1 Marketing: Advertising and Sales Promotion Food Communication II Section G Communication Mix Strategies All of the information has been adapted from: Kotler P. Armstrong, G., Principles of Marketing. 10 th International Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education. & Lamb et al Marketing. Third South African Edition. Oxford University Press, Southern Africa. & Belch, GE. Belch, MA., Advertising and Promotion, An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
2 Administrative info
3 Advertising Sales Promotion Personal Selling Direct Marketing Advertising PR Integrated Marketing Communications
4 The Marketing Communication Process Marketing communication strategy is closely related to the process of communication. As humans, we assign meanings meanings to feelings, ideas, facts, attitudes, and emotions. Communication is the process by which we exchange or share meanings through a common set of symbols. When a firm develops a new product, changes on old one, or simply tries to increase sales of an existing good or service, it must communicate its selling message to potential customers. Marketers communicate info about a firm and its products to the target market and other audiences through its marketing communications programme.
5 The Marketing Communication Process Interpersonal communication: direct, face-to-face communication between two or more people. Allows to respond the the other persons reaction. Examples:Personal selling, telephone, sms, online chat, social media like Facebook and twitter, kype. Mass communication: communicating to large audiences. Usually through a mass medium (TV). Firm does not know the people and is unable to respond immediately to customers reactions. Must wait to see if positive or negative reaction. Also clutter from competitors' messages and env. Examples: TV, radio, newspaper, magazine, billboards, commuter media, websites.
6 The Communication Process Marketers are both senders and receivers of messages. AS senders, marketers attempt to inform, persuade, and remind the target market to adopt courses of action. While at the same time promoting the purchase of a good or service. As receivers, marketers attune themselves to the target market in order to develop the appropriate messages, adapt existing messages, and spot new communication opportunities. Marketing communication is a two-way interaction, rather than a one way process.
7 Figure: The Communication Process Noise - Other ads - News articles - Other store displays - Friends opinions Sender Encoding the Message Message Channel Decoding the Message Receiver - Marketing Manager - Advertising Manager - Advertising Agency - Advertisement - Store Display - Coupon - Press Release - Sale Reminder - Event Notification - Media - Retail store - Magazine - News Show - SMS - Facebook Page - Receiver interpretation of message - Customer - Viewers/ listeners/ Readers - New Media - Clients Message Channel Source: Lamb, et al, 2004., pg 304
8 Table 1: Characteristics of the elements in the marketing communication mix Advertising PR Person Sell Sales Prom Interactive Mode of comm Indirect and impersonal Usually indirect and nonpersonal Direct and face-to-face Usually indirect and nonpersonal Comm control Low Moderate to low High Moderate to low Feedback amnt Little Little Much Little to mod Feedback speed Delayed Delayed Immediate Varies Direction of message flow Control over message content Identification of sponsor Speed to reach large audience Message flexibility One-way One-way Two-way Mostly oneway Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Fast Usually fast Slow Fast Same No direct Tailored to Same message to control over prospective all aud Source: message Lamb, et al, message to buyer 2004., audpg 305varied target
9 The Goals and Tasks of MKT COMM People communicate with one another for many reasons. They seeks amusement, ask for help, give assistance or instructions, provide information, and express ideas and thoughts. Marketing communication, on the other hand seeks to modify behaviour and thoughts in some way. Marketing communication also strives to reinforce existing behaviour. (continue eating at KFC) Marketing can perform one or more of three tasks: 1) inform, 2) persuade, 3) remind.
10 Table 2: Examples of Marketing Communication Tasks Informative Persuasive Reminder Increasing the awareness of a new brand or product class Building brand preference Reminding customers that the product may be needed in the near future Informing the market of new product attributes Suggesting new users for a product Reducing consumers' anxieties Telling the market of a price change Describing available services Correcting false impressions Explaining how the product works Encouraging brand switching Changing customer's perceptions of product attributes Influencing customers to buy now Reminding consumers where to buy the product Reminding consumers what the brand stands for Keeping the product in consumers' minds during offpeak times Maintaining consumer awareness Building a firm's image Source: Lamb, et al, 2004., pg 307
11 The AIDA concept The ultimate goal of any marketing communication is to get someone to buy a product or service. Or in the case of a non-profit organisation, take some action (like donate blood). A classic model for reacting marketing communication goals is called the AIDA concept. A: Attention I: Interest D: Desire A: Action See handout note for an expanded version known as AIDA and the hierarchy of effects.
12 The AIDA concept The AIDA model proposes that consumers respond to messages in a cognitive (thinking), affective (feelings, emotions), and con-active (action, doing) sequence. First, the marketing communication attracts a persons attention by Personal selling: a greeting and approach Advertising and SP: loud volume, bright colours, humour, and so on. Next, a good message creates interest And then, by illustrating how a product's features will satisfy the consumer's needs, desire. Finally, a special offer or strong closing sales pitch may be used to obtain purchase action.
13 Factors affecting the Mkt Comm Mix Marketing communication mixes vary a great deal from one product and one industry to another. Normally, advertising and personal selling are used to promote goods and services, supported and supplemented by sales promotions. Public Relations help develop a positive image for the firm and the product or brand. Yet a firm may choose not to use all four (five) marketing communication elements in its marketing communication mix, or it may choose to use them in varying degrees. The particular marketing communication mix chosen by a firm for a product depends on several factors. See next page.
14 Factors affecting the Mkt Comm Mix Factors Affecting the Marketing Communication Mix: Nature of product Stages in the product life-cycle Target market characteristics Type of buying decision Available funds for marketing communication mix Push and pull strategies See the handout notes for a detailed explanation of these factors and how they influence the Mkt Comm Mix. (page )
15 Figure 2: Push versus Pull Strategy PUSH STRATEGY Manufacturer promotes to wholesaler Wholesaler promotes to retailer Retailer promotes to consumer Consumer buys From retailer Orders to manufacturer PULL STRATEGY Manufacturer promotes to consumer Consumer demands product from retailer Retailer demands product from wholesaler Wholesaler demands product from manufacturer Orders to manufacturer Source: Lamb, et al, 2004., pg 314
16 Steps in developing the Mkt Comm Plan A marketing communication plan is a carefully arranged sequence of marketing communications designed around a common theme and geared to specific objectives. Because mkt comm is something of an art, developing a mkt comm plan can be a challenging task. Despite many specific suggestions and guidelines, creativity still plays a key role. Effective planning can greatly stimulate sales, while ineffective planning can waste millions and harm the image of the firm and its products. The mkt comm plan consists of distinct steps: Analyse the market; Identify the target audience; Set marketing communication objectives; Develop a mkt comm budget; and Choose the mkt comm mix.
17 Analyse the market If firms truly accept the marketing concept of satisfying consumer needs and wants, they must conduct research to find out what they are. With the increasing complexity of the market, proper research is necessary to ensure an effective marketing communication's plan. Research identifies the product's target market. Research also determines the plan's objectives. Both secondary and primary research can yield the needed information. (See section C) Marketing Intelligence and trend analysis will also provide a great deal of insight into consumer needs.
18 Identify Target Audience Through market research, the market segment the firm wants to reach with a given marketing communication plan should be explicitly defined in terms of the following variables (As discussed in section D): Geographic Demographic Psychographic Behaviour Benefit Naturally, the target audience should be those most likely to buy the product within a defined period.
19 Set marketing communication objectives Objectives are the starting point for any plan. Possible objectives that a marketing manager may pursue include: Increasing awareness Improving or changing a consumer's attitude Changing a consumer's buying behaviour Reminding the consumer of the product Increasing the consumer's recall of the product Additionally, marketing managers must understand their current position in terms of each objective before a reasonable goal can be established (current: 10 unites sold monthly, objective: incr to 20 units per month)
20 Set marketing communication objectives Mkt Comm Objectives should centre on the consumer's stage in the hierarchy of effects, or the potential buyer's current stage in the purchasing process (see handout). The role of the marketing communication is to change the receivers attitudes and intentions towards the good or service, moving them through the hierarchy towards an action (a sale). At the same time, the consumer's response to the message helps the marketer move to the next step in promoting the product To be effective, objectives should me SMART. Simple, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic, Timely.
21 Develop a Mkt Comm Budget After identifying the target audience and specifying the objectives, the mkt manager can finalise a budget. This is no simple task, nor is there a cookbook approach that will create an ideal mkt comm budget. Theoretically, the mkt comm budget should be set at a level that maximises profitability and return on investment (ROI). This theory is not easy to implement because it requires knowledge of the actual monetary benefits resulting from the marketing communication effort. Easy techniques include: Arbitrary allocation and all-youcan-afford; Competitive parity method; Percent-of-sales method; market share method; Objective and task method. (See handout notes for detailed explanations)
22 Deciding on a mkt comm MIX Finally, marketing managers select a combination of elements advertising, sales promotion, public relations, interactive media that will be included in the overall mkt comm plan. Marketers must choose several different elements for one mkt comm campaign. Different elements are typically chosen to address consumers in different stages of the hierarchy of effects.
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