# Functions of Metaphors of Modality in President s Radio Addresses

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3 702 FUNCTIONS OF METAPHORS OF MODALITY expressed explicitly is the metaphorical realization of modality. In other words, congruent realizations express modality implicitly while metaphorical realizations express modality explicitly (see Example 1). Example (1) a. I think Susan knows, doesn t she? (probability) b. Susan probably knows. (doesn t she?) (the congruent form) c. I think Susan knows, don t I? d. Mike thinks Susan knows, doesn t he? modalization probability frequency/usuality Modality Figure 2. System of types of modality (Halliday, 1994, p. 357). Table 1 Modality: Examples of Type and Orientation Combined Subjective: explicit Subjective: implicit Objective: implicit Objective: explicit Modaliztion: It s likely that Susan I think Susan knows. Susan ll know. Susan probably knows. probability knows. Modalization: Tom usually sits quite It s usual for Tom to sit Tom ll sit quite quiet. usuality quiet. quite quiet. Modulation: It s expected that Mike I want Mike to go. Mike should go. Mike s supposed to go. obligation goes. Modulation: Mike will help. Mike s keen to help. Inclination Note. Adapted from Halliday s (1994), p modulation obligation/necessity inclination In Example (1)a, I think is a typical explicitly subjective form of modality. It is obviously different from Example (1)d. Here the speaker s opinion about the probability is posed as a separate and projecting clause in a hypotactic clause complex, while not its congruent realization, as a modal element within the clause. The examples in Table 1 reveal that the clauses in explicitly subjective type are all expressions of mental processes, and they emphasize the subjectivity of the speaker s judgment. While the projecting clause in explicitly objective type, as the realization of a part in relational process clause, is posed as a proposition with some attribute, thus, highlighting the objectivity of the speaker s opinion or assertion. There is another aspect that should be put forward. Halliday (1994) stated that Nominalizing is the most forceful device for forming grammatical metaphor. By this device, processes and properties are reworded metaphorically as nouns; rather than functioning as Process or Attribute in the clause; they work as Thing in the nominal group (p. 352). This means that explicitly objective orientation can also be realized by nominalizing

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