HYDROCARBONS WHAT DO YOU THINK OF WHEN YOU HEAR THIS WORD?

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1 HYDROCARBONS

2 HYDROCARBONS WHAT DO YOU THINK OF WHEN YOU HEAR THIS WORD?

3 Arctic Pipeline

4 Vehicles

5 Plastic Water Bottles

6 Oil Spill

7 Exhaust

8 Garbage

9 What does this all mean? SHOULD WE BE AFRAID OF TOO MUCH HYDROCARBONS?

10 Climate Change

11 What does this mean? SHOULD WE BE AFRAID OF DIMINISHING HYDROCARBONS?

12 No Technology

13 What are the things we value, the things we want to protect? WHAT DO HYDROCARBONS HAVE TO DO WITH IT?

14 COMMODOTIES

15 RELATIONSHIPS

16 OPPORTUNITIES

17 Why do we, the WLWB, need to know about Hydrocarbons? WHAT TYPES OF DECISIONS DO WE MAKE REGARDING HYDROCARBONS?

18 Applications for Oil & Gas

19 Gas in the Mackenzie Delta Schreiner, D., Humphries, W., Baldwin, D., Bruce, K., Daniel, S., and Hauser, B., Northwest Territories Geoscape: Rocks and Resources; NWT Educational Publication poster.

20 Oil in Norman Wells Schreiner, D., Humphries, W., Baldwin, D., Bruce, K., Daniel, S., and Hauser, B., Northwest Territories Geoscape: Rocks and Resources; NWT Educational Publication poster.

21 What do we regulate?

22 What do we regulate?

23 Regulation Water Licences Oil and Grease Hydrocarbons BTEX PAH Oil based drilling muds Land Use Permits Spill response / contingency Fuel storage and containment Sumps Reporting fuel quantities Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel

24 Where should we start? How do we treat? How do we minimize? How do we prevent? What information do we need?

25 Production We need to start at the beginning

26 The Rocks We need to start at the beginning

27 Environment of formation We need to start at the beginning

28 Life on Earth We need to start at the beginning

29 Earth We need to start at the beginning

30 The Universe We need to start at the beginning

31 The Building Blocks We need to start HERE

32 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel HYDROCARBON PRODUCTS: Oil, Grease, Fuel HYDROCARBONS: BTEX, PAH COMBINATION OF ELEMENTS: Recipe & Shape

33 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel What are Hydrocarbons? HYDROCARBONS ARE COMPOSED OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON ELEMENTS The properties of the Hydrocarbon will depend on: The recipe (Carbon-Hydrogen ratio) The shape (Carbon-Hydrogen bonds)

34 Hydrocarbon Recipe < 5 Carbons = Gas 5-17 Carbons = Liquid Methane Heptane

35 Hydrocarbon Recipe Carbons = Waxes Paraffin Wax

36 Hydrocarbon Shape Bonds (single, double or triple) Arrangements (chains or rings) Single Bond Chain Double Bond Chain

37 Hydrocarbon Shape Bonds (single, double or triple) Arrangements (chains or rings) Triple Bond Chain Single Bond Chain

38 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel What are Hydrocarbons? HYDROCARBONS ARE HYDROGEN AND CARBON ELEMENTS Their properties will depend on the recipe and shape * All Living Matter is Made Up of Carbon and Hydrogen Elements

39 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel What are BTEX and PAH? BTEX AND PAH ARE HYDROCARBONS WITH SPECIFIC RECIPES AND SHAPES

40 EXAMPLE BTEX Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene Xylene PAH (Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon Group) Naphthalene Anthracene Pyrene Coronene Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel

41 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel What are BTEX and PAH? BTEX AND PAH ARE HYDROCARBONS WITH SPECIFIC RECIPES AND SHAPES BTEX = 1 RING BONDED TO CHAINS PAH = >1 RING These recipes and shapes can cause concern in the environment

42 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel What are Oil, Grease, and Fuel? OIL, GREASE, AND FUEL ARE PRODUCTS MADE UP OF HYDROCARBONS AND MANY OTHER INGREDIENTS

43 What is a Oil, Grease, and Fuel? HYDROCARBONS ELEMENTS H H C H C H C H C H C H H C H H H

44 What are Fossil Fuels? Energy Sources that formed from the remains of once-living organisms Includes oil, coal and natural gas

45 Oil / Petroleum is a liquid hydrocarbon Originates from marine plants and animals that settled on the bottom of lakes, streams, oceans Sediments covered the organic material and cooked through pressure and heat What is Oil?

46 What is Grease? Semi-solid mixture of oil and a thickening agent (eg. A soap) Includes petroleum jellies like Vasoline

47 Regulation Water Licences Oil and Grease Hydrocarbons BTEX PAH Oil based drilling muds Land Use Permits Spill response / contingency Fuel storage and containment Sumps Reporting fuel quantities Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel

48 Oil, Grease, Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAH, Fuel HYDROCARBON PRODUCTS: Oil, Grease, Fuel HYDROCARBONS: BTEX, PAH also: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Cyclo- CHEMICAL MIXURES: Recipe & Shape

49 The Building Blocks We need to start HERE

50 The Universe The Universe is made up of elements

51 Earth Everything on earth is made up of elements

52 Life on Earth Everything living is made of Carbon and Hydrogen Elements

53 Environment of formation Hydrocarbon products formed by buried living matter in marine, lake, and swampy environments

54 The Rocks Hydrocarbons are trapped in rocks

55 Production We explore for oil and gas to make hydrocarbon products

56 Why do we care? MODES OF TOXICITY

57 Types of Toxicity Acute (death) Chronic (sick) Carcinogenic Teratogen Respiration Inhibitor

58 How Does it Happen? Route of Toxicant Uptake Toxicants normally have to penetrate through at least one layer of cells to affect organisms Skin Lungs Leaves Gills Roots Gastrointestinal Tract

59 Hydrocarbon Toxicity Asphyxiants Dermatitis Central nervous system depression Phytotoxic (toxic to plants) Death Carcinogen Kidney failure

60 What Should We Do? HYDROCARBON MANAGEMENT

61 How do we treat? How do we minimize? How do we prevent?

62 Prevent & Plan Best Practices (double wall tanks, drip pans) Hydrocarbon Management Plan Choose alternate products Spill Contingency Plan Spill Kits

63 Minimize Stop, contain, & collect spill Construct berms & trenches Skim floating hydrocarbons from water

64 Treat Land Farming Bio-Remediation Constructed Wetlands Oily Water Separator Disposal Cell (Tailings) Burn Ship it South

65 We regulate to prevent, plan, minimize, and treat

66 We regulate mining, exploration, drilling, reclamation, power, and sewage disposal activities

67 HYDROCARBONS WHAT DO YOU THINK OF NOW WHEN YOU HEAR THIS WORD?

68 HYDROCARBONS QUESTIONS?

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