# Capital Budgeting: Decision. Example. Net Present Value (NPV) FINC 3630 Yost

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1 Capital Budgeting: Decision Criteria Example Consider a firm with two projects, A and B, each with the following cash flows and a 10 percent cost of capital: Project A Project B Year Cash Flows Cash Flows 0 \$100 \$150 1 \$70 \$100 2 \$70 \$100 Net Present Value (NPV) Measure of value creation from project PV of future CFs Initial Cost Accept projects with positive NPV and accept highest NPV first

2 Net Present Value (NPV) Uses all cash flows Incorporates time value of money Directly related to EVA Need appropriate discount rate Relatively more difficult to explain Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Discount rate that makes the NPV = 0 Set NPV = 0 and solve for discount rate Accept if IRR is greater than required rate of return and accept highest IRR first Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Closely related to NPV, leads to same decision MOST of the time Relatively more easy to explain May result in multiple answers May result in incorrect decisions

3 NPV Profiles What is an NPV profile? Nonnormal Cash Flows Year Cash Flow 0 \$252 1 \$1,431 2 \$3,035 3 \$2,850 4 \$1,000 Mutually Exclusive Projects Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) Discount rate that makes present value of outflows equal to future value of inflows Take present value of outflows and future value of inflows and solve for breakeven rate Accept if the MIRR is greater than the required rate of return and accept highest MIRR first. Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) Assumes all cash flows are reinvested at the required rate of return Closely related to NPV, leading to the same decision more than the IRR No longer possible to get multiple answers Can still lead to incorrect decisions when size/scale differences and mutually exclusive projects

4 Profitability Index Benefit cost ratio Present value of future cash inflows divided by initial cost Accept if PI greater than 1 and accept highest PI first. Profitability Index Closely related to NPV, leading to same decision MOST of the time May be useful when available funds are limited May result in incorrect decisions Payback Period Time to recover initial investment Add up cash flows to determine time Accept if payback period is less than cutoff and accept shortest payback first

5 Payback Period Simple, no need for discount rate Biased toward projects with higher liquidity Ignores time value of money Can accept negative NPV projects Ignores cash flows beyond cutoff Can reject positive NPV projects Arbitrary cutoff Biased against long term projects (e.g., R&D) Discounted Payback Period Time for present value of cash flows to recover initial investment Add up present value of cash flows to determine time Accept if discounted payback period is less than cutoff and accept shortest discounted payback first Discounted Payback Period Incorporates the time value of money Does not accept negative NPV projects Biased toward liquidity Ignores cash flows beyond the cutoff Can reject positive NPV projects Arbitrary cutoff Biased against long term projects (e.g., R&D)

6 Projects with Unequal Lives Replacement Chain or Common Life Approach Equivalent Annual Annuity (EAA) or Equivalent Annual Cost Calculate the annuity payment based on the NPV Projects with Unequal Lives: An Example Your firm is considering which pollution reduction system to purchase and implement to meet required EPA standards. Option 1 involves an initial \$30,000 investment and subsequent annual costs of \$10,000, and must be replaced again after 3 years. Option 2 requires an initial investment of \$55,000 and has a 6 year life, requiring subsequent annual costs of \$4,000, \$6,000, \$8,000, \$12,000, \$14,000, and \$16,000, respectively. The appropriate discount rate for this project is 12 percent. Which option do you recommend? Chapter 12 Suggested Problems Questions: 12 3 through 12 6 Problems: 12 1 through 12 9, 12 13, 12 16, 12 18, 12 20, and 12 22

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