APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

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1 APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA By James Dawos Mamit, Ph.D. Deputy Minister Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia 1

2 Total Land Area: 330,290 sq. km 13 States & 3 Federal Territories Sabah Peninsular Sarawak 2

3 For identifying abundance and locations of natural resources. For determining strategic plan and sound management practices for extraction of natural resources. For identifying impacts of exploitation of natural resources on environmental health. For expedient and quick decisions and actions. 3

4 Natural Resources in Malaysia 4

5 Mineral Resource Forest Resource Water Resource 5

6 Peninsular Malaysia: mil. ha. Sabah: mil. ha. Sarawak: mil. ha. Total: mil. ha. Permanent Forest Reserve: mil. ha. Peninsular mil. ha., Sabah mil. ha., Sarawak mil. ha. 6

7 Mangrove Forest Beach/Littoral Forest Peat Swamp Forest Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest Hill Mixed Dipterocarp Forest Montane and Sub- Montane Forest 7

8 Forest Industry contributed USD6.73 bil. to GDP and availed job opportunities to 500,000 Malaysians in

9 Over-exploitation in licensed concession areas Illegal Forest Harvesting: 647 cases till 2013, Incurring losses USD10.91 mil. 9

10 Remoteness and Inaccessibility 10

11 Metals: Bauxite Gold Ilmenite Iron Ore Manganese Rare Earth Rutile Tin Silver Struverite Zirkon Non-Metals: Rock Aggregates Clay Coal Feldspar Kaolinite Limestone Mica Sand and Gravels Silica Sand 11

12 Silica Sand 155,800,000 m/tons Kaolinite 117,180,000 m/tons Coal 970,570,000 m/tons Iron Ores 50,000,00 m/tons 12

13 Industry Performance: Mining and Quarrying Sector contributed USD2.09 bil. or 1.06% to GDP in mines in 2011 Intewrnational Conference on 7,053 Geospatial workers 13

14 14

15 Most valuable natural asset to humans 15

16 Annual Rainfall: 990 bil. m 3 Surface Runoff: 566 bil. m 3 Evapo-transpiration: 360 bil. m 3 Groundwater Recharge: 64 bil. m 3 Surface Artificuial Storage: 25 bil. m 3 (Dams) Groundwater Storage: 5,000 bil. m 3 (Aquifers) 16

17 Climate Change Unplanned developments Uncontrolled physical activities by individuals and groups Unethical actions Polluted and Degraded Quality 17

18 Current River Water Pollution: Out of 464 rivers, 59% clean 34% polluted 7% severely polluted 18

19 Putative relationship between forests and rainfall, i.e., decline in forest cover causes disruption in rainfall regimes (4% decline). Soil is less protected from torrential rains in denuded areas, causing severe surface run-offs and erosion. Much higher daily variation in ground temperature in denuded areas. Biodiversity loss. 19

20 Impact of Forest Exploitation on Hydrological System High river sedimentation loads and turbidity; landslides can increase river sediment loads by 5- to 50-fold directly after logging. Elevated sediment loads impair fish habitat, heighten flood risk downstream, alter river-flow direction and speed, and increase costs of treatment for potable water Supplies. 20

21 Discharge of mine effluent into rivers. Seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments. Sedimentation of rivers caused by poorly built roads during exploration and mine construction. Various chemicals for processing finely ground ore-tailings discharfed into rivers. 21

22 Remoteness and Inaccessibility: How Intewrnational and Conference what on Geospatial to do??? 22

23 Geospatial technology is an essential component of Natural Resources Management Tools, as natural resources are directly affected by changes in the shape and extent of the proposed disturbances. 23

24 The methods used for the measurement, analysis and visualization of features and phenomena that occur on Earth. Three commonly used technologies: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Remote Sensing (RS) 24

25 Geospatial technologies provide the means to integrate diverse datasets based on their geospatial attributes, thus allowing for holistic analysis. Geospatial technologies make it possible to observe remote and inaccessible places, thus making accurate and timely spatially distributed datasets readily available (eg., open burning). 25

26 USES GPS is a network of 2 dozens satellites, transmitting signals to GPS receivers, allowing them to determine location, direction and speed. Geodetic control for surveying, engineering, mapping Cadastr Intewrnational Conference survey on Geospatial 26

27 Forest Resource and Environment: Land area and coverage, soil types, species composition, topography, hydrography, infrastructure, rainfall. Mineral Resource: Land area, soil chemistry, topography, rock formations and physical properties. Water Resource: Hydrography, aquifers and ground water, topography. 27

28 Science and Techniques of obtaining geospatial information about a phenomenon without in contact with it (e.g., flood) 28

29 RS Applications for Natural Resources Management FORESTRY: MINING: WATER Identifying forest types and Species Identifying rock formations RESOURCE: Determination of water Estimating timber and minerals Estimating boundaries and surface areas volume and yield mineral reserves Mapping of floods ENVIRONMENT: Monitoring and flood plains land degradation and pollution, water pollution, air pollution, open burning, impact of natural disasters 29

30 Over-exploitation. Non-compliance to Forest Management Plan and Logging Prescriptions, such as prescribed uration of logging, cutting cycle, tree size. 30

31 State of Sarawak Scenario 31

32 Determining productivity, safety hazard issues, compliance to laws and regulations, adherence to work Plans. 32

33 Determining quantity and quality 33

34 Knowledge, represented by using and analysing a series of geospatial information datasets. Geospatial information that are the sum of our intepretation and synthesis of datasets. We cannot provide relevant geospatial information without fundamental datasets, including interrelationship between these datasets, the management of datasets, and the means of accessing and distributing those datasets. 34

35 Land degradation, Natural disasters, Biodiversity loss. Water Quality: 59% clean, 34% polluted, 7% severly polluted. Terrestrial Ecosystem Inland Water Aquatic Ecosystem 35

36 Using Geospatial Information to Develop Integrated Management Plan for Natural Resources and Environment Geospatial technologies are used for inventory, delineation and mapping of natural resources: Production Forests Protected Areas and Wetlands Wildlife Reserves Mining Sites and Mineral Reserves Water Resource and Pollution 36

37 Utilization of Geospatial Technologies is based on: Types of information to be delivered Users needs 37

38 Geospatial Technologies are vital for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and the Environment for purposes of expedient and accurate decision-making 38

39 39

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