGN DEBT AN ISSUE FOR SUBSAHARAN AFRICA? By Fanwell Kenala Bokosi, PhD. Introduction

IS SOVEREIGN DEBT AN ISSUE FOR SUBSAHARAN AFRICA? By Fanwell Kenala Bokosi, PhD. Introduction IS SOVEREIGN DEBT AN ISSUE FOR SUBSAHARAN AFRICA? By Fanwell Kenala Bokosi, PhD Introduction The issue of sovereign debt has been a continuous issue on the continent. Concern with the high levels of debt

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. South Africa

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. South Africa Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report South Africa Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Malawi. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Malawi. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Malawi Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

CHILD, FAMILY, AND STATE: Family Policy, Social Protection Policy and the Well-Being of Children 1*

CHILD, FAMILY, AND STATE: Family Policy, Social Protection Policy and the Well-Being of Children 1* Sheila B. Kamerman CHILD, FAMILY, AND STATE: Family Policy, Social Protection Policy and the Well-Being of Children 1* Children are the largest age group in the world s population and the most vulnerable

More information

Social Security: The Largest Source of Income for Both Women and Men in Retirement. Income Sources in Retirement. By Heidi Hartmann and Sunhwa Lee

Social Security: The Largest Source of Income for Both Women and Men in Retirement. Income Sources in Retirement. By Heidi Hartmann and Sunhwa Lee IWPR Publication #D455 April 2003 : The Largest Source of Income for Both Women and Men in Retirement By Heidi Hartmann and Sunhwa Lee This Briefing Paper examines major sources of income for older Americans

More information

Germany and Japan under Demographic Change

Germany and Japan under Demographic Change Germany and Japan under Demographic Change Prof. Dr. Thusnelda Tivig University of Rostock, Department Ageing of Individuals and Society (AGIS), and Rostock Center for the Study of Demographic Change Content

More information

It is important to understand child poverty as multidimensional. Income poverty in South Africa. Annie Leatt (Children s Institute)

It is important to understand child poverty as multidimensional. Income poverty in South Africa. Annie Leatt (Children s Institute) Income poverty in South Africa Annie Leatt (Children s Institute) It is important to understand child poverty as multidimensional and more than just a lack of income. Nevertheless, this essay specifically

More information

ACA Premium Impact Variability of Individual Market Premium Rate Changes Robert M. Damler, FSA, MAAA Paul R. Houchens, FSA, MAAA

ACA Premium Impact Variability of Individual Market Premium Rate Changes Robert M. Damler, FSA, MAAA Paul R. Houchens, FSA, MAAA ACA Premium Impact Variability of Individual Market Premium Rate Changes Robert M. Damler, FSA, MAAA Paul R. Houchens, FSA, MAAA BACKGROUND The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduces

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Gabon

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Gabon Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Gabon Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

How to End Child Marriage. Action Strategies for Prevention and Protection

How to End Child Marriage. Action Strategies for Prevention and Protection How to End Child Marriage Action Strategies for Prevention and Protection Why Child Marriage Must End Girls who marry as children are often more susceptible to the health risks associated with early sexual

More information

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women United Nations CEDAW/C/ETH/Q/6-7 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Distr.: General 4 November 2010 Original: English Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination

More information

To learn more about the Community Health Center movement, read the history below.

To learn more about the Community Health Center movement, read the history below. The Community Health Center Movement As Congress seeks to get health spending under control and the number of people losing health coverage rises, community health centers (CHC) have become vitally important.

More information

A SNAPSHOT OF THE NUTRITION SITUATION IN AFRICA

A SNAPSHOT OF THE NUTRITION SITUATION IN AFRICA A SNAPSHOT OF THE NUTRITION SITUATION IN AFRICA AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA P. O. Box 3243 Telephone: +251115-517700 Fax: +251115-517844 Website: www.africa-union.org

More information

Healthcare Financing : The Case for Long Term Care Insurance. Wai-sum Chan Department of Finance The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Healthcare Financing : The Case for Long Term Care Insurance. Wai-sum Chan Department of Finance The Chinese University of Hong Kong Healthcare Financing : The Case for Long Term Care Insurance Wai-sum Chan Department of Finance The Chinese University of Hong Kong 1 Outline Introduction Demographic Overview Long-Term Care Financing

More information

UNAIDS ISSUES BRIEF 2011 A NEW INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE GLOBAL HIV RESPONSE

UNAIDS ISSUES BRIEF 2011 A NEW INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE GLOBAL HIV RESPONSE UNAIDS ISSUES BRIEF 2011 A NEW INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE GLOBAL HIV RESPONSE Copyright 2011 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) All rights reserved The designations employed and the

More information

Attitudes and Sense of Responsibility of University Students toward Their Aging Parents in Japan and Korea

Attitudes and Sense of Responsibility of University Students toward Their Aging Parents in Japan and Korea Attitudes and Sense of Responsibility of University Students toward Their Aging Parents in Japan and Korea Dongqing Chen & Yoko Hosoe Joetsu University of Education Niigata Postal: 943-0815, Japan E-mail:

More information

OVERVIEW OF CURRENT SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

OVERVIEW OF CURRENT SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Chapter Three OVERVIEW OF CURRENT SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS The first step in understanding the careers of school administrators is to describe the numbers and characteristics of those currently filling these

More information

2. Old-age and Survivors' Insurance

2. Old-age and Survivors' Insurance 2. Old-age and Survivors' Insurance A. General Chapter 4: Benefits: Activities and Trends - Old-age and Survivors' Insurance Old-age and survivors' pensions of the National Insurance Institute constitute

More information

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA BACKGROUND PAPER FOR FIXING THE BROKEN PROMISE OF EDUCATION FOR ALL DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA By Hiroyuki Hattori, UNICEF This

More information

Child Protection. UNICEF/Julie Pudlowski. for children unite for children

Child Protection. UNICEF/Julie Pudlowski. for children unite for children Child Protection UNICEF/Julie Pudlowski for children unite for children UNICEF/Hiroki Gomi UNICEF/Hiroki Gomi Fast facts Sexual violence experienced in childhood 28% girls 13% boys Physical violence experienced

More information

The Effects of HIV/AIDS on Children s Schooling in Uganda

The Effects of HIV/AIDS on Children s Schooling in Uganda The Effects of HIV/AIDS on Children s Schooling in Uganda By John Bosco Asiimwe + August 07 Paper for presentation at the 5 th African Population Conference Arusha - Tanzania + Institute of Statistics

More information

HIV/AIDS: AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR

HIV/AIDS: AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR ST/ESA/SER.A/209/ES DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS POPULATION DIVISION HIV/AIDS: AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR EXECUTIVE SUMMARY UNITED NATIONS NEW YORK 200 1 2 HIV/AIDS: AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR Executive

More information

Income Tax Issues for NGOs in Anglophone Africa

Income Tax Issues for NGOs in Anglophone Africa Income Tax Issues for NGOs in Anglophone Africa By Karla W. Simon Catholic University of America School of Law Introduction. This paper discusses the current state of income 1 tax benefits for NGOs in

More information

SOCIAL PENSIONS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES ARMANDO BARRIENTOS BROOKS WORLD POVERTY INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER, UK 1

SOCIAL PENSIONS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES ARMANDO BARRIENTOS BROOKS WORLD POVERTY INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER, UK 1 SOCIAL PENSIONS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES ARMANDO BARRIENTOS BROOKS WORLD POVERTY INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER, UK 1 1 Armando Barrientos is Senior Research Fellow and Associate Director at the Brooks

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Burkina Faso

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Burkina Faso Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Burkina Faso Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

HIPC MDRI MULTILATERAL DEBT RELIEF INITIATIVE HEAVILY INDEBTED POOR COUNTRIES INITIATIVE GOAL GOAL

HIPC MDRI MULTILATERAL DEBT RELIEF INITIATIVE HEAVILY INDEBTED POOR COUNTRIES INITIATIVE GOAL GOAL GOAL To ensure deep, broad and fast debt relief and thereby contribute toward growth, poverty reduction, and debt sustainability in the poorest, most heavily indebted countries. HIPC HEAVILY INDEBTED POOR

More information

Chapter Eleven CHILDREN LIVING IN SOLE FATHER HOMES IN NEW ZEALAND. by Judith A. Davey

Chapter Eleven CHILDREN LIVING IN SOLE FATHER HOMES IN NEW ZEALAND. by Judith A. Davey Chapter Eleven CHILDREN LIVING IN SOLE FATHER HOMES IN NEW ZEALAND by Judith A. Davey 1. INTRODUCTION Growth in sole parenthood in the 1980s and 1990s has given rise to a high level of anxiety in New Zealand

More information

An Assessment of the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation Using Social Security Administrative Data

An Assessment of the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation Using Social Security Administrative Data An Assessment of the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation Using Social Security Administrative Data Introduction Melissa L. Koenig Office of Research, Evaluation,

More information

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day a

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day a Annex II Revised Millennium Development Goal monitoring framework, including new targets and indicators, as recommended by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Millennium Development Goal Indicators At

More information

Around 15,500 Kirklees residents in their 60s are working and are likely to retire from work in the next few years.

Around 15,500 Kirklees residents in their 60s are working and are likely to retire from work in the next few years. Retirement Headlines Around 15,500 Kirklees residents in their 60s are working and are likely to retire from work in the next few years. Experience of retirement varies with differing levels of access

More information

V. IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE

V. IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE V. IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE The great majority of the population in the countries most affected by HIV/AIDS live in rural areas. In many African countries, farming and other rural occupations provide a livelihood

More information

Empowerment through decent work and social protection floors

Empowerment through decent work and social protection floors Empowerment through decent work and social protection floors Vinicius Pinheiro Deputy Director, ILO Office for the UN in New York EGM on Policies and Strategies to Promote the Empowerment of People in

More information