# Bioequivalence Testing, using the Dissolution Profile

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1 Determining Similarity of Products- F 2 Criterion and Variability of Dissolution Test Vivian Gray V. A. Gray Consulting Dissolution Workshop December 10, 2010 Bioequivalence Testing, using the Dissolution Profile Establishes procedure for granting biowaivers New drug and generic drug application Higher strengths Lowers strengths Assures product sameness under FDA, WHO, Japanese and European guidances 1

2 Bioequivalence Tool f 1 Calculates the percent difference between the two dissolution profiles at each time point and is a measurement of the relative error between the two curves f 2 or similarity il it factor Predict bioequivalence from dissolution and examines waivers for BE studies Dissolution Profile Comparison f 2 = 50 log {[ 1 + ( n 1 ( R t T t ) 2 ] } 2

3 F2 Similarity factor is a logarithmic reciprocal square root transformation of the sum of the squared error. Definition of Terms Term n is number of time points R 1 is the Dissolution value of the reference (pre-change) batch at time t T 1 is the dissolution value of the test (post change) batch at time t 3

4 FDA Guidances Dissolution Testing of Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms Extended Release Oral Dosage Forms:Development, Evaluation, and Application of In Vitro/In Vivo Correlations-1997 FDA Guidances SUPAC IR: Immediate Release Solid SUPAC-IR: Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Scale-Up and Post- Approval Changes: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls, In Vitro Dissolution Testing, and In Vivo Bioequivalence Documentation

5 FDA Guidances SUPAC-MR: Modified-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Scale-Up and Post- Approval Changes: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls, In Vitro Dissolution Testing, and In Vivo Bioequivalence Documentation-1995 FDA Guidances Waiver of In Vivo Bioavailability and Waiver of In Vivo Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies for Immediate- Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms Based on Biopharmaceutics Classification System

6 F2 Rules N=12 of reference and test or post- change product Results of 50 or greater indicate bioequivalence or similiarity RSD should be NMT 20% at < 15 minutes RSD NMT 10% for all other points F2 not needed when. Dissolution rate of product is 85% in Dissolution rate of product is 85% in fifteen minutes in all three media 6

7 >85% timepoint Wording slightly different in the guidances. FDA Only one measurement should be considered after 85% dissolution of both the products 85% (continued) Follow up article from FDA says Follow-up article from FDA says Because f2 values are sensitive to the number of dissolution time points, only one measurement should be considered after 85% dissolution of the product 7

8 85% EMEA says not more than one mean value of >85% dissolved for each formulation WHO maximum of one time point should maximum of one time-point should be considered after 85% dissolution of the comparator (Brand/Reference/Innovator) product has been reached 8

9 Examples F2 Time Point Test Prod Ref Prod Delta Delta** ave delta2 F

10 Time Point Test Prod Ref Prod Delta Delta** ave delta2 F Reference and Test % Released % released R % released T Time (h) 10

11 F1, F2 comparison obs Time % released R % released T R-T (R-T) Difference factor f1: Similarity factor f2: Examples F2 Although f1 and f2 suggest similarity Although f1 and f2 suggest similarity, the comparison is not suitable because the profiles display different release kinetics 11

12 EMEA Guidance Note for Guidance on the Investigation of Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Differences from the FDA guidance Media ph 1.2 (0.1 N HCl or SGF w/o enzymes) ph 4.5 ph 6.8 or SIF w/o enzyme Japan and FDA BCS PMDA does not recognize the BCS Biowaiver allowed for any class drug Article comparing Biowaivers in US, EU, and Japan in American Pharmaceutical Review ViewArticle.aspx?ContentID=

13 Japan and FDA BCS PDMA guidelines combine the BCS waiver concept with the SUPAC (scale up and post approval changes) and include Modified Release dosage forms Drug substance and Product characteristics and ph of media and apparatus are important Achlorhydria accounts for careful review throughout the ph range. No recognition of a IVIVC (in vitro and in vivo correlation) for bioequivalence Japan and F2 Guideline for Bioequivalence Studies for Formulation Changes of Oral Solid Dosage Forms Section 5 and Appendix 1-Very complex and case by case. Example F2 of 42 allowed instead of 50 13

14 Japan and F2 Japan uses different passing criteria for f2 depending on the dissolution profile of the reference formulation and whether dissolution is to support a clinical BE Passing f2 values (42 [fast] -61[slow]) or biowaiver (50-61) There are criteria for passing dissolution, even if you go into the clinic 42 is passing, but not for a biowaiver Sometimes, 50 is not enough for a Biowaiver WHO WHO Technical Report Series WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations. Fortieth Report 14

15 WHO Extension of Biowaivers to BCS Class 3 if 85% in 15 minutes with the three media BCS 2, weak acids if the API has a dose solubility ratio of 250 ml or less at ph 6.8 and the multi source product is rapidly dissolving (no less that 85% in ph 6.8 in 30 minutes) and has a similar F2 at all ph s Paddle allowed at 75 RPM Failure to meet F2 15

16 Failure to meet F2 Are products the same age (especially with capsules)? Innovator lots may give different profiles-how do you pick a lot for F2 Solubility differences (particle size, excipient matrix) Disintegration properties Failure to meet F2 Observations can be a clue Visual representation of Release mechanism Should be run together 3 and 3 in same six unit run to reduce differences 16

17 Capsule dissolution lag time In Japan you can account for lag time not seen in other guidances Problem with overencapsulation of comparators is often due to lag time Failure to meet F2-Possible Problems if run separately Filtration Validation of filter type stick with Filtration Validation of filter type, stick with it Automation-Going from manual to automated Big issue Filter Deaeration Cleaning Deaeration technique-primary suspect Sinkers-Must be the same design 17

18 Trouble Standard preparation method Alcohol used, sonication time Purity of reagents Especially surfactant use the purest grade Check stability of media Poorly soluble drugs most trouble Trouble Equipment comparisons Brand to brand differences Baths run hot or cool Age differences Maintenance history Prednisone Tablet probe is the best with paddle at 50 rpm. 18

19 Other uses of F2 Fed and fasted comparisons Formulation development Comparators IVIVC is better than F2 for Extended Release Validation studies criteria Deaeration versus Non-deaerated Preferred Validation Criteria From <1092> The Dissolution Procedure: Method Development and Validation Usual criteria 5 10% absolute difference for early time points with more variable data 3 5% absolute difference for later points with >80% dissolved 19

20 F2 and Method Development BCS class 2 and 4 BCS class 1 and 3 that do not dissolve in 3 media at 85% in 15 minutes Need this three point profile as a first step to a discriminating profile. Critical Quality Attributes-Factors responsible for the release mechanism (s) Selection of Test Conditions Basics for method Need low variability Good profile-- May need to add earlier time points (5, 10 minutes) Should pick up changes Hydrodynamic aspects- Observations Minimize artifacts- sticking, coning, clogging, floating 20

21 Typical Dissolution Curve 120 Dissolved of Label Claim Percent Time (Minutes) Problems with F2 Product profiles are too fast May need to add earlier time points (5, 10 minutes) Too variable, RSD requirements too restrictive especially for earlier time points-bootstrap method? 50 may be too stringent FDA may consider a lower value on caseby-case basis as determined by prudent justification 21

22 A story from the Generic scandal in US Generic company had product that showed a different dissolution rate than the innovator product-much faster Clinical study used overencapsulated innovator product-got caught Innovator product was a very old formulation with Shellac in coating Dissolution gave false impression of BE F2 Calculation everyone loves to hate Although it has drawbacks, nothing else seems better as a practical, routine choice-apparently here to stay A big obstacle to a new harmonized alternative ti is consensus on criteria i and the need for special statistical expertise. 22

23 Acknowledgments Harald Retting, BioVista Johannes Kramer, PHAST Jeanne Taborsky, SciRegs Gregg Kelly, Pfizer Lawrence Xu, FDA, Generics Patrick Marroum, FDA, Biopharm Vinod Shah, Consultant, formerly FDA References Biowaivers in the United States, European Union, and Japan Gregg Kelly, Ph.D., Pfizer m/viewarticle.aspx?contentid=

24 References Dissolution Profile Comparison Using Similarity Factor, f2 Vinod P. Shah, Yi Tsong, Pradeep Sathe and Roger L. Williams p// / ur/899art/dissprofile.html References In Vitro Dissolution Profile Comparison Statistics and Analysis of the Similarity Factor Vinod Shah, Ti Tsong, Pradeep Sathe, and Jen-Pei Liu Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 15, No. 6,

25 Dissolution Resources Websites Dissolution Technologies at FDA Data base of Dissolution Methods FDA has made public the database containing the dissolution conditions for products approved by the agency. The website was created on November 2, 2005 The website address is ssolution/index.cfm 25

26 Dissolution Resources FDA, JAPAN, WHO and European Guidances USP General Chapters and Stimuli Articles and Revisions New <1092> Dissolution validation and method development ICH Documents Dissolution Resources Handbook of Dissolution Testing, Third Edition, Hanson and Gray Pharmaceutical Dissolution Testing, Edited by Dressman and Kramer Dissolution Theory, Methodology and Testing, Edited by A. Palmieri Journal of the Controlled Release Society 26

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