Evolution of IP Networks and Protocols

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1 M I C H I G A N S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y I N S T I T U T E O F P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S Regulatory Research and Education Evolution of IP Networks and Protocols CAMP NARUC 2015 David J. Malfara, Sr. ETC Group, LLC

2 A g e n d a What is a Communication Protocol and Why Is It Important? Network Evolution: From Circuit-switching to Packet-switching IMS: Beyond Voice over IP Evolved Service Provider Interconnection to Support Multimedia IP Traffic Flows Emerging: SDN/NFV (Software Defined Networking/Network Functions Virtualization) 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 2

3 Communication Protocols In telecommunications, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communication system to communicate between them Wiki 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 3

4 OSI Reference Model The Encapsulation of Functions in a Packet Architecture End User Functions Layers Network Services Layers 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 4

5 OSI Reference Model Layer-7 (Application Layer) represents the actual service (e.g., telephone calls) as perceived by the end-user. Layer-6 (Presentation Layer) arranges the data from/to the end-user into a format that will be understood by the receiving application (example: audio encoding and decoding, encryption/decryption, etc.). Layer-5 (Session Layer) is responsible for the initiation, identification, maintenance and termination of a particular information exchange or session between two or more end-users (ex. to begin and end a specific telephone call). Layer-4 (Transport Layer) provides the protocols that establish a reliable communications path between the sending and receiving end-user devices. Layer-3 (Network Layer) provides the means for identifying originating and destination end-users (example: IP Addresses), and the communications path between networks to be used for connection (example: IP routing). Layer-2 (Datalink Layer) is responsible for the encapsulation and transmission of information between two devices on the same physical network. It includes a framing format that provides error correction, flow control and acknowledgement processes and is responsible for access to the physical transmission medium and supporting configurations where that medium is shared by multiple devices (multiplexing). Layer-1 (Physical Layer) consists of the physical transmission medium used to convey electrical, optical or radio frequency signals at the bit level (i.e., digital 1s and 0s) from the originating party to the terminating party. Layer-1 can be a copper facility, an optical fiber, a coaxial cable, a radio frequency or other transmission medium. End User Functions Layer Network Services Layer 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 5

6 Communication Protocols - JDSU 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 6

7 Broadband Access Subscriber Access Lines Are No Longer Dedicated to a Single Purpose Protocols Allow Us to Share A Single Facility Among Different Services BIAS (Broadband Internet Access Service) 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 7

8 Protocols Enable The Triple Play 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 8

9 OSS/BSS Old World Monolithic Stovepipe Structure Operational Model New World Layered Next-Gen Structure Voice Internet Private/VPN Networking Drivers Outcome Maintenance Administration Maintenance Administration Maintenance Administration Flat Growth of Voice Market Service/Application Layer New Service Opportunities Service Provisioning Account Provisioning Service Provisioning Account Provisioning Service Provisioning Account Provisioning Massive Growth of Data Traffic Control Layer New Efficient OAM&P Order Processing Sales/Vendor BSS Order Processing Sales/Vendor BSS Order Processing Sales/Vendor BSS Maturity of Convergence Technology Transport Layer New Network Architecture 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 9

10 Operational End Game 2010 SeaChange 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 10

11 Voice Service Mapped to OSI Circuit-switching vs. Packet-switching Circuit-switched Voice Packet-switched Voice 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 11

12 VoIP Protocols VoIP Protocols Only Occupy Layers 5 7 How Do We Satisfy the Other Layers Required To Achieve Communication? (Partial) Answer: With the Internet Protocol Suite. 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 12

13 Voice over IP Internet Protocol Suite Only Occupies Layers 5 3 How Do We Satisfy the Lower Layers Required To Achieve Communication? 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 13

14 Communication Protocols Internet Protocol Suite Only Occupies Layers 5 3; How Do We Satisfy the Lower Layers Required To Achieve Communication? Answer: Using ANY of the Facility Types and Protocols Listed Below - JDSU 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 14

15 Infrastructure Layer Physical Transport Layer 1&2 Technology Fiber Networks Core Aggregation (including backhaul) Access Wireline Networks (Copper/Cable) Aggregation (including backhaul) Access Wireless Networks Access 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 15

16 Layer 1&2 Technology Infrastructure Layer Technological Advancements Fiber Networks Core: Aggregation: Access: 96 Channels, 100 Gb/s each = 9.6 Tb/s (Cisco ONS DWDM Trunk Card) SDN (Orchestration/Management/Control) Wireline Networks (Copper/Cable) TWDM-PON, 4 x 10Gb/s on top of GPON (Alcatel/Lucent Universal TWDM-PON) Aggregation: SDN (Orchestration/Management/Control) Access: Up to 1 Gb/s over copper Access: 10 Gb/s over copper demonstrated Access: 10 Gb/s minimum over cable Wireless Networks Aggregation: SDN (Orchestration/Management/Control) Aggregation: Carrier Aggregation (LTE-Advanced) Access: LTE-Advanced Access: Multi-cell Deployment (Macro/Small) (ITU-T G.fast with mandatory vectoring) (DOCSIS 3.1) (Real-world speeds of 100Mb/s or more) (Alcatel/Lucent XG-FAST) 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 16

17 Network-to-Network VoIP Transcoded to Circuit-switched TDM Network Interconnection Competitor ILEC Every Access Tandem Every LATA 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 17

18 Competitor IP Network IP TDM-NNI (TDM Network-to-Network Interface) Minimum Interconnection Points Soft Switch Signaling Gateway Media Gateway High Cost CapEx and OpEx Network-to-Network ILEC LATA 1 IP Media Gateway Media Gateway LATA 2 LATA 3 IP Media Gateway Media Gateway User End Points LATA 4 LATA 5 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 18

19 IP/TDM-NNI Abstraction Media Gateway: TDM/IP (Circuit to Packet) Signaling Gateway: SS7/SIP (Packet to Packet) 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 19

20 VoIP With Customer-provided Equipment Customer Premises Customer Internet Interface (Ethernet/IP) Broadband Provider Proprietary Transport Modem Ethernet/IP Router Analog Telephone Adapter Analog Voice Internet Customer Premises Customer Interface is Analog Voice Media Gateway Legacy TDM Network Class 5 Switch Analog Voice Loop 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 20

21 VoIP With Broadband Provider Equipment Customer Premises Broadband Provider Proprietary Transport Broadband Provider Equipment Functionality Modem Router Analog Telephone Adapter Customer Interface is Analog Voice Analog Voice Closed (Managed) Facilities-based Network NOT the Internet Customer Premises Customer Interface is Analog Voice Media Gateway Legacy TDM Network Class 5 Switch Analog Voice Loop 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 21

22 IP-NNI 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 22

23 ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force ATIS Technical Report IP NNI Profile 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 23

24 ATIS Technical Report IP Interconnection Routing ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force The initial objectives of the ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force as memorialized in the agreement between ATIS and the SIP Forum included defining the architecture and requirements for a shared Thin registry of NNI interconnection data. The Task Force was unable to reach consensus on a single registry architecture. Accordingly, this report summarizes the various proposals for IP interconnection routing that have been discussed by the Task Force, both registry and non-registry based, and how they may interoperate. Figure Call Flow - NPAC TN Registry 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 24

25 ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force 1. How do we identify what traffic is eligible for exchange over IP Point of Interconnection? 2. How do we identify which of multiple IP POIs to direct specific traffic? 3. How do we exchange this identification and routing information? 4. What role for Local Exchange Routing Guide (LERG)? 5. What role for NPAC database? 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 25

26 Routing Information Exchange Options 1. NPAC database only contains IP Address of destination SP ENUM server. (i.e. it is no longer the unitary source of the information necessary to route a telephone call to a ported number) 2. What is the Cost to Dip the Interconnected Service Provider s ENUM Server?($$$) 3. How is the TN Information Updated? ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force Figure Call Flow NPAC as a Tier 1 ENUM Registry 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 26

27 Routing Information Exchange Options ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force 1. What will be the Cost to Dip the Independent Tier 0/1 ENUM Registry? Figure Call Flow - Independent ENUM Registry 2. What will be the Cost to Dip the Interconnected Service Provider s ENUM Server?($$$) 3. How is TN Information Updated? 4. How is Neutrality Assured??? 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 27

28 ATIS ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force Technical Report on IP Interconnection Routing Subsequent to the formation of the ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force, the Federal Communications Commission authorized the creation of a Numbering Testbed to spur the research and development of the next generation standards and protocols for number allocation, verification, and call routing. [2] The Commission also held a workshop to initiate a Numbering Testbed on March 25, Discussion at the Workshop focused on ideas for a future integrated registry that would support number allocation, verification, and call routing across all types of NANP numbers in a post TDM environment. It should be noted that this initial report of the ATIS/SIP Forum IP-NNI Task Force report does not address the development of such an integrated registry, but instead focuses on the identification of existing in-use and proposed solutions to facilitate call routing across IP interconnections between now and the deployment of the future integrated registry envisioned at the Workshop. 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 28

29 IP Multimedia Subsystem 3GPP (3 rd Generation Partnership Project including ATIS) IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (TISPAN) ITU-T (ITU-Telecommunications Standardization Sector) CableLabs (PacketCable 2.0) 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 29

30 IP Multimedia Subsystem Evolved Convergence Opportunity for: End-to-End Service Awareness End-to-End Service Quality End-to-End Service Support 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 30

31 IP Multimedia Subsystem 3GPP Radvision 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 31

32 IP Multimedia Subsystem PacketCable 2.0 Reference Architecture CableLabs 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 32

33 IP Multimedia Subsystem 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 33

34 Multimedia Networks 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 34

35 OSS/BSS Old World Monolithic Stovepipe Structure Operational Model New World Layered Next-Gen Structure Voice Internet Private/VPN Networking Drivers Outcome Maintenance Administration Maintenance Administration Maintenance Administration Flat Growth of Voice Market Service/Application Layer New Service Opportunities Service Provisioning Account Provisioning Service Provisioning Account Provisioning Service Provisioning Account Provisioning Massive Growth of Data Traffic Control Layer New Efficient OAM&P Order Processing Sales/Vendor BSS Order Processing Sales/Vendor BSS Order Processing Sales/Vendor BSS Maturity of Convergence Technology Transport Layer New Network Architecture 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 35

36 Layered Architectures Technology Reduced Complexity Reduced Capital Costs Reduced Operating Costs Reduced Support Requirements Improved Operational Efficiencies Improved Security & Performance Full Service/Application Convergence Customer/Service End-to-End View 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 36

37 SDN/NFV Control & Transport Layers (OSI Layers 2/3) Today s Networks 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 37

38 Software Defined Networking SDN/NFV 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 38

39 Network Functions Virtualization SDN/NFV 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 39

40 SDN/NFV The NFV Framework 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 40

41 SDN/NFV Virtual Network Service Infrastructure Project 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 41

42 QUESTIONS? David J. Malfara, Sr. ETC Group, LLC 8/19/ ETC GROUP, LLC 42

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