1 ************************** Control Sistem Engine Test Cell **************************
2 INDEX Index Introduction System mechanic Dynometer Torque meter device Transmission Anti-vibration support Engine pallet Services FU-20 - Fuel supply system CHS - Engine fluids conditioning system TeCAS TEst Cell Automation System Introduction Central Control Unit, MDH, ETCS DBS - dyno control system IOM physical channels acquisition box APA accelerator actuator Console and cabinet... 46
3 1. INTRODUCTION Following you can find the description of Control Sistem s standard equipment for engine test cells. The growing necessity for new types of test benches or power train test systems is pushing constructors to search for partners able to provide complete turnkey solutions. The professionalism of Control Sistem ranges over a complete set of applications so it can ensure a total responsibility in the design of the whole project: construction, installation of instruments and continuous test support. As a System Integrator, Control Sistem delivers the right test stand for all kind of engine testing requirements. Choosing the best components on the broad range of the world s most capable suppliers, Control Sistem is able to implement the complete test cell building:
4 - automation system (electronic and software) - high performance driver technologies - all mechanical and fluidic fittings - security systems - optimal measurement equipment - noise and vibrations absorption systems - air conditioning systems - building including lifting and transport systems. After analyzing customer s requirements Control Sistem delivers best of class solutions. The INT9000 software (developed by Control Sistem itself) can meet all needs in engines testing. thus allowing to implement complete test solutions according to customer s specifications. Company presentation Control Sistem is a leading producer of Testing Facility solutions for the Automotive sector providing all-round service and extensive specialization across the vehicle testing spectrum: Engine Testing Cells, Components Testing Rigs, Powertrain & Gearbox Testing Solutions. Control Sistem also develops in-house complete dedicated management Software that is a key feature of the entire test process alongside the other elements in the Testing chain. The high-level technical and entrepreneurial capacity acquired in over 20 years experience in the Automotive sector enables Control Sistem to deliver cuttingedge solutions comprising latest-generation technology as well as sophisticated Hardware and Software systems. Proven expertise in the sector has enabled the Company to collaborate with top automakers both in Italy and worldwide with consistently excellent results. Control Sistem s real strength is its highly flexible ability to design and produce solutions tailored to customer specifications or developed in conjunction with customers themselves a versatility that has become a fundamental market plus in the development of each project.
5 Mission The true mission of Control Sistem is to provide innovative solutions with a high technological and engineering content for the Automotive Testing sector: flexibility, efficiency and quality are the fist line company objectives. The main goal is the creation of tailor made Testing Facilities for the client, making available an allround service with a broad and specialized range of interventions. Vision Control Sistem is an entrepreneurial reality guided by solid values, constructed day after day in synergy with workers and clients. Concrete company values and strong motivation have positioned the company as one of the market leaders, having achieved great success in the sector for over 20 years. Control Sistem spirit Control Sistem nurtures a deep sense of responsibility towards clients, by developing qualified projects with a high technological content. The relationship with internal personnel is an important element of the company s ethics: a highly motivated staff contributes to create a profitable and productive company climate. Finally a totally independent financial status creates a solidity and certainty that favors the company s choices and Research and Development investments. Flexibility The main advantage of the company is that fact that it is high tech and has broad flexibility. Control Sistem designs and creates tailor made solutions adapting itself with versatility to the client's specifications and develops projects even in collaboration with the client himself, making use of the competence of its own staff. Innovative thought and complex project management ability are two of the main characteristics of the flexible operations of Control Sistem, which implements tailor-made projects which are thought-out in detail for market leader companies. Market versatility has become a fundamental advantage for the development of every project. Working with clients
6 The high efficiency of the company is due to the concrete daily comparison with the work, paying attention to the clients and their needs, using the experience matured in over 20 years work in the sector to adopt a global vision of the industrial panorama and creating innovative solutions. Focusing on problems Control Sistem pays constant attention to technological development, with effectiveness and a market strategy which is strongly product oriented. Control Sistem focuses on every problem and makes an efficient project management chain operational to optimize development schedules always providing ad hoc solutions. Staff The company makes use of the best specialists of the sector, with a multidisciplinary team that guarantees expertise, creativity, and innovative thought. A solid project management network supports every professional solution in such a way that every new idea is handled with the necessary organizational structure, with a view to completely develop the project, from the engineering stage to the final production stage. Experience is a fundamental extra for Control Sistem: its personnel has twenty years of technical and engineering experience and hence is the guarantee of professionalism and know-how which is always in the forefront.
7 History 1985 Control Sistem is born. The new company incorporates a pre-existent company called Società Tecnoimel, which operates in the field of industrial electric plant engineering and process control systems. This was solid starting base for the new born company due to Tecnoimel's twenty years of industrial experience Control Sistem enters into the Automotive experimentation sector by creating Heavy-Duty diesel test benches. At the beginning of the 1990's - The Testing Facilities for Automotive component construction sector becomes the main focus of the Development and Research department. The Software development department is born which is completely managed in-house.
8 1994 The first step towards internationalisation. The first contract in a foreign country: the PSS-20 particle sampling system begins its international adventure. A prototype for the end-of-line engine tests is developed Control Sistem extends its entrepreneurial ability into the sector of roller benches for vehicle road tests. The control Software is developed and various different turnkey are constructed 1998 The company becomes a member of the EU Committee for ISO/TC22/SC5 WG2 International Standards and is a world leader in the monitoring of particle emissions for Diesel engines Control Sistem adopts a new commercial strategy by introducing the PSS-20 system into the Swedish and English markets. The success is immediate: important international constructors choose Control Sistem's equipment to develop their engines Control Sistem expands its business: important new contracts are made for the design of turnkey test benches for dynamic engines. The definitive development of the Software INT-9000 platform is started, a successful result that incorporates all the know-how acquired during the preceding years of Testing Facilities construction Control Sistem widens its skills and experience in the roller bench onroad simulation sector. A further step was the creation of test cells for gears and transmission drives The DREAMS Robot-Driver commercial development is started and is presented to the international market and quickly obtained good feedback The innovative Testing Centre aimed at services for third parties is created, composed by a chassis-dyno and an engine test cell both equipped for the measurement of polluting vehicle emissions, constructed with the most up to date know-how and technology. The Testing Facility is equipped with the top of the
9 sector range of technology and instrumentation, by and large made by Control Sistem.
10 2. SYSTEM MECHANIC 2.1. Dynometer The dyno is an electrical motor with low rotor inertia; it allows to absorb or to generate energy from the internal combustion engine. They re built with lamellar stator provided with magnetic block self-supported. The main feature is to satisfy particular kind of application where high performance of couple and speed regulation are needed. According to your requirements the machine included in this offer presents following features: Maximum power: TBD Nominal torque: TBD Nominal speed: TBD Maximum speed (constant power): TBD Speed limit: TBD Inertia momentum: TBD Power supply voltage: 400V Power supply frequency: Hz Nominal current: TBD
11 The machine is equipped with 1 output shaft, where is possible to connect directly the transmission and the torque meter. It is supported by a frame that is a mechanical structure built with iron and metal sheets welded together. Aim of this support is to fix the brake on it in order to have the centre of the transmission at a certain height. The dimension of the frame is equal to the dyno plus few cm in order to install small plates that allow to centre and line up the dyno to the basement. This support can be fixed directly on the basement by means of screws or T dices. The dyno is driven by a regenerative inverter that allows to convert the energy absorbed into electrical energy that can be send to the electrical net (400 Vac, 3- phase, 50 Hz) thus reducing the global energy consumption of the test cell. When the tested device is dragged by the electrical engine it absorbs energy from the net. When the electrical engine is dragged by the tested device it is necessary to have an electrical load on the output line connected to the net. The drives includes everything that is needed for regenerative operation, including line filter. The active supply unit allows full power flow both in motoring and generating modes.
12 Usually this cabinet is placed outside the test cell in order to protect it. In any case it is possible to put it inside the room, but it requires an increase of the protection index (it can be required as an option). The drives are completed with a self protection system, able to avoid possible damages due to extra charge. Of course the drive can send alarm signal to the automation system in order to keep the situation under control and actuate automatically all the safety strategies (e.g., stop the test, switch off the system, )
13 2.2. Torque meter device This components is essential in order to acquire the torque values during the test. The device is composed by two components that are the stator and the rotor: the first one is fixed on the dyno frame and communicates with the stator my means of one aerial. The rotor is placed between the dyno shaft and the transmission, as following: The supplied unit present following features: Nominal torque TBD Accuracy class 0,1 Signal drift <+-0,003% Output signal 0-10 Vdc khz Power supply Absorbed current 18-30Vdc < 2A
14 Calibration system for torque meter In order to keep the torque values with the lowest accepted error, we suggest to calibrate the instrument with the following system, composed by a mechanical arm that can be fixed on the torque meter. The arm is also provided with a hook where the certified weights are fixed in order the calibrate the system.
15 2.3. Transmission The supply includes a metallic cover that prevent injuries in case of transmission damages. Also in this case we guarantee the presence of electrical safety. Cardanic shaft The power is transmitted with a cardan shaft able to hold required torque and power. In this application it s the best solution because the speed rotation is not really high and the cardan is also able to compensate misalignment to the center of transmission.
16 To reduce vibration and torque jerks that come from the combustion engine it s important to provide the transmission with a flexible joint, that can be built with the same interface of the engine and it means It s easy to be installed. Main features: Nominal torque: TBD Dynamic torsional stiffness: TBD Maximum speed: TBD Flexible transmission shaft The suggested solution is an highly flexible double element coupling with an intermediate shaft for length adaptation of the space between engine and dynamometer. The coupling has got a low torsional stiffness and operates in case of axial, radial and angular misalignment as a cardan shaft. Main features: Nominal torque: TBD Dynamic torsional stiffness: TBD Maximum speed: TBD
17 2.4. Anti-vibration support To ensure stable long-term test operation and reduce wear resulting from the vibration of the engine, both the combustion engine and dyno have to be mounted on a single, isolated support. Control Sistem has developed a modern solution on which both the engine and the dynamometer can be mounted. This unit in its standard edition is based on four air springs which are designed in order to cut vibration transmission to the building. The equipment is mounted in line on four stainless steel guide slots on which all components can be moved and adjusted. Thus all parts of the unit engine - drive shaft - dynamometer are positioned towards each other without relative motion. The support is 4000 mm long and 1900 mm wide.
18 2.5. Engine pallet The increasing variety in engine dimensions especially in the area of passenger cars from two to eighteen cylinders requires a testing environment with high flexibility for engine set-up in the test cells. Therefore the engine pallet has to be capable to cope with this variety. A flexible pallet improves test cell availability and increases the efficiency of the whole facility. Built on a strong frame for mounting the pallet onto the base frame, a combination of horizontal and vertical profiles allows for high flexibility to adapt engine brackets in different heights and vertical positions and to adjust the pallet to the engine size. Furthermore, the pallet allows a fine alignment of the engine relative to the dynamometer by means of adjustment screws. To move the pallet it is sufficient to use a standard transporter truck that is not included in this offer.
19 3. SERVICES 3.1. FU-20 - Fuel supply system The proposed fuel supply system is a standard Control Sistem product that is able to regulate fuel pressure and temperature while measuring in real time the flow rate. Fuel supply system is able to manage at the same time all following regulation parameters: fuel supply pressure (from 0 to 8 bar); fuel return pressure (0 ± 0.2 bar); fuel supply temperature (cooling down to 15 C). The fuel consumption detection is an integrated device used for static and dynamic measuring tasks. This measuring is made thanks to a mass flowmeter, featuring a DSP transmitter, either integrated in the flowmeter. The digital signal processor (DSP) enables high-precision mass flow and density measurements to be made. The Coriolis sensor signals are immediately converted into digital data without any intermediate analog steps Flow-rate information is viewed directly in the automation software. Flow rate measuring device allow to reach following performances: Flow consumption range: kg/h Accuracy of mass flowrate: ± 0.15 % of rate (± 0.01 % of full scale) Accuracy of density: ± 0.01 kg/l Explosion protection conforming to ATEX All the hydraulic components are installed in a closed cabinet connected to a smaller one for the electronic devices, mainly composed by a PLC and a panel pc.
20 The system is a stand-alone unit and it can communicate with the test cell automation system by means of AK protocol. The operator can set fuel temperature directly from the main PC in the control room while pressure is set manually on the device.
21 3.2. CHS - Engine fluids conditioning system The CHS is a complete system dedicated to the conditioning of engine fluids (cooling water, intercooler air and lubricant oil). Cooling water and intercooler can be cooled and heated in both stationary and transient conditions. In order to allow the complete simulation of the vehicle the system is able to regulate dynamically also the pressure of the cooling water at the inlet of the engine. All components are fixed on an alloy structure placed inside the test cell and they are connected to the cooling water system of the premises. The integrated automation system can receive an external control signal (analog or AK protocol) aiming to set the required temperature. The same component gives a feedback of the regulated temperature and working status.
22 The system is composed by 3 independent circuits: COOLING WATER CIRCUIT INTERCOOLER CIRCUIT ENGINE OIL CIRCUIT The CHS is available in 2 versions depending on the maximum power of the engine to be connected; following main performances are reported.
23 Version CHS-300 CHS-500 Maximum engine power 300kW 500kW COOLING WATER CIRCUIT Connections to the engine DN50 Cooling power 300kW 500kW Heating power 70kW Temperature range 30 C 120 C Accuracy Temperature regulation speed ±1 C 1 C/s Connection to premises water supply DN50 DN65 Tower water flow rate 11.4 m 3 /h 21.5 m 3 /h Pressure regulation 0 mbar 400 mbar INTERCOOLER CIRCUIT Connections to the engine DN80 Cooling power 40kW 60kW Heating power 16kW Temperature range 15 C 60 C Accuracy Temperature regulation speed ±1 C 1 C/s Connection to premises water supply DN32 DN40 Tower water flow rate 7.4 m 3 /h 10.3 m 3 /h
24 ENGINE OIL CIRCUIT Connections to the engine Cooling power DN32 40kW Temperature range 40 C 120 C Accuracy Connection to premises water supply ±1 C DN20 Tower water flow rate 1.8 m 3 /h Power supply Voltage Power Triphase 400Vac at 50Hz 80kW Dimensions W x H x D Weight 2300x2500x550mm About 400kg Cooling water circuit Temperature regulation is performed by means of a plates heat exchanger (tower water) and an electrical resistance. Engine water is splitted into 2 flows by means of a 3 ways mixing valve then 1 flow goes to the cooler while the second goes to the heater. The cooler works always at maximum power while the heater is switched on only when necessary thus ensuring a fast temperature regulation. An expansion tank is used in order to maintain constant water level and to remove possible bubbles. In case the level decrease under minimum limit a specific sensor generate an alarm.
25 An electrical pump together with a regulation valve allow to control pressure at engine inlet in a dynamic way in order to simulate real working conditions. Filling and emptying procedures are fully automatic and they do not require personnel intervention in the test cell. Intercooler circuit Combustion air temperature can be controlled using different solutions: water/air plate fin heat exchanger; original vehicle heat exchanger immersed in a tank filled with regulated cooling water; original vehicle heat exchanger hit by a spray of regulated cooling water. The CHS can manage dynamically all 3 systems following customer requirements (only 1 system is included in the standard supply and it must be defined by the customer at order time). Cooling water is controlled by-means of a closed circuit where the regulation is performed by means of a plate heat exchanger (tower water) and a resistance. Water is splitted into 2 flows by means of a 3 ways mixing valves then 1 flow goes to the cooler while the second goes to the heater. The cooler works always at maximum power while the heater is switched on only when necessary thus ensuring a fast temperature regulation. Engine oil circuit The regulation of the oil temperature is achieved by means of a plate heat exchanger (tower water) that allows to cool down the fluid to the desired level. Optionally it is possible to install also an electrical heated and a mixing valve as previous circuits in order to make it possible to heat and so to obtain a dynamic regulation with following performances.
26 ENGINE OIL CIRCUIT Dynamic version Connections to the engine Cooling power Heating power DN32 40kW 16kW Temperature range 40 C 120 C Accuracy Temperature regulation speed Connection to premises water supply ±1 C 1 C/s DN20 Tower water flow rate 1.8 m 3 /h Control unit The CHS is equipped with an electrical box containing all necessary hardware for the management of the system. The box contains a PLC that manage the 3 circuits and is in charge of the connection to external systems by means of an Ethernet connection. Included in the supply there is a panel PC (on demand it can be a desktop PC or a laptop) running a control software developed by Control Sistem using INT9000. This software allow to keep under control all main parameters of the CHS and to define dynamic set-points by means of simple ASCII files. Moreover the software allows to perform easily main maintenance operations. Following some screen shoots of the software (language can be set to English or Italian).
28 4. TECAS TEST CELL AUTOMATION SYSTEM 4.1. Introduction The engine test cells includes several elements and instruments that can work both independently or managed by a central automation system. Control Sistem offers a full set of hardware and software tools that allow the complete automation of a wide range of testing facilities (emission cycles, characterisation, inspection, mileage tests, life tests...); these tools are able to interface with the peripherals used most widely on the market. Nowadays the trend that predominates is to entrust the entire management of a testing room to a single intelligent unit that can synchronise most effectively all the instruments and it can collect the results and the measurements into a single database, resulting in the optimal handling of both testing and reporting processes. It should be noted, however, that many testing rooms do not require such a high level of automation and can be managed effectively by means of manual controls and less sophisticated acquisition software. The system proposed by Control Sistem is called TeCAS and it is based on modular components that, if necessary, can also work independently, or be integrated into pre-existing systems by means of simple and reliable communication interfaces. In this manner it is possible to meet the widest variety of requirements, whether in very simple testing rooms or in highly complex and fully automated installations. The chart that follows provides an overview of the main components of an engine test cell; the components in coloured composes the automation system.
29 TeCAS Test Cell Automation System o Central control unit o Measuring devices handler (MDH) o general services handler (ETCS) DBS Dyno & engine manager o fuel o cooling water o ventilation o Test cell SwitchBox Engine start/stop and electrical power supply manager APA Accelerator actuator Dynometer ENGINE IOM Physical channels acquisition & control o CVS o gaseous emission analyzer o particulate sampler o
30 TeCAS is based on a development environment called INT9000. It is a real-time software dedicated to the development of applications in the field of test systems and automation in general. All the components that composes the TeCAS were developed using INT9000. It guarantees a perfect mutual integration, as well as the ability to export portions of applications from one system to another. The guidelines that outline INT9000 are the total openness to commercial hardware, assuring the possibility to match the proposed system with any kind of device (PLCs, controllers, data acquisitors, etc...). With its great flexibility INT9000 can be used on different levels: from simple monitoring systems up to the complete management of an engine test cell, with complex settings and realtime data acquisition. INT9000 does not requires deep knowledge of programming languages so it reduces time and costs for automatic cycles definition. INT9000 is open to any customization, with the aid of additional software modules and the possibility to use external scripts. All the physical acquisition systems are based on the use of programmable PLC that are in charge of managing the communication between the field and the software. Moreover they monitor the security of the test cell, in such a way that the plant is always safe in the event of failure of the main personal computer. In fact, the PLC is dedicated to data acquisition and the overall management of the hardware, while the PC is responsible for defining and executing test cycles with relative management and data storage.
31 4.2. Central Control Unit, MDH, ETCS The Central Control Unit is the heart of the automation system considering it allows the operator to fully control the test cell in all its part and instruments. It is composed by 3 PCs and an electronic box linked by means of a specific Ethernet network. The electronic box includes a PLC that is specifically defined for any application on the base of the components actually present in the test cell. The box can be mounted in a standard 19 rack cabinet or on the operator console and it presents a front panel with several selectors and buttons that allow to easily manage main functions of the automation system. The TeCAS hardware includes 3 personal computers because each of them is dedicated to a specific purpose. 2 of them are panel PCs normally installed in the automation cabinet; one of them (ETCS) is dedicated to the management of the test cell general service systems (i.e. fuel supply, cooling water, ventilation, ) while the other (MDH) is dedicated to measuring devices (i.e. CVS, emissions analyzers, particulate samplers, ). Both of them are controlled completely by the third PC that is the one commonly used by the operator.
32 The proposed hardware for this unit consists of a last generation desktop PC based on Windows operative system and completed with Microsoft Office, a mouse, an inkjet printer and two 22 monitors. This unit is equipped with the software that allows to completely manage the test cell. The basic criteria followed in defining this software were full compatibility with commercial hardware components and a fully open software, with the possibility to define external scripts that could be recalled from within the application. These concepts have always been the guidelines that Control Sistem has adhered to for more than twenty years in designing testing systems and facilities for some of the world s most important automotive manufacturers. Starting from INT9000 the TeCAS offer to the user a ready to use application dedicated to engine test cells.
33 The main functions of the software supplied as standard are as follows: monitoring and control of the dyno; monitoring and control of the engine being tested by means of physical channels; possibility to save acquired data on ASCII files; setting pre-alarm and alarm thresholds, and the relative action strategy; executing testing cycles; monitoring and control of the main tools normally used in a testing room (i.e. CVS, gas analysis system, particulate sampling system, opacimeter, spectrometer, etc.); printing personalised test reports defined using Microsoft Excel. The base supply allows to the user to easily define any kind of steady state cycle; for each step (up to 50) it is sufficient to indicate following data: type of regulation (speed/torque, accelerator position/torque, accelerator position/speed); set point for speed, torque and/or accelerator position depending on selected type of regulation; step duration; ramp times to pass from a step to the following one. Moreover it is possible to define in a script all calculations to be performed at the end of the test before producing the final report.
34 Thank to this methodology the user can easily define in a few minutes a great number of cycles, for example: warm-up cycles; running-in cycles; identification of minimum and maximum speeds; definition of power curve; engine mapping; stationary emission evaluation cycles according to the European and American regulations. The TeCAS can be interfaced with any kind of instrument; moreover it includes a powerful and versatile AK protocol interface that allows to connect a great quantity of instruments. TeCAS contains a pre-defined alarm list, in order to ensure the safety of the engine, the dynamometer and all the instruments housed in the engine test. The user can freely define many other alarms and pre-alarms, in this way, the
35 automation system can control all the variables considered sensitive. You can also define the active alarms in any condition or only during the execution of a specific test. The definition of alarms is done through a simple interface. Moreover all the sensors managed by the IOM (boom box) can be used in order to define new alarms and pre-alarms.
36 OPTIONS CAN interface This option allow to communicate with any device connected to a CAN network. Communication protocol is based on SAE J1939 standard. Transient Option The Transient Option add to TeCAS the capacity to execute cycles based on dynamic parameters; set-points for the regulation of the engine and the dyno are defined in an ASCII file. Moreover it is possible to supply a accelerator position vs torque map of the engine in order to obtain a better regulation of the engine. Thank to this option it will be possible to perform transient emission evaluation cycles according to the applicable European and American standards as ETC, WHTC, NRTC, FTP, etc. Emission evaluation steady state cycle Thanks to this option TeCAS will be able to perform a complete steady state emission cycle following main European Directives (2008/74/EC, 2005/78/EC, 2005/55/EC, 2004/26/EC) and ISO procedures (ISO 8178, ISO 16183). The performed cycle includes following operations: research of maximum torque at each speed level; purge of gas analysis sampling line; zero and span of gas analyzers; switch on of CVS; particulate sampling system setting (if requested); execution of cycle steps (5, 8 or 13 depending on selected cycle) with continuous data acquisition and logging from CVS, gas analysis system, particulate sampling system and IOM modules; calculation of final results following regulation indications; report emission.