High-Density Wi-Fi. Application Note

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "High-Density Wi-Fi. Application Note"

Transcription

1 High-Density Wi-Fi Application Note

2 Table of Contents Background... 3 Description... 3 Theory of Operation... 3 Application Examples... Tips and Recommendations

3 Background One of the biggest challenges faced by 802. networks is dealing with high-density user deployments. Wi-Fi was initially intended to provide LAN access for a moderate number of users. The evolution and overwhelming success of this technology has brought 802. deployments to environments that go well beyond a few users to a point where it can now be the primary access to the LAN. It is not difficult to find Wi-Fi networks deployed across campuses, industrial areas, and even municipalities offering a wide variety of services. In these networks, it is often seen that the number of users connected to the network surpasses the initial design considerations and as a result, performance no longer meets expectations. Description This Application Note presents Xirrus solution for providing high quality network access for high user densities over a Wi-Fi infrastructure. Traditional or 2 radio APs have proven inadequate in handling such environments. Truly successful high-density deployment requires Wi-Fi equipment that is designed with scalability and performance in mind. There are a number of design elements in Xirrus Wi-Fi Arrays that make them uniquely powerful for high-density networks. These innovations include, but are not limited to: Multi-radio System (IEEE 802.a, IEEE802.b, IEEE 802.g and 802.n): Xirrus Wi-Fi Arrays incorporate 4, 8, 2, or radios into a single device. Each radio can be assigned to a unique channel providing dedicated bandwidth. Antenna Sectorization: Directional, high gain antennas in a sectored Array design provide a key capability for channel re-use in confined environments. Auto Cell Sizing: Automatic control of power and sensitivity per radio allow control of the size and performance of the coverage area. Station Load Balancing and Association Limits: Appropriate distribution of users among radios is key for high-density without requiring modifications to the Wi-Fi client and avoid radio overloading. Traffic Shaping: Controlling user traffic prevents any one station from clogging the network. Broadcast /Multicast Control and Station Privacy: Broadcast/multicast traffic can extract a large toll on any network, so minimizing its effect improves network performance. Radio Monitoring: Spectrum Analysis is an important troubleshooting aid. Theory of Operation Among the many challenges found in high-density Wi-Fi environments, the one that can be most difficult is channel reutilization. The best way to provide bandwidth to a high number of simultaneous users is to leverage as much of the RF spectrum available to Wi-Fi as possible and as many times as possible. This means a multi-radio with intelligent antenna design to use as many separate channels as possible while avoiding co-channel interference. The following sections explain how the Xirrus Wi-Fi Arrays can create high-density user networks. 3

4 Multi-Radio System Perhaps the most intuitive assumption is that in order to provide the best throughput to Wi-Fi clients, the connection between the client and the access point (AP) must be established at the maximum possible data rate (also known as link rate). In the case of 802.a and 802.g, the data rates will be 54Mbps, and with 802.b, it is Mbps. The new 802.n standard takes data rates up to 00Mbps. The table below summarizes the current 802. technologies. 802.b/g 802.a 802.n Band 2.4GHz 5 GHz 2.4 GHz, 5GHz Channels,2,3,4,5,,7,8,9, 0,,2,3,4 Number of nonoverlapping channels 3,40,44,48,52,5 0,4,00,04,08, 2,,20,24 28,32,3,40 49,53,57,,5 Same channels as 802.g and 802.a non bonding 3 with bonding Channel Width 20MHz 20MHz 20MHz and 40MHz Max Data Rate Mbps / 54Mbps 54Mbps 288/00Mbps Table The data rate is a function of the signal quality that is affected by distance and the noise levels generated by nearby Wi-Fi or other interference sources. A high error rate will force clients and APs to negotiate lower data rate connections even if the signal level is strong enough to support higher data rates. The actual throughput a user can achieve is a function of Free Air Time, which is the time the media is available for the client to transmit or receive. The access to the media is controlled by the CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) algorithm. When the client detects energy in the media due to other transmissions, certain levels of noise and interference or adjacent channel emissions, the client must wait until the media becomes free. If the media is only available half the time for a particular client, the maximum throughput that client can transmit or receive will be half as well. This brings the concept of Available Capacity, which is the product of the Free Air Time and the data rate between the AP and client. The best method to increase the Available Capacity is to provide the highest data rate and maximum Free Air Time. The use of more spectrum and more radio channels increases airtime availability. When clients are able to associate to multiple APs operating on separate non-overlapping channels, then simultaneous transmission can occur, thereby increasing overall throughput and system capacity. The Free Air Time increases proportionally to the number of channels that are being used. The higher the number of non-overlapping channels used in a particular area, the more Available Capacity for that area. 4

5 Free Air Time is also related to the data rate of the links between APs and clients. The higher the data rate, the less time the media will be used to transmit a given amount of information. A user transmitting a 500byte packet at Mbps will be using the media (airtime) 54 times longer than a user transmitting the same 500byte packet at 54Mbps. The Free Air Time also depends on the number of clients in a channel. For a particular traffic pattern and data rate per client, Free Air Time linearly decreases with the number of clients present in a particular channel. In summary, in order to increase the highest data rate and maximum Free Air Time, one should simultaneously use multiple channels (radios) per system and reduce the number of users per channel. The Xirrus Wi-Fi Array does this and goes even further with antenna sectorization allowing for smaller coverage areas (small cells), guaranteeing higher data rates and channel reuse to provide the best combination for better overall Wi-Fi Available Capacity. Antenna Sectorization Appropriate planning of coverage areas is another critical task when deploying high-density wireless networks. The coverage area correlates to the maximum distance clients can be from a given AP with enough signal to associate and operate at a usable data rate. Data rates within the cell will vary depending on the actual distance clients are from the AP. In the previous section, it was mentioned how the use of multiple channels and radios allows a greater number of stations in a given area and thus provides greater capacity. In high-density environments, the number of stations per channel might be too large for the AP to provide adequate throughput. In these cases, the Wi-Fi network must re-use the same channels several times within a given area by creating smaller or sectorized coverage areas. This approach is similar to the one cellular carriers use for mobile phones. By creating a larger number of smaller cells, it is possible to achieve greater density, resulting in increased capacity. Because these cells are smaller, the number of users per channel can be limited and provide additional re-use of channels at much closer distance. The choice of omni-directional or directional antenna design will also have a significant impact in the re-use of channels. The use of sectorized directional antennas presents several advantages over omni-directional antennas: Allows the use of several channels in the same AP system, minimizing co-channel interference. Allows better-defined cells by concentrating energy in a sector. Limits the amount of interference received from other directions thus reducing packet errors. Improves receive sensitivity in the direction of the cell since antenna gains work in both directions. Reduces multipath issues because RF is not blindly transmitted in all directions. Helps in hidden node problems. In Figure, there is an area where three non-overlapping channels are used with omni-directional antennas. The black dots represent 30 wireless stations inside a cell. The closest available channel for those stations will be channel. The distance required to reuse channel again within the coverage area is shown. 5

6 Figure Figure 2 Figure 2 shows the coverage provided using sectorized antennas using additional radios per system. For the same station, there are now three channels covering the same area resulting in greater distribution of stations only 0 stations share a channel. By tripling the density of radios per system and using sectorized antennas, the available capacity of the area has been increased by a factor of three. This scenario can be further improved by adding more radios per system. Since the number of non-overlapping channels in the 2.4GHz band is only three, the recommendation is to add radios in the 5GHz band. Figure 3 shows an example of a Xirrus Array sectorizing channels in one cell and Figure 4 shows 2 channels in one cell. Figure 3 Figure 4 Auto Cell Sizing The size of the cell or coverage areas is determined by the transmit power and receive sensitivity of both the AP and the stations. By tuning those values, the cell size can be adjusted to accommodate the dimensions and client density requirements. Adequate power control is also important to mitigate the interference between radios operating in the same channel. Xirrus Arrays have the option to either set the cell sizes manually or automatically via the Auto Cell feature. Auto Cell is an automatic, self-tuning mechanism that balances cell size between Arrays to guarantee coverage while limiting the RF energy that could extend beyond the organizational boundary. This is accomplished by setting radio power dynamically so that complete coverage is

7 provided to all areas, yet at the minimum power level required to diminish potential interference with neighboring networks. Additionally, Arrays running Auto Cell can detect and compensate for coverage gaps caused by system interruptions. Several Auto Cell parameters can be defined including minimum cell size, scheduled RF assessment/adjustment, and the ability to define a coverage overlap percentage for roaming. An overlap of 5% to 20% between cells is recommended for seamless roaming. Without Auto Cell Figure 5. Without Auto Cell Figure 5 shows that when two radios are operating, stations B and C could potentially experience interference from neighboring Arrays and 2 resulting in corrupted packets. Strong co-channel interference could cause stations in adjacent cells (cells and 3) to defer communication while stations in cell 2 are transmitting, resulting in the reduction of overall throughput. In the event of Array 2 failure, stations A and D could lose all connectivity. With Auto Cell Client A Client A Array 2 Array 2 Array Client B Client C Array 3 Array Client B Client C Array 3 Client D Client D Figure. Without Auto Cell In Figure above, Array radios balance power levels between themselves to guarantee client coverage, but without the potential of interfering with other cells. In the event of Array 2 failure, Arrays and 3 automatically detect the loss of energy from Array 2 and raise their own radio power levels to compensate for the loss. Stations who were on Array 2 then re-associate to the other Arrays. 7

8 In the case of manually configuring the cell sizes, the Xirrus Arrays have predetermined cell sizes for different applications. In the case of high-density environments where channel re-use is definitely required, medium or small cell sizes should be used. Table 2 below shows the values of TX power and RX sensitivity for different cell sizes. Cell Size Transmit Power (dbm) Receive Sensitivity (dbm) Small 5-75 Medium 2-8 Large 9-87 Max (Default) Auto AutoCell AutoCell Manual to dbm to -5 dbm Table 2. Power and Receive Sensitivity settings on Array Other combinations of values with more granularity can be manually configured to accommodate other deployment requirements. Station Load Balancing Load Balancing allows the Array to distribute stations among all available radios in an area with the goal of providing maximum bandwidth to all stations. By moving a station from one congested radio to a less congested radio, load balancing allows that station to have more available bandwidth. Additionally, it also decongests the radio where the station was initially connected allowing the remaining stations on that radio greater overall bandwidth. This is very important as described in the first point of this section where the available capacity linearly decreases with the number of stations on a channel. The Xirrus Wi-Fi Array supports automatic Load Balancing to distribute Wi-Fi stations across multiple radios. In 802., it is the station that decides to which radio it will associate. The Array cannot actually force station association to a specific radio, however the Array can encourage stations to associate in a more uniform fashion across all of the radios of the Array. In high-density environments where the stations are uniformly distributed within the coverage area, it would be expected that the load distribution among radios would be also uniform. This is not always the case. Typically the station will connect to the AP that has the strongest signal strength, but when the station moves to another location, it may remain connected to the previous radio until the signal drops below a certain threshold. Stations that are constantly moving can create inconsistent load distribution conditions. Another case of inconsistent distribution occurs when many stations move into a concentrated space such as meeting rooms, conferences or auditoriums. In this case, the strongest signal level for those stations may come from one particular radio and all those users will associate to that radio leaving other radios in the vicinity lightly loaded. The Array decides if a particular radio is over utilized and should not allow any more associations. This decision process is based on a load-balancing algorithm that takes 3 key factors into affect: Fewer stations on a radio is preferable The strength of the signal 8

9 5GHz channels preferred over 2.4GHz channels Station Limits To Load Balancing stations, the Arrays have the option to limit the number of associations per radio. When the number of associations reaches the configured limit, the radio sends the station a message indicating that the radio has reached its limit, encouraging the stations to associate to another radio. Traffic Shaping 802. is a shared medium. In a high-density Wi-Fi environment, traffic shaping is recommended to optimize or guarantee performance levels. It is commonly applied at the network edges to control traffic entering the network. Traffic shaping causes additional delays by serving queues more slowly than if traffic shaping was not applied. Xirrus has incorporated different traffic shaping methods such as: Traffic Classification: Support for WMM /IEE802.e (Quality of Service) Rate Limiting: To control the maximum rate at which traffic is sent Traffic classification can be configured on Xirrus Wi-Fi Arrays to provide traffic prioritization for delay sensitive applications such as voice and video. Rate limiting can be configured on the Array per SSID or User Group in the following ways: Traffic overall Traffic per station Broadcast and Multicast Control Unnecessary broadcast and multicast packets are a type of traffic that is undesirable in Wi-Fi networks. The reason broadcast and multicast traffic packets are so detrimental is because those packets are sent at the lowest basic data rates. Because these packets are intended to reach multiple stations that might be located at different distances, only the lowest data rate can guarantee reception to all of them. As mentioned, low data rate transmissions require more time to send the same amount of information. To optimize performance in high-density environments, it is important to minimize the amount of unnecessary broadcast and multicast traffic. Both types of traffic are typically required and cannot be eliminated, but the amount of this type of traffic transmitted over the air needs to be controlled. Xirrus Wi-Fi Arrays incorporate several features to control broadcast/multicast traffic in the air: ARP Filtering: Address Resolution Protocol finds the MAC address of a device with a given IP address by sending out a broadcast message requesting this information. ARP filtering allows the proliferation of ARP messages to be reduced by restricting how they are forwarded across the network. The following are options for handling ARP requests: o Off: ARP filtering is disabled and requests are broadcasted to stations. This is the default value. o Pass-thru: The Array forwards the ARP request. It passes along only ARP messages that are associated to the target the stations. o Proxy: The Array replies on behalf of the stations to which it is associated. The ARP request is not broadcasted to the stations. 9

10 Broadcast/Multicast Optimization: o Broadcast/Multicast Optimization: Restricts all broadcast/multicast packets to only those radios that need to forward them. For instance, if a broadcast comes in from VLAN 0, and there are no VLAN 0 users on a radio, then that radio will not send out that broadcast. This increases available airtime for other traffic. o Rate Optimization: Changes the rates of broadcast traffic sent by the Array (including beacons). When set to Optimized, each broadcast or multicast packet that is transmitted on each radio is sent at the lowest transmit rate used by any station associated to that radio at that time. This results in each IAP broadcasting at the highest Array TX data rate that can be heard by all associated stations, thus improving system performance. The rate is determined dynamically to ensure the best broadcast/multicast performance possible. The benefit is dramatic; consider a properly designed network (one that has -70db or better everywhere), where virtually every station should have a 54Mbps connection. In this case, broadcasts and multicasts will all go out at 54Mbps vs. the standard rate. This means that with the broadcast rate optimization on, broadcasts and multicasts use between 2% and 0% of the bandwidth that they would in Standard mode. When set to standard (default), broadcasts are sent out at the lowest basic rate only Mbps for 5GHz stations, or Mbps for 2.4GHz stations. In addition to those features, traffic filters can be created to limit or block any other type of traffic that is not necessary or is slowing down the air portion of the network. Station-to-Station Blocking Station-to-station blocking prevents stations connected to the same Array from sending traffic directly to each other. As a result, only traffic to/from the wired network is allowed. This feature provides multiple benefits. First, it improves security since it prevents users from accessing other devices on the network without the need to implement firewalling or filtering. Second, it helps optimize broadcast and multicast traffic in the air. Broadcast traffic sent by a station will not be sent back to the air by the other radios in that Array. Since broadcasts are sent at the lowest data rates, this helps increase the overall available air time. Station-to-station blocking may also be enabled in the network switches where the Arrays are connected; this will prevent stations from communicating with each other when associated to different Arrays. Radio Monitoring Spectrum Analyzers are used for troubleshooting Wi-Fi networks as well as for spectrum analysis. There are numerous devices including microwave ovens, cordless phones, and Bluetooth devices that can cause RF interference and degrade the performance of an 802. Wi- Fi network. Often the sources of interference are signals from nearby Wi-Fi networks and can be located with the use of a spectrum analyzer. There is an integrated Spectrum Analyzer function (Figure 8) in every Xirrus Wi-Fi Array that allows network administrators to monitor and troubleshoot their wireless networks in both 2.4GHz and 5GHz spectrum in a distributed manner. They are mostly used to detect existing sources of interference. 0

11 Figure 8. Radio Monitoring Using the Spectrum Analyzer on the Array provides users with the following real-time statistics in each and every channel in the 2.4GHz and 5 GHz band. Packets/ sec: Total number of packet per second Bytes/sec: Total number of Bytes per second 802. Busy: % of time that 802. traffic is seen on that channel Other Busy: % of time that non-802. traffic is seen on that channel Signal to Noise: Average Signal to Noise Ratio Noise Floor: Average noise floor seen on that channel Error Rate: % of 802. packet with CRC errors Average RSSI: Average RSSI level seen on 802. packets Average Data Rate: Average Data Rate over time Application Examples This section shows two real-world examples of high-density environments that have been deployed using Xirrus Wi-Fi Arrays. In these examples the configuration guidelines are outlined for the important Xirrus features discussed previously. For additional details and how to configure these features, please refer to the Xirrus Array User Guide as well as documents that are available on the Xirrus website. College Classroom/Auditorium A large college classroom or auditorium is a typical case of a high-density environment. In such applications, laptop-to-student ratio can reach : when all students are required to have a laptop to access online or school resources during class. In this example, the design goal was to provide wireless access to 40 simultaneous students in a lecture hall. Only one Xirrus Wi-Fi Array, model XS8, was deployed. On this 8 radio Array, 3 were deployed at 2.4GHz, 4 at 5GHz, and one as a dual band monitor radio. It is important to note that the monitor radio can also be used as a regular access radio in case additional capacity is required.

12 A ratio of 20 wireless stations per radio is used in this deployment, which represents a good balance for bandwidth and coverage. Within the coverage area, the expected signal level is sufficient to guarantee the highest possible data rates. The most important Array features for this scenario are multi-radio, sectorization and load balancing. Network Topology The topology in this example is very simple. Just one Array was deployed and powered through PoE and installed hanging from the ceiling in the center of the facility as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9. Lecture hall Configuration Channel Plan: The Array is configured for Auto Channel selection. After scanning the area, the Array will select the most optimal channels in which to operate. Since three of the 2.4GHz radios are enabled, the Array will pick channels,, and. For the 5GHz, the Array will select four channels taking into consideration outside RF interference conditions. The eighth radio is typically used in a threat sensor mode. Cell Size: Although Auto Cell is not relevant when deploying only one Array, it should be considered in case other Arrays are deployed within the vicinity, such as in other classrooms. The cell sizes of each radio in the Wi-Fi Array can be customized. In Figure 0 below, each radio is set to a different cell size for illustration purposes. However, in most implementations, all the radios are set to similar cell size. When configuring cell size manually, the cell size can be set as small, medium, large, max, or manual. 2

13 Figure 0. Auto Cell Please refer to the AutoCell Application Note for additional configuration details. Load Balancing Having the stations homogenously distributed on the Array is very important to offer maximum bandwidth. There are three possible settings for Load Balancing: Off: Load balancing is disabled. On: The overloaded radio will ignore Probe Requests for a few seconds expecting that the station will go to another radio. During that time, the radio will still respond to Association and Authentication Requests (i.e. if the station already knows the radio is there). After a few seconds if the station keeps sending Probe Requests, the radio will start responding admit access. Aggressive: In this case, if a radio is overloaded it will ignore all Probe Requests, Association Requests, and Authorization Requests from additional stations. It will do this indefinitely until its load decreases. This way the Array makes sure the users have associated to other radios less congested. Please refer to the Station Load Balancing Application Note for configuration details. Station Limits If Load Balancing is not used, another possibility is to set a station limit. When a radio reaches the established limit it will not accept connection from additional stations. Traffic Shaping The type of applications that will be accessed during class will determine the amount of allowed traffic per user. Traffic shaping should be enabled to prevent students from utilizing more bandwidth than necessary for the purpose of the class or to from transferring large amounts of information between them. The traffic limitation can be enabled on per SSID or per user group. Per SSID o At SSIDs >SSID Management, select the SSID that rate limiting is to be configured. User can choose to configure either one or both of the following: - Uncheck Unlimited and enter a value for the overall traffic for the selected SSID. - Uncheck Unlimited and enter a value for maximum rate allow for each station associated to the selected SSID. 3

14 Figure. Traffic Shaping Per SSID Per User Group o At Groups >Group Management, select the Group that rate limiting is to be configured. User can choose to configure either one or both of the following: - Uncheck Unlimited and enter a value for the overall traffic for the selected Group - Uncheck Unlimited and enter a value for maximum rate allow for each station in that Group. Figure 2. Traffic Shaping Per User Group Broadcast and Multicast Control ARP filtering should be set to Pass-thru or Proxy. To control of ARP traffic with Proxy and Pass-through mode Figure 3. ARP Filtering Station-to-Station Blocking Go to IAPs > Global Settings to enable/disable intra-station traffic Figure 4. Station-to-Station Blocking This feature was not enabled at the above example. Radio Monitoring As mentioned before, the monitor radio can be also used as a regular access radio. In this example, the number of radios available in the Arrays is sufficient to accommodate the number of students, so the monitor radio is used for spectrum analysis and intrusion detection. In order for the spectrum analyzer to function, there are 2 things that needs to be enabled on the Array: 4

15 The abg2 (XS series) or abgn2 (XN series) IAP must be configured as a monitor using the omni-directional antenna. Intrusion Detection Mode must be set to Standard. Go to IAPs > IAP Settings, configure abg2/abgn2 as monitor Figure 5. Radio Monitoring At IAPs> Advanced RF Settings, select Standard mode for Intrusion Detection Figure. Intrusion Detection In RF Monitor >Spectrum Analyzer, an overview of the 802. and non-802. activity in both 2.4GHz and 5GHz channels can be monitored. Convention Center A convention center is a perfect example of a high user density wireless environment. In this case, high-speed wireless Internet access is provided to 7000 attendees with approximately 3000 simultaneous users in a 50,000 square-foot hall. Various types of applications are supported including web access, , corporate VPN, text messaging, and VoIP stations connecting in both the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands. Network Topology The area is covered using twelve Xirrus Wi-Fi XS Arrays. The XS Array includes twelve 802.a, three 802.bg and one monitor spectrum/analyzer radio. The physical distribution of Arrays within the area is mostly uniform with half of the Arrays standing on tripods along the perimeter of the hall and the other half hanging from the ceiling. In this configuration (Figure 7), a total of 80 radios are available 3 operating in 2.4GHz proving 802.bg access and 44 operating in 5GHz providing 802.a access. 5

16 Figure 7. Array Deployment with Channel Allocation All Arrays are wired to GigE switch ports and powered via PoE. Configuration Channel Plan: In such an environment with a high density of radios, close proximity between Arrays, and no considerable obstructions between them, the channels can be easily assigned manually. Twelve 5GHz channels and three 2.4GHz channels are used for a total of 5 per Array. For the 2.4GHz band, only three non-overlapping channels in the US regulatory domain are used:, and. In the 5 GHz band, if the UN-II band channels are not considered, there are a total of 3 non-overlapping channels to allocate to 2 radios. The channels are set manually, replicating the same channel plan on all the Arrays and placing each Array in the same orientation (rotation). Cell Size: Considering the distance between Arrays and a static and controlled environment, the cells size are set to medium because the average distance from station to Array is relatively short. Channel interference between Arrays will determine the cell size rather than the size of the coverage area or required data rate. Load Balancing: This feature is enabled in all the Arrays and set as normal. The behavior of the users should be monitored at peak time and if the distribution does not look uniform, Load Balancing may be set to aggressive. Consider that in this environment, users are free to move and they could be creating areas of higher density than others. Traffic Shaping: In this particular deployment, traffic shaping was set to 2000 packets per second per user. Other traffic limitations can be set depending on the network requirements, for example applying filters to limit application support.

17 Broadcast Control: ARP filtering is set to proxy and station-to-station blocking is enabled. In this example, these two features are more critical since the amount of stations in the same broadcast domain is much higher than in the previous example. Tips and Recommendations High user density environments can push Wi-Fi networks to their limits, largely based on the contention created by many stations accessing a shared communication medium. The most important capabilities of the Xirrus Wi-Fi solution to enable successful deployment in such environments are its multi radio/multi-channel design, antenna sectorization, load balancing, and broadcast control. Beyond these facilities, the following recommendations may be used to optimize these types of deployments: Monitor the number of users per radio and radio utilization during peak times using the XMS to understand the user distribution. Enable aggressive load balancing if necessary. Monitor that the radios in all Arrays are functional and reporting information for future data collection and statistics generation. In cases where access for legacy 802.b stations is not required, configure the Arrays for 802.g only. This will eliminate the lowest data rates from the air and improve the overall performance on those radios for 802.g stations. Analyze the type of traffic that is being sent by the stations using a packet sniffer. If certain traffic types are seen that are not desired and can be eliminated (e.g. video streaming, P2P, etc.), create filters in the Arrays to block them. Implement station-to-station blocking on the switches to which the Arrays are connected to prevent users on different Arrays from communicating with each other. Monitor the backhaul and WAN utilization of the network to understand the traffic flow and magnitude to ensure these components of the network are not becoming a bottleneck. Use the XMS to monitor the traffic utilization of each Array to see if some are carrying more traffic than others or have many more users associated to them. Use the results to better distribute usage accordingly. For example, a lower user limit can be set in the Arrays that carry more traffic. Look at the traffic statistics and check the number of retransmissions. If a high percentage of retransmissions is detected, there may be too much inter-array interference. In this case, lower the TX power of the Array radios Check the Array IAP and station statistics to understand the number of users connected at low data rates. A lot of traffic at low data rates may indicate users are roaming and not selecting the closest radio. In this case, aggressive load balancing may be enabled and additionally increase the sensitivity threshold. 7

Optimizing Wireless Networks.

Optimizing Wireless Networks. from the makers of inssider Optimizing Wireless Networks. Over the past few years, MetaGeek has created tools to help users optimize their wireless networks. MetaGeek s tools help visualize the physical

More information

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction Wireless Physical Layer Q1. Is it possible to transmit a digital signal, e.g., coded as square wave as used inside a computer, using radio transmission without any loss? Why? It is not possible to transmit

More information

Site Survey and RF Design Validation

Site Survey and RF Design Validation CHAPTER 8 Site Survey Introduction In the realm of wireless networking, careful planning is essential to ensure that your wireless network performs in a manner that is consistent with Cisco s design and

More information

Solving the Wireless Mesh Multi-Hop Dilemma

Solving the Wireless Mesh Multi-Hop Dilemma Access/One Network White Paper Solving the Wireless Mesh Multi-Hop Dilemma 210-0008-01 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Approaches to Wireless Mesh 4 The Multi-Hop Dilemma 6 Executive Summary A New Breed

More information

Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers. Product Highlights. Relay2 Enterprise Access Point RA100 Datasheet

Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers. Product Highlights. Relay2 Enterprise Access Point RA100 Datasheet Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers The Relay2 Smart Access Point (RA100) is an enterprise-class access point designed for deployment in high-density environments

More information

Best Practices for High Density Wireless Network Design In Education and Small/Medium Businesses

Best Practices for High Density Wireless Network Design In Education and Small/Medium Businesses Best Practices for High Density Wireless Network Design In Education and Small/Medium Businesses White Paper Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Introduction 3 Determining Access Point Throughput 4 Establishing

More information

Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ

Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ Q: What is a Wireless LAN (WLAN)? Q: What are the benefits of using a WLAN instead of a wired network connection? Q: Are Intel WLAN products

More information

CS6956: Wireless and Mobile Networks Lecture Notes: 2/11/2015. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

CS6956: Wireless and Mobile Networks Lecture Notes: 2/11/2015. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) CS6956: Wireless and Mobile Networks Lecture Notes: //05 IEEE 80. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multi Access/Collision Detection detects collision and retransmits, no acknowledgement,

More information

Configuring Radio Resource Management

Configuring Radio Resource Management CHAPTER 12 This chapter contains these sections: Information About Radio Resource Management, page 12-1 Guidelines and Limitations, page 12-5 Configuring RRM, page 12-5 Configuring Off-Channel Scanning

More information

Design Guide for Pervasive Wireless Networks

Design Guide for Pervasive Wireless Networks Design Guide Design Guide for Pervasive Wireless Networks This document describes how to design and install a pervasive wireless network based on the Meru Networks Wireless LAN (WLAN) System. A pervasive

More information

802.11n in the Outdoor Environment

802.11n in the Outdoor Environment POSITION PAPER 802.11n in the Outdoor Environment How Motorola is transforming outdoor mesh networks to leverage full n advantages Municipalities and large enterprise customers are deploying mesh networks

More information

WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide. WatchGuard AP. Deployment Guide AP100, AP200

WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide. WatchGuard AP. Deployment Guide AP100, AP200 WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide AP100, AP200 About this Guide The WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide is a guide for deployment of a WatchGuard AP device with an XTM device. For

More information

White Paper. Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration

White Paper. Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration White Paper Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration Table of Contents I. Introduction... 3 II. Wireless Considerations... 4 Channel Selection... 4 Interference... 4 Coverage... 5 Covering

More information

12. INDOOR INSTALLATION

12. INDOOR INSTALLATION 12. INDOOR INSTALLATION 1. Introduction Previous editions of this book have focused on wide-area outdoor wireless as a means of connecting communities with each other and to the Internet. However, with

More information

VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING

VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING Version 1.0 Copyright 2003 Table of Contents Introduction...3 Wi-Fi RF Technology Options...3 Spectrum Availability and Non-Overlapping Wi-Fi Channels...4 Limited

More information

Municipal Mesh Network Design

Municipal Mesh Network Design White Paper Municipal Mesh Network Design Author: Maen Artimy 1 Summary This document provides a wireless mesh network design for the downtown area of the Town of Wolfville, Nova Scotia. This design serves

More information

Measured Performance of 5-GHz a Wireless LAN Systems

Measured Performance of 5-GHz a Wireless LAN Systems Measured Performance of 5-GHz 802.11a Wireless LAN Systems IEEE 802.11a systems take advantage of higher data rates and more frequency spectrum to deliver good range and improved system capacity performance.

More information

Wireless Network Standard and Guidelines

Wireless Network Standard and Guidelines Wireless Network Standard and Guidelines Purpose The standard and guidelines listed in this document will ensure the uniformity of wireless network access points and provide guidance for monitoring, maintaining

More information

Radio Resource Management in HiveOS. solution brief

Radio Resource Management in HiveOS. solution brief Radio Resource Management in HiveOS solution brief Radio Resource Management in HiveOS Introduction As enterprise wireless LANs have grown from a curiosity providing access in conference rooms into the

More information

Key Features. Multiple Operation Modes ENH500 can operate into four different modes with Access Point, Client Bridge, Client Router and WDS Mode.

Key Features. Multiple Operation Modes ENH500 can operate into four different modes with Access Point, Client Bridge, Client Router and WDS Mode. 802.11a/n Long Range Wireless Outdoor CPE Key Features IEEE 802.11 a/n compliant Up to 300Mbps (5GHz) 24V Proprietary PoE support Waterproof Housing IP65 rated AP/CB/CR/WDS Modes 4 SSIDs support + VLAN

More information

Analysis of QoS parameters of VOIP calls over Wireless Local Area Networks

Analysis of QoS parameters of VOIP calls over Wireless Local Area Networks Analysis of QoS parameters of VOIP calls over Wireless Local Area Networks Ayman Wazwaz, Computer Engineering Department, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron, Palestine, aymanw@ppu.edu Duaa sweity

More information

Enabling the Wireless School Challenges & Benefits of Wireless LANs in Primary Education

Enabling the Wireless School Challenges & Benefits of Wireless LANs in Primary Education WHITE PAPER Enabling the Wireless School Challenges & Benefits of Wireless LANs in Primary Education Date: February 2009 Copyright 2010 Meru. All rights reserved. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 GROWING

More information

Application Note Gigabit Ethernet Port Modes

Application Note Gigabit Ethernet Port Modes Application Note Gigabit Ethernet Port Modes Application Note Gigabit Ethernet Port Modes Table of Contents Description... 3 Benefits... 4 Theory of Operation... 4 Interaction with Other Features... 7

More information

best practice design guide Deploying High Density Wi- Fi DESIGN AND CONFIGURATION GUIDE FOR ENTERPRISE

best practice design guide Deploying High Density Wi- Fi DESIGN AND CONFIGURATION GUIDE FOR ENTERPRISE best practice design guide Deploying High Density Wi- Fi DESIGN AND CONFIGURATION GUIDE FOR ENTERPRISE Table of Contents Intended Audience... 3 Overview... 4 Performance Requirements... 5 Classroom Example...

More information

Deploy WiFi Quickly and Easily

Deploy WiFi Quickly and Easily Deploy WiFi Quickly and Easily Table of Contents 3 Introduction 3 The Backhaul Challenge 4 Effortless WiFi Access 4 Rate Limiting 5 Traffic Filtering 5 Channel Selection 5 Enhanced Roaming 6 Connecting

More information

ZyXEL Smart Antenna - The solution to Wi-Fi challenges

ZyXEL Smart Antenna - The solution to Wi-Fi challenges ZyXEL Smart Antenna - The solution to Wi-Fi challenges White Paper Edition 1, Apr/2015 2 0 1 5 Z y X E L C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C o r p o r a t i o n, A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d. Executive

More information

Expert Reference Series of White Papers. Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised 1-800-COURSES. www.globalknowledge.com

Expert Reference Series of White Papers. Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised 1-800-COURSES. www.globalknowledge.com Expert Reference Series of White Papers Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised 1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised Ted Rohling, Global Knowledge

More information

Protection Ripple in ERP 802.11 WLANs White Paper

Protection Ripple in ERP 802.11 WLANs White Paper Protection Ripple in ERP 802.11 WLANs White Paper June 2004 Planet3 Wireless, Inc. Devin Akin, CTO Devin@cwnp.com Copyright 2004 The CWNP Program www.cwnp.com Page 1 Understanding Use of 802.11g Protection

More information

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference Publication Date: May 27, 2015 KCF Technologies, Inc. Background The SmartDiagnostics wireless network is an easy to install, end-to-end machine

More information

Defining the Smart Grid WAN

Defining the Smart Grid WAN Defining the Smart Grid WAN WHITE PAPER Trilliant helps leading utilities and energy retailers achieve their smart grid visions through the Trilliant Communications Platform, the only communications platform

More information

Guide for wireless environments

Guide for wireless environments Sanako Study Guide for wireless environments 1 Contents Sanako Study... 1 Guide for wireless environments... 1 What will you find in this guide?... 3 General... 3 Disclaimer... 3 Requirements in brief...

More information

Deploying a Secure Wireless VoIP Solution in Healthcare

Deploying a Secure Wireless VoIP Solution in Healthcare Deploying a Secure Wireless VoIP Solution in Healthcare Situation Healthcare is a natural environment for wireless LAN solutions. With a large mobile population of doctors, nurses, physician s assistants

More information

ALLION USA INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER WIRELESS GATEWAY COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

ALLION USA INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER WIRELESS GATEWAY COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS ALLION USA INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER WIRELESS GATEWAY COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS Date: 4/25/2013 Rev 1.0 Visit our Web Site at: www.allionusa.com 1 Introduction Internet Service Providers (ISP) have a number

More information

Experience Matters IDENTIFI

Experience Matters IDENTIFI IdentiFiTM IDENTIFI Experience Matters IdentiFi wired-like Wi-Fi experience for the wireless world Extreme Networks IdentiFi is a purpose-built Wi-Fi solution that provides a wiredlike Wireless Local Area

More information

Dynamic Spectrum Optimization

Dynamic Spectrum Optimization Dynamic Spectrum Optimization CONNECTIVITY IN CROWDED SPECTRUM Reliable connectivity is critical. Service providers and private network operators implement wireless solutions because of the cost advantage,

More information

Virtual Access Points

Virtual Access Points Virtual Access Points Performance Impacts in an 802.11 environment and Alternative Solutions to overcome the problems By Thenu Kittappa Engineer Author: Thenu Kittappa Page 1 Virtual Access Points... 1

More information

Guide for Performing a Wireless Site Survey. 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g/802.11b/802.15.4

Guide for Performing a Wireless Site Survey. 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g/802.11b/802.15.4 Guide for Performing a Wireless Site Survey 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g/802.11b/802.15.4 1 Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Wireless Characteristics 3 AMX Site Survey Tools 5 Creating a Channel

More information

Datasheet. Enterprise Wi-Fi System. Models: UAP-IW, UAP, UAP-LR, UAP-PRO, UAP-Outdoor+, UAP-Outdoor5

Datasheet. Enterprise Wi-Fi System. Models: UAP-IW, UAP, UAP-LR, UAP-PRO, UAP-Outdoor+, UAP-Outdoor5 Enterprise Wi-Fi System Models: UAP-IW, UAP, UAP-LR, UAP-PRO, UAP-Outdoor+, UAP-Outdoor5 Unlimited Indoor/Outdoor AP Scalability in a Unified Management System Reliable Throughput up to 750 Mbps Intuitive

More information

Tuning Cisco WLC for High Density Deployments - William Jones

Tuning Cisco WLC for High Density Deployments - William Jones @WJComms Tuning Cisco WLC for High Density Deployments - William Jones Assumptions made in this document: Cisco WLCs (2504/5508/8510/WiSM2). APs in Local Mode. 7.6 MR3 Code or higher. No requirement to

More information

Best Practices for Deploying Spectralink 84-Series Handsets

Best Practices for Deploying Spectralink 84-Series Handsets Best Practices for Deploying Spectralink 84-Series Handsets A SPECTRALINK WHITE PAPER Introduction Delivering enterprise-grade VoWLAN means that wireless networks must be designed to provide the highest

More information

Deploying the ShoreTel IP Telephony Solution with a Meru Networks Wireless LAN

Deploying the ShoreTel IP Telephony Solution with a Meru Networks Wireless LAN Deploying the ShoreTel IP Telephony Solution with a Meru Networks Wireless LAN Copyright 2005, Meru Networks, Inc. This document is an unpublished work protected by the United States copyright laws and

More information

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet

More information

CSE331: Introduction to Networks and Security. Lecture 6 Fall 2006

CSE331: Introduction to Networks and Security. Lecture 6 Fall 2006 CSE331: Introduction to Networks and Security Lecture 6 Fall 2006 Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) End Host Application Reference model not actual implementation. Transmits messages (e.g. FTP or HTTP)

More information

Interference Identification Guide. Table of Contents

Interference Identification Guide. Table of Contents Interference Identification Guide This document is a guide to help IT professionals optimize the performance of wireless networks by using spectrum analysis tools to identify sources of wireless interference.

More information

WIRELESS PLANNING GUIDE

WIRELESS PLANNING GUIDE WIRELESS PLANNING GUIDE Introduction There are many things to consider when planning a wireless implementation in your district such as which technologies to use, coverage, standalone or centrally controlled,

More information

Site Survey Report MAH

Site Survey Report MAH Site Survey Report MAH Index 1. Introduction...3 1.1 Contact Information... 3 1.2 Scope of Survey and Spectrum... 3 1.3 Validity... 3 2. Report...4 2.1 Coverage... 4 2.1.1 Signal Strength vs. Signal to

More information

WiLink 8 Solutions. Coexistence Solution Highlights. Oct 2013

WiLink 8 Solutions. Coexistence Solution Highlights. Oct 2013 WiLink 8 Solutions Coexistence Solution Highlights Oct 2013 1 Products on market with TI connectivity 2004 2007 2009-11 2013 Use cases: BT voice, WLAN data Features: TDM based operation Strict protection

More information

Tablets and Smartphones

Tablets and Smartphones WIRELESS SOLUTIONS FOR Tablets and Smartphones High Performance Wireless Networks Tablets and smartphones. Challenge or opportunity? The proliferation of smartphones and tablets in the consumer space is

More information

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 4: Medium Access Control October 5, 2004 2004 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Medium Access Control Schemes: FDMA TDMA

More information

DWL-8600AP. Quality of Service WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) SVP (SpectraLink Voice Priority)

DWL-8600AP. Quality of Service WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) SVP (SpectraLink Voice Priority) Ideal for Business Dualband Connectivity for Increased Network Capacity Concurrent Operation in both 802.11a/n & 802.11b/g/n at Full Bandwidth Speeds Solid Die Cast Metal Housing Design for Indoor Deployment

More information

Campus Best Practice (GN3/NA3/T4) WLAN Network Planning

Campus Best Practice (GN3/NA3/T4) WLAN Network Planning Campus Best Practice (GN3/NA3/T4) WLAN Network Planning Anders Nilsson, SUNET Wireless Training Workshop Belgrad, 12 September 2011 Agenda Wi-Fi standards (a/b/g/n.) RF Basics (know your layer 1) Preparing

More information

AP 6521 VERSATILE SINGLE RADIO A/B/G/N WIRELESS ACCESS POINT. FEATURES Full n performance with standard 802.3af. Mobility.

AP 6521 VERSATILE SINGLE RADIO A/B/G/N WIRELESS ACCESS POINT. FEATURES Full n performance with standard 802.3af. Mobility. PRODUCT SPEC SHEET AP 6521 AP 6521 VERSATILE SINGLE RADIO 802.11A/B/G/N WIRELESS ACCESS POINT The AP 6521 is a versatile access point with the cost-efficiency of a single radio. With it s WiNG 5 intelligence,

More information

Chapter 2 Wireless Settings and Security

Chapter 2 Wireless Settings and Security Chapter 2 Wireless Settings and Security This chapter describes how to set up the wireless features of your WGT624 v4 wireless router. In planning your wireless network, select a location for the wireless

More information

HUAWEI Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure

HUAWEI Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure 01 Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure 1 Overview Release of 802.11ac standards has driven wireless technologies to the era of GE Wi-Fi. Enterprise Wi-Fi networks

More information

The ArubaOS Spectrum Analyzer Module

The ArubaOS Spectrum Analyzer Module Tech Brief Enterprise The ArubaOS Spectrum Analyzer Module The ArubaOS Spectrum Analyzer Module Tech Brief Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Visibility into the non-802.11 Spectrum... 2 Features... 3

More information

App coverage. ericsson White paper Uen 284 23-3212 Rev B August 2015

App coverage. ericsson White paper Uen 284 23-3212 Rev B August 2015 ericsson White paper Uen 284 23-3212 Rev B August 2015 App coverage effectively relating network performance to user experience Mobile broadband networks, smart devices and apps bring significant benefits

More information

Express Forwarding : A Distributed QoS MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh

Express Forwarding : A Distributed QoS MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh Express Forwarding : A Distributed QoS MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh, Ph.D. benveniste@ieee.org Mesh 2008, Cap Esterel, France 1 Abstract Abundant hidden node collisions and correlated channel access

More information

300Mbps Wireless N Gigabit Ceilling Mount Access Point

300Mbps Wireless N Gigabit Ceilling Mount Access Point Datasheet 300Mbps Wireless N Gigabit Ceilling Mount Access Point 120 Highlights Wireless N speed up to 300Mbps The Controller Software enables administrators to manage hundreds of s easily from any PC

More information

AP 6521 VERSATILE SINGLE RADIO A/B/G/N WIRELESS ACCESS POINT. FEATURES Full n performance with standard 802.3af. Mobility.

AP 6521 VERSATILE SINGLE RADIO A/B/G/N WIRELESS ACCESS POINT. FEATURES Full n performance with standard 802.3af. Mobility. PRODUCT SPEC SHEET AP 6521 AP 6521 VERSATILE SINGLE RADIO 802.11A/B/G/N WIRELESS ACCESS POINT The AP 6521 is a versatile access point with the cost-efficiency of a single radio. With it's WiNG 5 intelligence,

More information

The All-in-One, Intelligent WLAN Controller

The All-in-One, Intelligent WLAN Controller The All-in-One, Intelligent WLAN Controller Centralized management for up to 64* APs ZyMESH mitigates complex, inconvenient cabling Wi-Fi deployments Client steering enhances efficiency of wireless spectrum

More information

Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications

Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications Proceedings of the IMAC-XXVIII February 1 4, 2010, Jacksonville, Florida USA 2010 Society for Experimental Mechanics Inc. Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications Kurt Veggeberg, Business,

More information

Wireless Best Practices For Schools

Wireless Best Practices For Schools A COSN BEST PRACTICES WHITE PAPER Wireless Best Practices For Schools Guidelines for School System Leaders Brought to you by April 2015 Table of Contents Executive Overview... 3 Coverage and RF Considerations...

More information

Optimizing Network and Client Performance Through Dynamic Airtime Scheduling. white paper

Optimizing Network and Client Performance Through Dynamic Airtime Scheduling. white paper Optimizing Network and Client Performance Through Dynamic Airtime Scheduling white paper Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Mixed Data Rates in Traditional Wireless LANs... 3 Aerohive QoS... 7 Dynamic

More information

Wireless Troubleshooting

Wireless Troubleshooting Wireless Troubleshooting Applicable Version: 10.00 onwards Applicable Models: All WiFi Models - CR15wi, CR15wiNG, CR25wi, CR25wiNG, CR35wi, CR35wiNG Connectivity Issues with Cyberoam Inbuilt Access points

More information

WHITE PAPER. WEP Cloaking for Legacy Encryption Protection

WHITE PAPER. WEP Cloaking for Legacy Encryption Protection WHITE PAPER WEP Cloaking for Legacy TM Encryption Protection Introduction Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the encryption protocol defined in the original IEEE 802.11 standard for Wireless Local Area

More information

The Cellular Concept

The Cellular Concept The Cellular Concept 2.1 Introduction to Cellular Systems Solves the problem of spectral congestion and user capacity. Offer very high capacity in a limited spectrum without major technological changes.

More information

Lecture 17: 802.11 Wireless Networking"

Lecture 17: 802.11 Wireless Networking Lecture 17: 802.11 Wireless Networking" CSE 222A: Computer Communication Networks Alex C. Snoeren Thanks: Lili Qiu, Nitin Vaidya Lecture 17 Overview" Project discussion Intro to 802.11 WiFi Jigsaw discussion

More information

YO-301AP POE AP Datasheet

YO-301AP POE AP Datasheet YO-301AP POE AP Datasheet 300Mbps Wi-Fi Ceiling POE Access Point VER:1.0 Date:2013-06-03 1 Product Description: Practical and powerful The Ceiling PoE wireless access point for your home or office network

More information

How to overcome the ultimate Wi-Fi challenge

How to overcome the ultimate Wi-Fi challenge How to overcome the ultimate Wi-Fi challenge Executive summary After years of development, the IEEE approved in 204 the 802.ac standard amendment which finally brings the power of multigigabit networking

More information

NSN White paper February 2014. Nokia Solutions and Networks Smart Scheduler

NSN White paper February 2014. Nokia Solutions and Networks Smart Scheduler NSN White paper February 2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks Smart Scheduler CONTENTS 1. Introduction 3 2. Smart Scheduler Features and Benefits 4 3. Smart Scheduler wit Explicit Multi-Cell Coordination

More information

Design and Implementation Guide. Apple iphone Compatibility

Design and Implementation Guide. Apple iphone Compatibility Design and Implementation Guide Apple iphone Compatibility Introduction Security in wireless LANs has long been a concern for network administrators. While securing laptop devices is well understood, new

More information

Tranzeo s EnRoute500 Performance Analysis and Prediction

Tranzeo s EnRoute500 Performance Analysis and Prediction Tranzeo s EnRoute500 Performance Analysis and Prediction Introduction Tranzeo has developed the EnRoute500 product family to provide an optimum balance between price and performance for wireless broadband

More information

Step-by-Step: Handling RF Interference Challenges

Step-by-Step: Handling RF Interference Challenges Unpublished Step-by-Step: Handling RF Interference Challenges TABLE OF CONTENTS» Introduction» STEP ONE: Identify non-wi-fi interferers» STEP TWO: Locate non-wi-fi interferers» STEP THREE: Identify Wi-Fi

More information

CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Wireless Networks Background 1.1.1 Evolution of Wireless Networks Figure 1.1 shows a general view of the evolution of wireless networks. It is well known that the first successful

More information

Introduction Chapter 1. Uses of Computer Networks

Introduction Chapter 1. Uses of Computer Networks Introduction Chapter 1 Uses of Computer Networks Network Hardware Network Software Reference Models Example Networks Network Standardization Metric Units Revised: August 2011 Uses of Computer Networks

More information

Wireless Network Standard

Wireless Network Standard Last Modified: 10/20/15 Wireless Network Standard Purpose The standard and guidelines described in this document will ensure the uniformity of wireless network access points at the University of Georgia.

More information

Troubleshooting Range: Understanding the Cell Size. Jerome Henry, Senior Member, IEEE, Cisco Systems

Troubleshooting Range: Understanding the Cell Size. Jerome Henry, Senior Member, IEEE, Cisco Systems Troubleshooting Range: Understanding the Cell Size Jerome Henry, Senior Member, IEEE, TME @ Cisco Systems How Large is My Cell? Long ago, vendors used to be able to provide this Most don t provide cell

More information

What s so smart about Smart-hopping?

What s so smart about Smart-hopping? What s so smart about Smart-hopping? A closer look at some of the key technology decisions behind the IntelliVue Smart-hopping WMTS band Introduction The IntelliVue Smart-hopping WMTS band opens up a world

More information

AC1750 Dual Band Wireless Router with StreamBoost Technology. TEW-824DRU (v1.0r) TEW-824DRU

AC1750 Dual Band Wireless Router with StreamBoost Technology. TEW-824DRU (v1.0r) TEW-824DRU AC1750 Dual Band Wireless Router with StreamBoost Technology TEW-824DRU (v1.0r) Low latency gaming/voice prioritization AC1750: 1,300 Mbps WiFi AC + 450 Mbps WiFi N bands Intelligent traffic shaping Pre-encrypted

More information

Wi-Fi / WLAN Performance Management and Optimization

Wi-Fi / WLAN Performance Management and Optimization Wi-Fi / WLAN Performance Management and Optimization Veli-Pekka Ketonen CTO, 7signal Solutions Topics 1. The Wi-Fi Performance Challenge 2. Factors Impacting Performance 3. The Wi-Fi Performance Cycle

More information

Configuring Adaptive Radio Management (ARM) Profiles and Settings

Configuring Adaptive Radio Management (ARM) Profiles and Settings Configuring Adaptive Radio Management (ARM) Profiles and Settings This document describes how to configure the ARM function to automatically select the best channel and transmission power settings for

More information

Output Power (without antenna) 5GHz 2.4GHz

Output Power (without antenna) 5GHz 2.4GHz Dual Band High- PoE AP Router Dual Band Concurrent AP Router 11a + 11a/b/g Hi- Radios 802.3af PoE Port 7 Wireless Operation Modes 5/10/20 Variable Channel Width Home Digital Network Application School,

More information

NXC5500/2500. Application Note. Smart Classroom Load Balancing. Version 4.20 Edition 2, 02/2015. Copyright 2015 ZyXEL Communications Corporation

NXC5500/2500. Application Note. Smart Classroom Load Balancing. Version 4.20 Edition 2, 02/2015. Copyright 2015 ZyXEL Communications Corporation NXC5500/2500 Version 4.20 Edition 2, 02/2015 Application Note Smart Classroom Load Balancing Copyright 2015 ZyXEL Communications Corporation Smart Classroom Load Balancing For wireless access service,

More information

Enterprise Wireless LAN and the Broadband Myth. The Challenge of WLAN Coverage and Capacity

Enterprise Wireless LAN and the Broadband Myth. The Challenge of WLAN Coverage and Capacity Enterprise Wireless LAN and the Broadband Myth The Challenge of WLAN Coverage and Capacity October 2012 Copyright 2012, Extricom, Ltd. All rights reserved. Extricom, Interference-Free, TrueReuse, UltraThin,

More information

Radio Frequency (RF) Survey

Radio Frequency (RF) Survey Municipal Wireless Broadband and the Digital Community Report Radio Frequency (RF) Survey for the City and County of San Francisco July 21, 2006 Preface This document describes Civitium s findings and

More information

Enterprise WiFi System. Datasheet. Models: UAP, UAP-LR, UAP-PRO, UAP-AC, UAP-Outdoor+, UAP-Outdoor5, UAP-AC Outdoor

Enterprise WiFi System. Datasheet. Models: UAP, UAP-LR, UAP-PRO, UAP-AC, UAP-Outdoor+, UAP-Outdoor5, UAP-AC Outdoor Enterprise WiFi System Models: UAP, UAP-LR, UAP-PRO, UAP-AC,, UAP-Outdoor5, UAP-AC Outdoor Unlimited Indoor/Outdoor AP Scalability in a Unified Management System Breakthrough Speeds up to 1300 Mbps (802.11ac)

More information

Lab Exercise 802.11. Objective. Requirements. Step 1: Fetch a Trace

Lab Exercise 802.11. Objective. Requirements. Step 1: Fetch a Trace Lab Exercise 802.11 Objective To explore the physical layer, link layer, and management functions of 802.11. It is widely used to wireless connect mobile devices to the Internet, and covered in 4.4 of

More information

Building a Wireless Network for a High Density of Users

Building a Wireless Network for a High Density of Users Building a Wireless Network for a High Density of Users David Lang - Intuit Abstract: Why do conference and school wireless networks always work so poorly? As IT professionals we are used to the network

More information

QuickSpecs. HP M220 802.11n Access Point Series. Models HP M220 802.11n WW Access Point. Key features

QuickSpecs. HP M220 802.11n Access Point Series. Models HP M220 802.11n WW Access Point. Key features Overview HP M220 802.11n Access Point Series Models HP M220 802.11n AM Access Point HP M220 802.11n WW Access Point J9798A J9799A Key features IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n access point Single-radio, dual-band (2.4

More information

LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation Optimization

LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation Optimization Nokia Networks LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation Optimization Nokia Networks white paper LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation Optimization Contents Introduction 3 Carrier Aggregation in live networks 4 Multi-band

More information

TECHNICAL NOTE. GoFree WIFI-1 web interface settings. Revision Comment Author Date 0.0a First release James Zhang 10/09/2012

TECHNICAL NOTE. GoFree WIFI-1 web interface settings. Revision Comment Author Date 0.0a First release James Zhang 10/09/2012 TECHNICAL NOTE GoFree WIFI-1 web interface settings Revision Comment Author Date 0.0a First release James Zhang 10/09/2012 1/14 Web interface settings under admin mode Figure 1: web interface admin log

More information

CWNA Instructor Led Course Outline

CWNA Instructor Led Course Outline CWNA Instructor Led Course Outline Enterprise Wi-Fi Administration, Outline v7.0 Introduction The Enterprise Wireless LAN Administration 7.1 course (which prepares students for the CWNA-106 exam), whether

More information

Application Note: WLAN Troubleshooting Using AirCheck G2 Wireless Tester

Application Note: WLAN Troubleshooting Using AirCheck G2 Wireless Tester APPLICATION NOTE Application Note: WLAN Troubleshooting Using AirCheck G2 Wireless Tester AirCheck Troubleshooting Capabilities AirCheck G2 Wireless Tester is a powerful troubleshooting tool that can help

More information

Vocera Infrastructure Planning Guide. Version 4.4

Vocera Infrastructure Planning Guide. Version 4.4 Vocera Infrastructure Planning Guide Version 4.4 Copyright 2002-2014 Vocera Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. Protected by US Patent Numbers D486,806; D486,807; 6,892,083; 6,901,255; 7,190,802;

More information

Purpose: Use this Reference Guide to review what impacts the home environment can have on WiFi signal

Purpose: Use this Reference Guide to review what impacts the home environment can have on WiFi signal Purpose: Use this Reference Guide to review what impacts the home environment can have on WiFi signal More so than wire-line technologies such as Ethernet and MoCA, WiFi is highly impacted by the environment

More information

Wi-Fi: The Importance of Mobility

Wi-Fi: The Importance of Mobility Executive Summary Mobile computers require persistent network connections. A momentary loss of network connectivity can disrupt applications running on the device. The result is lost data and lost productivity.

More information

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl.

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl. Introduction to Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) White Paper D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. Introduction Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) is a technology involving the use

More information

Designing, Securing and Monitoring 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless Networks

Designing, Securing and Monitoring 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless Networks Designing, Securing and Monitoring 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless Networks The importance of Wireless today Increasingly in the Corporate Environment, Wireless is becoming an enabling technology to facilitate

More information

ADDENDUM 12 TO APPENDIX 8 TO SCHEDULE 3.3

ADDENDUM 12 TO APPENDIX 8 TO SCHEDULE 3.3 ADDENDUM 12 TO APPENDIX 8 TO SCHEDULE 3.3 TO THE Overview EXHIBIT T to Amendment No. 60 Secure Wireless Network Services are based on the IEEE 802.11 set of standards and meet the Commonwealth of Virginia

More information

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Mesh Enables Alternative Broadband Access

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Mesh Enables Alternative Broadband Access Cisco Outdoor Wireless Mesh Enables Alternative Broadband Access Cisco ServiceMesh defines a network design for service providers delivering valueadded municipal wireless services over a mesh network.

More information