Applied Fluid Mechanics

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1 Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International

2 CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture Objectives Basic Introductory Concepts The International System of Units (SI) The U.S. Customary System Weight and Mass Temperature Consistent Units in an Equation The Definition of Pressure Compressibility Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity Surface Tension 19 References 21 Internet Sites 21 Practice Problems 21 Computer Programming Assignments 24 CHAPTER 2 VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS, The Big Picture Objectives Dynamic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids Variation of Viscosity with Temperature Viscosity Measurement SAE Viscosity Grades ISO Viscosity Grades Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 46 References 48 Internet Sites 48 Practice Problems 49 Computer Programming Assignments 51 vii

3 viii Contents CHAPTER 3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT The Big Picture Objectives Absolute and Gage Pressure Relationship between Pressure and Elevation Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation Pascal's Paradox Manometers Barometers Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid Pressure Gages and Transducers 70 References 74 Internet Sites 75 Practice Problems 75 CHAPTER 4 FORCES DUE TO STATIC FLUIDS The Big Picture Objectives Gases under Pressure Horizontal Flat Surfaces under Liquids Rectangular Walls Submerged Plane Areas General Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas Piezometric Head Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface Effect of a Pressure above the Ruid Surface Forces on a Curved Surface with Ruid Below It Forces on Curved Surfaces with Ruid Above and Below 104 Practice Problems 105 Computer Programming Assignments 122, CHAPTER 5 BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The Big Picture Objectives Buoyancy Buoyancy Materials Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies Stability of Floating Bodies Degree of Stability 140 Reference 142 Internet Sites 142 Practice Problems 142 Computer Programming Assignments 152

4 ix CHAPTER 6 FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI'S EQUATION The Big Picture Objectives Fluid Row Rate and the Continuity Equation Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing Conservation of Energy Bernoulli's Equation Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation Applications of Bernoulli's Equation Torricelli's Theorem Flow Due to a Falling Head 182 References 185 Internet Sites 185 Practice Problems 186 Computer Programming Assignments 196 CHAPTER 7 GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION The Big Picture Objectives Energy Losses and Additions Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions General Energy Equation Power Required by Pumps Power Delivered to Fluid Motors 211 Practice Problems 213 CHAPTER 8 REYNOLDS NUMBER, LAMINAR FLOW, TURBULENT FLOW, AND ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION The Big Picture Objectives Reynolds Number Critical Reynolds Numbers Darcy's Equation Friction Loss in Laminar Flow Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow Equations for the Friction Factor Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula Nomograph for Solving the Hazen-Williams Formula 245 References 247 Internet Sites 247 Practice Problems 247 Computer Programming Assignments 254

5 CHAPTER 9 VELOCITY PROFILES FOR CIRCULAR SECTIONS AND FLOW IN NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS The Big Picture Objectives Velocity Profiles Velocity Profile for Laminar Row Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow Flow in Noncircular Sections Computational Fluid Dynamics 266 References 268 Internet Sites 268 Practice Problems 268 Computer Programming Assignments 277 CHAPTER 10 MINOR LOSSES The Big Picture Objectives Resistance Coefficient Sudden Enlargement Exit Loss Gradual Enlargement Sudden Contraction Gradual Contraction Entrance Loss Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings Application of Standard Valves Pipe Bends Pressure Drop in Ruid Power Valves Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cy Plastic Valves 311 References 313 Internet Sites 313 Practice Problems 314 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 319 CHAPTER 11 SERIES PIPELINE SYSTEMS The Big Picture Objectives Class I Systems Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems Class II Systems Class III Systems Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity 343 References 345

6 xi Internet Sites 346 Practice Problems 346 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 357 CHAPTER 12 PARALLEL PIPELINE SYSTEMS The Big Picture Objectives Systems with Two Branches Systems with Three or More Branches Networks 368 Reference 377 Internet Sites 377 Practice Problems 377 Computer Programming Assignments 381 CHAPTER 13 PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION The Big Picture Objectives Parameters Involved in Pump Selection Types of Pumps Positive-Displacement Pumps Kinetic Pumps Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps Manufacturers' Data for Centrifugal Pumps The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection Net Positive Suction Head Suction Line Details Discharge Line Details Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure Alternate System Operating Modes Pump Selection and Specific Speed Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid Systems Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection 433 References 434 Internet Sites 434 Software for Piping System Design 435 Practice Problems 436 Design Problems 438 Comprehensive Design Problem 441 CHAPTER 14 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW The Big Picture Objectives Classification of Open-Channel Flow 445

7 xii Contents 14.4 Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open-Channel Flow Kinds of Open-Channel Flow Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels The Geometry of Typical Open Channels The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels Critical Row and Specific Energy Hydraulic Jump Open-Channel Flow Measurement 462 References 467 Internet Sites 467 Practice Problems 468 Computer Programming Assignments 471 CHAPTER 15 FLOW MEASUREMENT The Big Picture Objectives Rowmeter Selection Factors Variable-Head Meters Variable-Area Meters Turbine Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Magnetic Rowmeter Ultrasonic Flowmeters Positive Displacement Meters Mass Row Measurement Velocity Probes Level Measurement Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing 499 References 499 Internet Sites 499 Review Questions 500 Practice Problems 501. Computer Programming Assignments 502 CHAPTER 16 FORCES DUE TO FLUIDS IN MOTION The Big Picture Objectives Force Equation Impulse-Momentum Equation Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations Forces on Stationary Objects Forces on Bends in Pipelines Forces on Moving Objects 513 Practice Problems 514

8 xiii CHAPTER 17 DRAG AND LIFT The Big Picture Objectives Drag Force Equation Pressure Drag Drag Coefficient Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow Vehicle Drag Compressibility Effects and Cavitation Lift and Drag on Airfoils 534 References 537 Internet Sites 537 Practice Problems 537 CHAPTER 18 FANS, BLOWERS, COMPRESSORS, AND THE FLOW OF GASES The Big Picture Objectives Gas Flow Rates and Pressures Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 556 References 564 Internet Sites 564 Practice Problems 565 Computer Programming Assignments 567 CHAPTER 19 FLOW OF AIR IN DUCTS The Big Picture Objectives Energy Losses in Ducts Duct Design Energy Efficiency and Practical Considerations in Duct Design 583 References 584 Internet Sites 584 Practice Problems 585 APPENDIXES 589 A Properties of Water 589 B Properties of Common Liquids 591 C Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils 593

9 xiv Contents D Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 594 E Properties of Air 597 F Dimensions of Steel Pipe 601 G Dimensions of Steel Tubing 603 H Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 604 I Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 605 J Areas of Circles 606 K Conversion Factors 608 L Properties of Areas 611 M Properties of Solids 613 N Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 615 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 616 INDEX 623

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