12 When and How You Can Die in Cold Water 1) Cold Shock Response (0-2 minutes) Gasp Drown Hyperventilation Faint Drown Cardiac Work Cardiac Arrest (Keep head out of water) (Don t panic, keep calm) (If existing heart problems)
13 Incapacitation in Cold Water Difficulty swimming Loss of functional ability Increased viscosity of cold water Loss of manual dexterity Muscle cramping Swimming speeds onset of hypothermia
14 When and How You Can Die in Cold Water Local Cooling Decreases Performance Or Functional Disability (2-15 minutes) If you can t get out in 5-15 minutes, you might not get out on your own power! If so, prepare to survive. Widen window of opportunity for rescue. Thrashing around will - increase heat loss - cause exhaustion (Drowning)
15 When and How You Can Die in Cold Water Onset of Hypothermia (>30 minutes on) Cooling to UNCONSCIOUSNESS If head goes under, Drowning ( minutes). If head above water Cooling to CARDIAC ARREST, Death ( minutes or more, depending on water temp, body size, etc.)
16 Summary of Cold Water Risks Cold Shock (0-2 2 minutes) Functional disability (2-30 minutes) Hypothermia (>30 minutes)
17 Role of Flotation PFDs, immersion suits, etc. can assist in surviving cold-shock & swim failure Rough seas remain a significant risk, even with flotation assistance Immersion suits can assist in prevention of hypothermia, if properly donned
18 Hypothermia in Cold Water
19 Air is an Excellent Insulator
20 Body Fat is an Excellent Insulator
21 Heat is lost from the body in proportion to its surface area Large, fat people cool far more slowly than do small, thin or lanky people Adults cool more slowly than do children
22 Hypothermia results when more heat is lost from the body than is produced (through metabolism and shivering) and retained (through body-fat, clothing, and behavioral adaptation).
23 Water is an Excellent Conductor of Heat
24 Physiology of Hypothermia Hypothermia defined as core temp < 95 deg F. Every organ system is affected (e.g., similar to multiple trauma)
25 Physiology of Hypothermia Constriction of surface blood vessels Cold sensation and shivering Physical impairments (motor skills) Mental impairment Cold-induced urination
26 Physiology of Hypothermia Abnormal heart beats and slowing of the heart rate Declining blood pressure Decreased metabolism Cessation of shivering Loss of consciousness Ventricular fibrillation / Cardiac arrest
27 Classification of Hypothermia deg C: cold-sensation, shivering, constriction of surface blood vessels deg C: Mild hypothermia; physical and mental impairments
28 Classification of Hypothermia deg C: Moderate hypothermia; cessation of shivering, abnormal heart beats, loss of consciousness <28 deg C: Severe hypothermia; ; vital signs reduced or absent; spontaneous ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest
29 Blood Vessel Constriction on Immersion in Cold Water
30 High Heat Loss Areas in Hypothermia
31 Do NOT Drownproof
32 HELP Position
33 Huddle Technique
34 Should you Swim for Shore?
35 Heat Loss Areas After Swimming in Cold Water
37 Physiology of Drowning Loss of breath-holding holding ability Aspiration of water Coughing, violent struggle to reach surface Laryngospasm (vocal cord constriction)
38 Physiology of Drowning Low levels of oxygen Loss of consciousness Reflex swallowing Ventricular fibrillation Death
39 Pathophysiology of Drowning Submersion in cold-water is associated with a significantly higher survival rate Rapid cooling of the brain increases the ability to survive low oxygen levels Higher probability of successful resuscitation Even up to 60 minutes submersion!
40 Practical Applications of Studies in Cold-Water Immersion
41 Hypothermia Test Subjects
43 Rough Water vs. Calm Water Test Garments FS BC AC WS Flight Suit (control) Boat Crew Coverall (Stearns worksuit) Aircrew Coverall (Mustang worksuit) Full Wet Suit SWS Short Wet Suit FC IS DS Float Coat Immersion Suit Dry Suit (working deck suit)
44 Test Conditions 50 degree F. water Calm Seas test performed at dockside Rough Seas 4-66 ft waves every 30 secs;
45 Calm Water Test 50 deg. F.
46 Rough Water Test 50 deg. F.
47 Calm vs. Rough Water Results Cooling Rates in degrees C. per hour FS FC SWS AC BC WS DS IS Calm Rough
48 Survivor Location in Cold Water: Test Conditions Rough Seas - 5 foot breaking waves 43 deg. F. water 46 deg. F. air 15 knot wind Capsized boat Survivors in the water next to the boat Survivors atop the boat exposed to wind and waves Survivors in a one-person liferaft
49 What would you do? Get out of the water, sit atop the boat, and thus be exposed to wind-chill and waves; OR Stay in the water, hang onto the boat, and thus be exposed to waves and cold-water
50 Test Garments FS Flight Suit WS Wet Suit BC Boatcrew coverall AC Aircrew coverall NI Navy flight ensemble intact NX Navy flight ensemble -- torn
51 5 Ft. Break on a 20 Ft. wave
52 Test Garments FS Flight Suit WS Wet Suit BC Boatcrew coverall AC Aircrew coverall NI Navy flight ensemble intact NX Navy flight ensemble -- torn
53 Cooling Rates, C. per Hour Water Raft Boat 1 0 FS NX BC AC WS NI
54 Take Home Lessons Get Out of the Water!! No matter what the weather conditions, you re almost always better off out of the water Water is a great conductor of heat
55 Take Home Lessons Air is a great insulator Windchill is vastly over-rated rated as a risk Get Out of the Water!!
56 Head Cooling Study The head has always been suspected of being an area of high heat loss. No previous studies to measure it. Some PFDs can be worn such that the back of the head is immersed. Does this lead to more rapid cooling and thus a shorter survival time? Does head cooling impact mental processes?
57 Head Cooling Study 2 PFDs one worn with the back of the head immersed, (head in, body in); one worn with the head out of the water (head out, body in). Controls: dry suit with the head protected (head out, body out); dry suit with the back of the head immersed (head in, body out)
58 Head Cooling Study Four permutations of head and body immersion: Head in, body in Head in, body out Head out, body in Head out, body out
61 PFDs in 10 Deg C (50 Deg F) Water Head In, Body In Head Out, Body In
62 Dry Suit in 10 Deg (50 Deg F) Water Head Out, Body Out Head In, Body Out
63 Head Cooling Results Drop in Core Temperature (Deg. C) After One Hour Head Out, Body Out: 0.1 Head In, Body Out: 0.4 Head Out, Body In: 1.4 Head In, Body In: 2.2
64 Head Cooling Results The increased cooling rate was related to the increase in total body surface area immersed (dorsal head and neck and upper anterior thorax) rather than from increased heat flow through the head. In other words, the head was NOT found to be an area of disproportionately high heat flow.
65 Head Cooling Results There was a significant correlation between body core temperature and mental performance,, when all the psychometric data were pooled: Lower core temperatures produced poorer thinking.
66 Take Home Lessons The onset of hypothermia in water immersion is accelerated when the head is immersed. Head-cooling impacts thinking/judgment PFD designs should strive to prevent head immersion; survival protocols and training curricula should continue to emphasize head protection.
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