Fire Doors The Role of a Fire Door

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1 Fire Doors The Role of a Fire Door BWF-Certifire Fire Door and Doorset Scheme Presented by John Fletcher John Fletcher Consulting Ltd.

2 Fire doors main messages 1. Fire doors are essential in passive fire protection A requirement in compartmenting a building Protecting escape routes Save Lives Save Property 2. Must be tested to show the design will work in a fire. What do we mean by certification? 3. Fire doors can only work correctly when.... Fitted with the correct compatible components for the door Door leaf + frame / linings Closers, Hinges and other ESSENTIAL ironmongery Seals Glazing I.e. the fire door assembly / or doorset must comply with regulations 4. Where to go for help & information If in doubt - DON T GUESS! 2

3 A partnership BWF - a Trade Association The BWF-CERTIFIRE Fire Door and Doorset Scheme Began in 1997 Around 200 members An alliance across the Fire Door Industry Door leaf and doorset manufacturers Frame manufacturers Licensed modifiers Ironmongery manufacturers/distributors Seal manufacturers Fire door glass / glazing system providers Suppliers Door blanks / cores Glass Merchants and Distributors CERTIFIRE - A Certification Body Other 3 rd party certification schemes e.g. TRADA Q Mark & IFC

4 Industry Aims & Challenges To improve the standard of fire doors installed in the UK To educate the construction industry about the importance of third-party certification of fire doors and passive fire protection systems To raise awareness and educate the consumers, and users of the critical importance of Fire Doors To move the market progressively towards fire doorsets as the best way to achieve the Scheme long-term objectives Our Challenges 3 million fire doors sold per year Common supply route via merchants - approx 80% Changing the spec to save the client money Cutting costs / cutting corners Poor understanding, poor maintenance, poor workmanship Fire doors are an engineered safety device not just an ordinary door 4

5 Poor workmanship Gaps - between doors, frame-to-wall, leaf to frame

6 Poor workmanship & poor advice

7 Poor maintenance Does someone REALLY believe this will work in a fire?

8 Poor understanding Photos by kind permission of CheckMate Ltd

9 Wedged / held open fire doors

10 Understanding the signage

11 Adapting / accommodating fire doors to suit premises

12 What are fire doors for?

13 What fire doors do Fire doors serve 2 purposes 1. Everyday activity Allowing passage in and out of a building / section of a building or a room 2. In the event of a fire A requirement in compartmenting a building Protecting escape routes Restricting initial development of a fire. E.g restricting the amount of oxygen feeding the fire

14 2 types of fire door installations In the UK, a fire door installation is achieved in one of two ways:- Doorset: o frame, a pre-hung door leaf (with any vision panels) and essential ironmongery, all matched and pre-assembled in the factory Door Assembly: o a fire door leaf, frame and additional components needed to install them, supplied and fitted separately. In the latter case, the components that are fitted MUST match the test evidence. I.e. They MUST be compatible with the door leaf

15 Door leaf standard practice Door leaf Fire door assembly Fire door leaf / approved frame / casing Compatible Approved Components Door frame / casing / lining CE marked Certifire Approved components compatible with door test

16 What regulations apply to fire doors? Regulations

17 The Building Regulations Fire doors should have the appropriate performance - given by Test BS 476 Part 22 Classification BS EN / Test BS EN /2/3 Any test evidence used to substantiate the fire resistance rating of a door or shutter should be carefully checked to ensure that it adequately demonstrates compliance that is applicable to the complete installed assembly. Small differences in detail (such as glazing apertures, intumescent strips, door frames and ironmongery etc.) may significantly affect the rating.

18 Building Regulations New buildings Performance Fire Safety Sound Ventilation Thermal Accessibility Safety Glazing Notes - Where a fire door is required - The fire resistance period expected - Specific requirements e.g. smoke seals and signage - Minimum sound resistance performance of the door - Minimum air transfer gap required under the door - Minimum thermal performance of the door if required - Access to buildings for disabled people, including door width, hardware locations, opening forces, provision of vision panels and light reflectance values required - Where safety glass is required England & Wales : Approved Documents UK Regulatory Parts Scotland : Technical Handbook : sections Northern Ireland : Technichal Booklets B 2 E E 5 G F 3 K L 6 F M 3 R N 4 V

19 Regulatory Reform Order (2005) Existing buildings Applies to England and Wales: Fire (Scotland) Act Premises that provide care including care homes and hospitals Community halls, places of worship and other community premises The shared areas of properties occupied by several households Pubs, clubs and restaurants Schools and sports centres Tents and marquees Hotels and hostels Factories and warehouses

20 The Missing Link - Building handover requirements (Regulation 38 England and Wales) New build Client Ownership Handing over the correct information about the certification of the fire door and components is extremely important for future inspection & maintenance

21 Understanding certification What does it tell us? How do we know it s correct or upto-date?

22 Doors should be tested & certificated? You need proof of performance Comply with building regs. A test certificate indicates that the complete door assembly can withhold fire for a defined period of time What many fail to realise - that the complete assembly must be installed as it was tested Components as well as door Applies to each door configuration requires a proof How do I know if the door is a fire door? Label Plug Proof of test evidence What if you have none of these? then there s a doubt about the door s ability to perform An expert assessment can be made But it s expensive

23 3 ways of demonstrating compliance The difference.... Self declaration Tested to / Uncertain? Designed to = / RISK Complies with BS 476 Part 22 No guarantee that products will (or have) reached the correct standards May not have been tested Was the test impartial? What about ongoing manufacture? Test certificate My product was tested. Uncertain? = RISK I have a certificate Only a SNAPSHOT test Was the test sample representative of what is ALWAYS produced? What if manufacturing changes? What if designs change? What if materials change? 3 rd party certification Not only demonstrates product conformity Audits the company s production & product Ensures the product is supplied to the SAME specification / design AS TESTED = CONFIDENCE

24 3 rd party certification Warrington Certification is the UKAS test laboratory who conduct independent testing of doors and components and audit check members The performance of timber doors is judged by subjecting them to the standard test procedure specified in BS 476 : Part 22: 1987 or BS EN : Doors + components can be traced up or down the supply chain Tests are made on complete door assemblies, the door and frame with all the necessary hardware.

25 Fire Door Certificates What to look for Does the door have any identity or marking to validate compliance / certification? A plug A label A specific door reference 2. Is the certification number / evidence relevant to the door leaf / door set? Obvious!! But you d be surprised how rarely it s checked 3. Is the door type / configuration correct? Single / pair Panel / flush etc. 1. Who glazed the door? If not done correctly, the certificate will be void

26 Door types You may have specified an FD30 door, but... Each door type below requires a different construction - AND a different test It MAY NOT be suitable some configurations, certain components or for glazing Panel Moulded Panel Flush Glazed 1 ½ pair with screen

27 Door configurations Each door configuration is subjected to a different fire door test. You cannot assume that any 2 single doors will work in a double leaf system

28 Ironmongery for Fire Doors must be compatible with the door Essential Ironmongery Hinges Closers Locks and latches Non-Essential Ironmongery Handles Knobs Spy holes Letter plates

29 Where do I find the information about the door leaf and components? Installation & maintenance instructions supplied with EVERY door

30 Where do I find the information about the door leaf and components?

31 What to look for after installation and in use Checking the assembly

32 The Door Leaf Does the door have a certificate? Is it 3 rd -party certificated? Does the door leaf sit in the door frame? Is it free from distortion? Is the door leaf free from damage? No cracked / split panels If the door leaf is veneered or lipped, is the glue still holding these products firmly in place? Don t consider upgrading an ordinary door with intumescent paints It s a very specialised job You can t apply the paint accurately enough with a paint brush Don t patch up the door

33 Door Frame Is the door frame made from the right material? Softwood (possibly MDF) for FD30 Hardwood for FD60 hour and above Is the door frame firmly attached to the wall? Any SMALL gaps should filled with mineral wool or fire rated material Is the frame s planted stop firmly attached to the frame? Does the door close evenly into the frame

34 The gap is important The frame to door leaf gap should be 3 to 4mm at the two sides and top edge of the door

35 Threshold Gap If a Fire Door the permissible threshold gap is ~ 10mm. (Check the manufacturer s instructions / evidence) If a Fire and Smoke Door the permissible threshold gap should be 3 to 4mm the same as the perimeter gap. Does the door freely swing, without binding?

36 Intumescent and smoke seals Must be tested to BS 476: Pt 22 (OR BS EN :2014 AND a separate test for smoke leakage under BS 476: Pt 31.1) Typically fitted into groove in door leaf OR PREFERABLY frame. Fitted along 2 vertical sections and top edge not fitted to threshold Ideally, should be supplied, fitted by doorframe manufacturer. If replaced due to repair MUST be equal to original doorset / assembly Save lives, and property - prevent flow of cold / hot smoke Many doorsets now need to provide fire, smoke and acoustic containment 36

37 Fire & Smoke Seals Is the Fire Door an FD30(S) or an FD60(S)? There is very limited substitution on FD30 s and no substitution allowed on FD60 s Are there any seals present in the door leaf or frame? Are the seals free from damage? Are the seals continuous around the door leaf s perimeter? Are the intumescent seals, graphite or sodium silicate? Don t mix them If combined fire and smoke seals, are the fins or brushes free from damage? Is the door leaf to frame gap still 3 to 4 mm?

38 Intumescent Materials 3 main types Exfoliating Graphite Most common type, 17 different types. Expansion between C High pressure seal, multi directional expansion Hydrated Sodium Silicate Chemical formula, consistent in its performance Expands at 100 C, consistently High pressure seal, multi directional expansion Mono-Ammonium Phosphate Referred to as MAP Low pressure, high volume expansion Commonly used for lock/latch and hinge protection kits

39 Glazing Detail Are the glazing beads well attached to the door leaf and free from damage? Is the glass free from damage and cracking? Is the intumescent glazing seal continuous and attached to both the glass and bead? If the glass is below 1500mm from the bottom of the door is the glass a firerated safety glass? Who cut the vision panel & installed the glass? Check for a second label or a plug

40 Other apertures in doors Letter boxes Air transfer grilles Spy-hole viewers Should be cut & fitted by approved installers Unprotected slots and apertures

41 Fire Rated ATG s On an FD30 or FD60: remove cover grille and check that a Fire Resistant air transfer grille has been fitted (giving hot smoke protection) Ensure the ATG is free of blockages, replace if necessary. If an FD30S or FD60S: ensure electromechanical device has been fitted (giving cold smoke protection) and works! Periodic checks must be conducted with the fire/smoke alarm tests weekly (as required in RRO). Does the vent automatically shut down when the power to the door is cut? Ensure the electro-mechanical ATG is free of blockages

42 Check / maintain the ironmongery Replace if necessary Essential Ironmongery Hinges Closers Locks and latches Non-Essential Ironmongery Handles Knobs Spy holes Letter plates

43 The role of Fire Doors? Conclusion

44 The role of fire doors? Conclusion 1. Only specify / use 3 rd -party certificated fire doors 2. Ensure they are installed / maintained by competent persons 3. Get them checked or inspected by competent personnel 4. ONLY use the correct compatible components for the door leaf 5. Don t play with fire - don t cut corners 6. If in ANY DOUBT, then ASK

45 Further Information Directory of members - Literature and Fact Cards

46 Check the certificate details

47 Consistent approach to inspections Competent Approved Fire Door Inspectors (FDIS)

48 Look out for 2 further initiatives A national register of third-party certificated fire door installers (Under Construction) SEPTEMBER 2014

49 Your attention is appreciated! THANK YOU

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