# Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Zeros of Polynomial Functions Objectives: 1.Use the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra to determine the number of zeros of polynomial functions 2.Find rational zeros of polynomial functions 3.Find conjugate pairs of complex zeros 4.Find zeros of polynomials by factoring 5.Use Descartes s Rule of Signs and the Upper and Lower Bound Rules to find zeros of polynomials

2 In the complex number system, every nth-degree polynomial has precisely n zeros. Fundamental Theorem of Algebra If f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, where n > 0, then f has at least one zero in the complex number system Linear Factorization Theorem If f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, where n > 0, then f has precisely n linear factors f (x) a n (x c 1 )(x c 2 )...(x c n ) c 1,c 2,...,c n where are complex numbers

3 Zeros of Polynomial Functions Give the degree of the polynomial, tell how many zeros there are, and find all the zeros f (x) x 2 f (x) x 2 6x 9 f (x) x 3 4 x f (x) x 4 1

4 Rational Zero (Root) Test To use the Rational Zero Test, you should list all rational numbers whose numerators are factors of the constant term & whose denominators are factors of the leading coefficient Possible Rational Zeros factors of the constant term factors of leading coefficient Once you have all the possible zeros test them using substitution or synthetic division to see if they work and indeed are a zero of the function (Also, use a graph to help determine zeros to test) NOTE: It only tests for rational numbers.

5 EXAMPLE: Using the Rational Zero Theorem List all possible rational zeros of f (x) 15x x 3x 2. Solution The constant term is 2 & the leading coefficient is 15. Possible rational zeros Divide 1 and 2 by 1. Factors of the constant term, 2 Factors of the leading coefficient, 15 1, 2 1, 3, 5, , 2,,,,,, Divide 1 and 2 by 3. Divide 1 and 2 by 5. Divide 1 and 2 by 15. There are 16 possible rational zeros. The actual solution set to f (x) 15x 3 14x 2 3x 2 = 0 is {-1, 1 /3, 2 /5}, which contains 3 of the 16 possible solutions.

6 You Try: Using the Rational Zero Theorem List all possible rational zeros of f (x) x 3 2 5x 2x + 8. Solution The constant term is 8 & the leading coefficient is 1. Possible rational zeros Factors of the constant term, 8 Factors of the leading coefficient, 1 1, 2, 4, 8 1 There are 8 possible rational zeros. The actual solution set to f (x) x 3 5x 2 2x + 8 is {-1, 2, 4}, which contains 3 of the 8 possible solutions.

7 Roots & Zeros of Polynomials II Finding the Roots/Zeros of Polynomials (Degree 3 or higher): Graph the polynomial to find your first zero/root Use synthetic division to find a smaller polynomial If the polynomial is not a quadratic follow the 2 steps above using the smaller polynomial until you get a quadratic. Factor or use the quadratic formula to find your remaining zeros/roots

8 Example 1: Find all the zeros of each polynomial function xxx First, graph the equation to find the first zero ZERO From looking at the graph you can see that there is a zero at -2

9 Example 1 Continued xxx Second, use the zero you found from the graph and do synthetic division to find a smaller polynomial Don t forget your remainder should be zero The new, smaller polynomial is: 2 10 xx 13

10 Example 1 Continued: 2 10 xx 13 Third, factor or use the quadratic formula to find the remaining zeros. This quadratic can be factored into: Therefore, the zeros to the problem (5x 3)(2x 1) x xxx are: 31 2,, 52

11 Using the Rational Zero Theorem: Find all Zeros! 3 2 f ( x) x 4x 21x 34 Try listing all possible rational zeros of Solution The constant term is 34 & the leading coefficient is 1. Possible rational zeros Factors of the constant term, 34 Factors of the leading coefficient, 1 1, 2, 17, 34 1 There are 8 possible rational zeros. The actual solution set to f (x) x 3 4x 2 21x 34 is {2, 1 + 4i, 1 4i}, which contains 3 of the 8 possible solutions.

12 Find the rational zeros. Rational Zeros f x x x x x ( ) 3 6 f x x x x 3 2 ( ) f x x x x 3 2 ( )

13 Find all the real zeros (Hint: start by finding the rational zeros) f (x) 10x 3 15x 2 16x 12 f (x) 3x 3 19x 2 33x 9

14 Writing a Polynomial given the zeros. To write a polynomial you must write the zeros out in factored form. Then you multiply the factors together to get your polynomial. Factored Form: (x zero)(x zero)... ***If it is a polynomial function and a + bi is a root, then a bi is also a root. ***If it is a polynomial function and a bis a root, then a bis also a root

15 Example 1: The zeros of a third-degree polynomial are 2 (multiplicity 2) and -5. Write a polynomial. (x 2)(x 2)(x (-5)) = (x 2)(x 2)(x+5) Second, multiply the factors out to find your polynomial 2 (2)(2)44 xxxx 2 ( x 5)( x 4x 4) First, write the zeros in factored form xxx

16 Example 1 Continued (x 2)(x 2)(x+5) 2 (2)(2)44 xxxx First FOIL or box two of the factors X 5 xx x 2 2 5x 4x 4x 20x 20 Second, box your answer from above with your remaining factors to get your polynomial: xxx ANSWER

17 Conjugate Pairs Complex Zeros Occur in Conjugate Pairs = If a + bi is a zero of the function, the conjugate a bi is also a zero of the function (the polynomial function must have real coefficients) EXAMPLES: Find a polynomial with the given zeros -1, -1, 3i, -3i 2, 4 + i, 4 i

18 So if asked to find a polynomial that has zeros, 2 and 1 3i, you would know another root would be 1 + 3i. Let s find such a polynomial by putting the roots in factor form and multiplying them together. If x = the root then (x - the root) is the factor form. xix 31 x 2xix i Multiply the last two factors together. All i terms should disappear when simplified. xx 2 3i xi iixi x 2x 2x 10 Now multiply the x 2 through xx x 20 Here is a 3 rd degree polynomial with roots 2, 1-3i and 1 + 3i i x2 31-1

19 Example 3: Find ALL the zeros of Given that 1+3i is a zero! x 3x 6x 2 60

20 You Try! Find ALL the zeros of Given that (7i) is a zero! 3 2 x 2x 49x 98

21 STEPS For Finding the Zeros given a Solution 1) Find a polynomial with the given solutions (FOIL) 2) Use long division to divide your polynomial you found in step 1 with your polynomial from the problem 3) Factor or use the quadratic formula on the answer you found from long division. 4) Write all of your answers out

22 Find Roots/Zeros of a Polynomial If the known root is imaginary, we can use the Complex Conjugates Theorem. Ex: Find all the roots of f(x) x 3 5x 2 7x 5 If one root is 4 - i. Because of the Complex Conjugate Thm., we know that another root must be 4 + i.

23 Example (con t) Ex: Find all the roots of f(x) x 3 5x 2 7x 51 If one root is 4 - i. If one root is 4 - i, then one factor is [x - (4 - i)], and Another root is 4 + i, & another factor is [x - (4 + i)]. Multiply these factors: [(4)][(4)](4)(4) xixixixi X -4 -i x x 4i 2 4x ix 4x 16 4i ix 4i 2 i xx 2 817

24 Example (con t) Ex: Find all the roots of f(x) x 3 5x 2 7x 51 If one root is 4 - i. If the product of the two non-real factors is x 2 8x 17 then the third factor (that gives us the real root) is the quotient of P(x) divided by x 2 8x 17 x 3 x 2 8x 17x 3 5x 2 7x 51 x 3 5x 2 7x 51 0 The third root is x = -3 So, all of the zeros are: 4 i, 4 + i, and -3

25 FIND ALL THE ZEROS f (x) x 4 3x 3 6x 2 2x 60 (Given that 1 + 3i is a zero of f) f (x) x 3 7x 2 x 87 (Given that 5 + 2i is a zero of f)

26 More Finding of Zeros f (x) x 5 x 3 2x 2 12x 8 f (x) 3x 3 4x 2 8x 8

27 Descartes s Rule of Signs Let f (x) a n x n a n 1 x n 1... a 2 x 2 a 1 x a 0 with real coefficients and a 0 0 be a polynomial The number of positive real zeros of f is either equal to the number of variations in sign of f(x) or less than that number by an even integer The number of negative real zeros of f is either equal to the number of variations in sign of f(-x) or less than that number by an even integer Variation in sign = two consecutive coefficients have opposite signs

28 EXAMPLE: Using Descartes Rule of Signs Determine the possible number of positive and negative real zeros of f (x) x 3 2x 2 5x + 4. Solution 1. To find possibilities for positive real zeros, count the number of sign changes in the equation for f (x). Because all the terms are positive, there are no variations in sign. Thus, there are no positive real zeros. 2. To find possibilities for negative real zeros, count the number of sign changes in the equation for f ( x). We obtain this equation by replacing x with x in the given function. f (x) x 3 2x 2 5x + 4 This is the given polynomial function. Replace x with x. f ( x) ( x) 3 2( x) 2 5 x 4 x 3 2x 2 5x + 4

29 EXAMPLE: Using Descartes Rule of Signs Determine the possible number of positive and negative real zeros of f (x) x 3 2x 2 5x + 4. Solution Now count the sign changes. f ( x) x 3 2x 2 5x There are three variations in sign. # of negative real zeros of f is either equal to 3, or is less than this number by an even integer. This means that there are either 3 negative real zeros or negative real zero.

30 Descartes s Rule of Signs EXAMPLES: describe the possible real zeros f (x) 3x 3 5x 2 6x 4 f (x) 3x 3 2x 2 x 3

31 Upper & Lower Bound Rules Let f(x) be a polynomial with real coefficients and a positive leading coefficient. Suppose f(x) is divided by x c, using synthetic didvision If c > 0 and each number in the last row is either positive or zero, c is an upper bound for the real zeros of f If c < 0 and the numbers in the last row are alternately positive and negative (zero entries count as positive or negative), c is a lower bound for the real zeros of f EXAMPLE: find the real zeros f (x) 6x 3 4x 2 3x 2

32 h(x) = x 4 + 6x x 2 + 6x + 9 Factors of9 1, 3, 9 Factors of Signs are all positive, therefore 1 is an upper bound.

33 EXAMPLE You are designing candle-making kits. Each kit contains 25 cubic inches of candle wax and a model for making a pyramid-shaped candle. You want the height of the candle to be 2 inches less than the length of each side of the candle s square base. What should the dimensions of your candle mold be?

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Zeros of Polynomial Functions The Rational Zero Theorem If f (x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + + a 1 x + a 0 has integer coefficients and p/q (where p/q is reduced) is a rational zero, then p is a factor of

### Zeros of a Polynomial Function

Zeros of a Polynomial Function An important consequence of the Factor Theorem is that finding the zeros of a polynomial is really the same thing as factoring it into linear factors. In this section we

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Review: Synthetic Division Find (x 2-5x - 5x 3 + x 4 ) (5 + x). Factor Theorem Solve 2x 3-5x 2 + x + 2 =0 given that 2 is a zero of f(x) = 2x 3-5x 2 + x + 2. Zeros of Polynomial Functions Introduction

### March 29, 2011. 171S4.4 Theorems about Zeros of Polynomial Functions

MAT 171 Precalculus Algebra Dr. Claude Moore Cape Fear Community College CHAPTER 4: Polynomial and Rational Functions 4.1 Polynomial Functions and Models 4.2 Graphing Polynomial Functions 4.3 Polynomial

2.5 ZEROS OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. What You Should Learn Use the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra to determine the number of zeros of polynomial functions.

### 2.3. Finding polynomial functions. An Introduction:

2.3. Finding polynomial functions. An Introduction: As is usually the case when learning a new concept in mathematics, the new concept is the reverse of the previous one. Remember how you first learned

### Zero: If P is a polynomial and if c is a number such that P (c) = 0 then c is a zero of P.

MATH 11011 FINDING REAL ZEROS KSU OF A POLYNOMIAL Definitions: Polynomial: is a function of the form P (x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a x + a 1 x + a 0. The numbers a n, a n 1,..., a 1, a 0 are called

### 3-17 15-25 5 15-10 25 3-2 5 0. 1b) since the remainder is 0 I need to factor the numerator. Synthetic division tells me this is true

Section 5.2 solutions #1-10: a) Perform the division using synthetic division. b) if the remainder is 0 use the result to completely factor the dividend (this is the numerator or the polynomial to the

### College Algebra - MAT 161 Page: 1 Copyright 2009 Killoran

College Algebra - MAT 6 Page: Copyright 2009 Killoran Zeros and Roots of Polynomial Functions Finding a Root (zero or x-intercept) of a polynomial is identical to the process of factoring a polynomial.

### 2.5 Zeros of a Polynomial Functions

.5 Zeros of a Polynomial Functions Section.5 Notes Page 1 The first rule we will talk about is Descartes Rule of Signs, which can be used to determine the possible times a graph crosses the x-axis and

### a 1 x + a 0 =0. (3) ax 2 + bx + c =0. (4)

ROOTS OF POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS In this unit we discuss polynomial equations. A polynomial in x of degree n, where n 0 is an integer, is an expression of the form P n (x) =a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a 1 x

### ALGEBRA 2 CRA 2 REVIEW - Chapters 1-6 Answer Section

ALGEBRA 2 CRA 2 REVIEW - Chapters 1-6 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C 2. ANS: A 3. ANS: A OBJ: 5-3.1 Using Vertex Form SHORT ANSWER 4. ANS: (x + 6)(x 2 6x + 36) OBJ: 6-4.2 Solving Equations by

### POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Polynomial Division.. 314 The Rational Zero Test.....317 Descarte s Rule of Signs... 319 The Remainder Theorem.....31 Finding all Zeros of a Polynomial Function.......33 Writing a

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. zero in the complex number system.

_.qd /7/ 9:6 AM Page 69 Section. Zeros of Polnomial Functions 69. Zeros of Polnomial Functions What ou should learn Use the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra to determine the number of zeros of polnomial

### Alum Rock Elementary Union School District Algebra I Study Guide for Benchmark III

Alum Rock Elementary Union School District Algebra I Study Guide for Benchmark III Name Date Adding and Subtracting Polynomials Algebra Standard 10.0 A polynomial is a sum of one ore more monomials. Polynomial

### Procedure for Graphing Polynomial Functions

Procedure for Graphing Polynomial Functions P(x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + + a 1 x + a 0 To graph P(x): As an example, we will examine the following polynomial function: P(x) = 2x 3 3x 2 23x + 12 1. Determine

### Section 5.0A Factoring Part 1

Section 5.0A Factoring Part 1 I. Work Together A. Multiply the following binomials into trinomials. (Write the final result in descending order, i.e., a + b + c ). ( 7)( + 5) ( + 7)( + ) ( + 7)( + 5) (

### 3.2 The Factor Theorem and The Remainder Theorem

3. The Factor Theorem and The Remainder Theorem 57 3. The Factor Theorem and The Remainder Theorem Suppose we wish to find the zeros of f(x) = x 3 + 4x 5x 4. Setting f(x) = 0 results in the polynomial

### MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions

MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions February 24, 2008 1. The following demand equation models the number of units sold, x, of a product as a function of price, p. x = 4p + 200 a. Please write

### ALGEBRA 2: 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form

ALGEBRA 2: 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form Goal Graph quadratic functions. VOCABULARY Quadratic function A function that can be written in the standard form y = ax 2 + bx+ c where a 0 Parabola

### Application. Outline. 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of. Polynomial. 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of.

Polynomial and Rational Functions Outline 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of Polynomials 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of Polynomials 3-4 Rational Functions Chapter 3 Group Activity:

### Solving Rational Equations

Lesson M Lesson : Student Outcomes Students solve rational equations, monitoring for the creation of extraneous solutions. Lesson Notes In the preceding lessons, students learned to add, subtract, multiply,

9.3 Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula 9.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Solve a quadratic equation by using the quadratic formula 2. Determine the nature of the solutions of a quadratic equation

### The Method of Partial Fractions Math 121 Calculus II Spring 2015

Rational functions. as The Method of Partial Fractions Math 11 Calculus II Spring 015 Recall that a rational function is a quotient of two polynomials such f(x) g(x) = 3x5 + x 3 + 16x x 60. The method

### 1 Lecture: Integration of rational functions by decomposition

Lecture: Integration of rational functions by decomposition into partial fractions Recognize and integrate basic rational functions, except when the denominator is a power of an irreducible quadratic.

### 4.1. COMPLEX NUMBERS

4.1. COMPLEX NUMBERS What You Should Learn Use the imaginary unit i to write complex numbers. Add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers. Use complex conjugates to write the quotient of two complex numbers

### Unit 6: Polynomials. 1 Polynomial Functions and End Behavior. 2 Polynomials and Linear Factors. 3 Dividing Polynomials

Date Period Unit 6: Polynomials DAY TOPIC 1 Polynomial Functions and End Behavior Polynomials and Linear Factors 3 Dividing Polynomials 4 Synthetic Division and the Remainder Theorem 5 Solving Polynomial

### Definition 8.1 Two inequalities are equivalent if they have the same solution set. Add or Subtract the same value on both sides of the inequality.

8 Inequalities Concepts: Equivalent Inequalities Linear and Nonlinear Inequalities Absolute Value Inequalities (Sections 4.6 and 1.1) 8.1 Equivalent Inequalities Definition 8.1 Two inequalities are equivalent

### 1.3 Algebraic Expressions

1.3 Algebraic Expressions A polynomial is an expression of the form: a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 +... + a 2 x 2 + a 1 x + a 0 The numbers a 1, a 2,..., a n are called coefficients. Each of the separate parts,

### Lagrange Interpolation is a method of fitting an equation to a set of points that functions well when there are few points given.

Polynomials (Ch.1) Study Guide by BS, JL, AZ, CC, SH, HL Lagrange Interpolation is a method of fitting an equation to a set of points that functions well when there are few points given. Sasha s method

### Polynomial Degree and Finite Differences

CONDENSED LESSON 7.1 Polynomial Degree and Finite Differences In this lesson you will learn the terminology associated with polynomials use the finite differences method to determine the degree of a polynomial

### 8 Polynomials Worksheet

8 Polynomials Worksheet Concepts: Quadratic Functions The Definition of a Quadratic Function Graphs of Quadratic Functions - Parabolas Vertex Absolute Maximum or Absolute Minimum Transforming the Graph

### JUST THE MATHS UNIT NUMBER 1.8. ALGEBRA 8 (Polynomials) A.J.Hobson

JUST THE MATHS UNIT NUMBER 1.8 ALGEBRA 8 (Polynomials) by A.J.Hobson 1.8.1 The factor theorem 1.8.2 Application to quadratic and cubic expressions 1.8.3 Cubic equations 1.8.4 Long division of polynomials

### 63. Graph y 1 2 x and y 2 THE FACTOR THEOREM. The Factor Theorem. Consider the polynomial function. P(x) x 2 2x 15.

9.4 (9-27) 517 Gear ratio d) For a fixed wheel size and chain ring, does the gear ratio increase or decrease as the number of teeth on the cog increases? decreases 100 80 60 40 20 27-in. wheel, 44 teeth

### SOLVING POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS

C SOLVING POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS We will assume in this appendix that you know how to divide polynomials using long division and synthetic division. If you need to review those techniques, refer to an algebra

### Partial Fractions. Combining fractions over a common denominator is a familiar operation from algebra:

Partial Fractions Combining fractions over a common denominator is a familiar operation from algebra: From the standpoint of integration, the left side of Equation 1 would be much easier to work with than

### Algebra Practice Problems for Precalculus and Calculus

Algebra Practice Problems for Precalculus and Calculus Solve the following equations for the unknown x: 1. 5 = 7x 16 2. 2x 3 = 5 x 3. 4. 1 2 (x 3) + x = 17 + 3(4 x) 5 x = 2 x 3 Multiply the indicated polynomials

### MATH 21. College Algebra 1 Lecture Notes

MATH 21 College Algebra 1 Lecture Notes MATH 21 3.6 Factoring Review College Algebra 1 Factoring and Foiling 1. (a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2. 2. (a b) 2 = a 2 2ab + b 2. 3. (a + b)(a b) = a 2 b 2. 4. (a

### Math 0980 Chapter Objectives. Chapter 1: Introduction to Algebra: The Integers.

Math 0980 Chapter Objectives Chapter 1: Introduction to Algebra: The Integers. 1. Identify the place value of a digit. 2. Write a number in words or digits. 3. Write positive and negative numbers used

### SECTION 2.5: FINDING ZEROS OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

SECTION 2.5: FINDING ZEROS OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Assume f ( x) is a nonconstant polynomial with real coefficients written in standard form. PART A: TECHNIQUES WE HAVE ALREADY SEEN Refer to: Notes 1.31

### Sample Problems. Practice Problems

Lecture Notes Quadratic Word Problems page 1 Sample Problems 1. The sum of two numbers is 31, their di erence is 41. Find these numbers.. The product of two numbers is 640. Their di erence is 1. Find these

### 2.4 Real Zeros of Polynomial Functions

SECTION 2.4 Real Zeros of Polynomial Functions 197 What you ll learn about Long Division and the Division Algorithm Remainder and Factor Theorems Synthetic Division Rational Zeros Theorem Upper and Lower

### Basic Properties of Rational Expressions

Basic Properties of Rational Expressions A fraction is not defined when the denominator is zero! Examples: Simplify and use Mathematics Writing Style. a) x + 8 b) x 9 x 3 Solution: a) x + 8 (x + 4) x +

### Algebra II A Final Exam

Algebra II A Final Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Evaluate the expression for the given value of the variable(s). 1. ; x = 4 a. 34 b.

### 0.4 FACTORING POLYNOMIALS

36_.qxd /3/5 :9 AM Page -9 SECTION. Factoring Polynomials -9. FACTORING POLYNOMIALS Use special products and factorization techniques to factor polynomials. Find the domains of radical expressions. Use

### Method To Solve Linear, Polynomial, or Absolute Value Inequalities:

Solving Inequalities An inequality is the result of replacing the = sign in an equation with ,, or. For example, 3x 2 < 7 is a linear inequality. We call it linear because if the < were replaced with

### is the degree of the polynomial and is the leading coefficient.

Property: T. Hrubik-Vulanovic e-mail: thrubik@kent.edu Content (in order sections were covered from the book): Chapter 6 Higher-Degree Polynomial Functions... 1 Section 6.1 Higher-Degree Polynomial Functions...

### Algebra 2 Chapter 1 Vocabulary. identity - A statement that equates two equivalent expressions.

Chapter 1 Vocabulary identity - A statement that equates two equivalent expressions. verbal model- A word equation that represents a real-life problem. algebraic expression - An expression with variables.

### 3.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials

3.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials 69 3.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials In Section 3., we found that we can use synthetic division to determine if a given real number is a zero of a polynomial function. This section

### Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any.

Algebra 2 - Chapter Prerequisites Vocabulary Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any. P1 p. 1 1. counting(natural) numbers - {1,2,3,4,...}

### Answers to Basic Algebra Review

Answers to Basic Algebra Review 1. -1.1 Follow the sign rules when adding and subtracting: If the numbers have the same sign, add them together and keep the sign. If the numbers have different signs, subtract

### 6 EXTENDING ALGEBRA. 6.0 Introduction. 6.1 The cubic equation. Objectives

6 EXTENDING ALGEBRA Chapter 6 Extending Algebra Objectives After studying this chapter you should understand techniques whereby equations of cubic degree and higher can be solved; be able to factorise

### Chapter 7 - Roots, Radicals, and Complex Numbers

Math 233 - Spring 2009 Chapter 7 - Roots, Radicals, and Complex Numbers 7.1 Roots and Radicals 7.1.1 Notation and Terminology In the expression x the is called the radical sign. The expression under the

### Section 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of Polynomials

- Approimating Real Zeros of Polynomials 9 Section - Approimating Real Zeros of Polynomials Locating Real Zeros The Bisection Method Approimating Multiple Zeros Application The methods for finding zeros

### Algebra 1 If you are okay with that placement then you have no further action to take Algebra 1 Portion of the Math Placement Test

Dear Parents, Based on the results of the High School Placement Test (HSPT), your child should forecast to take Algebra 1 this fall. If you are okay with that placement then you have no further action

### The degree of a polynomial function is equal to the highest exponent found on the independent variables.

DETAILED SOLUTIONS AND CONCEPTS - POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Prepared by Ingrid Stewart, Ph.D., College of Southern Nevada Please Send Questions and Comments to ingrid.stewart@csn.edu. Thank you! PLEASE NOTE

### Polynomial and Rational Functions

Polynomial and Rational Functions Quadratic Functions Overview of Objectives, students should be able to: 1. Recognize the characteristics of parabolas. 2. Find the intercepts a. x intercepts by solving

### Sect 6.7 - Solving Equations Using the Zero Product Rule

Sect 6.7 - Solving Equations Using the Zero Product Rule 116 Concept #1: Definition of a Quadratic Equation A quadratic equation is an equation that can be written in the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (referred

### Integrals of Rational Functions

Integrals of Rational Functions Scott R. Fulton Overview A rational function has the form where p and q are polynomials. For example, r(x) = p(x) q(x) f(x) = x2 3 x 4 + 3, g(t) = t6 + 4t 2 3, 7t 5 + 3t

### Polynomial and Synthetic Division. Long Division of Polynomials. Example 1. 6x 2 7x 2 x 2) 19x 2 16x 4 6x3 12x 2 7x 2 16x 7x 2 14x. 2x 4.

_.qd /7/5 9: AM Page 5 Section.. Polynomial and Synthetic Division 5 Polynomial and Synthetic Division What you should learn Use long division to divide polynomials by other polynomials. Use synthetic

### 1.7. Partial Fractions. 1.7.1. Rational Functions and Partial Fractions. A rational function is a quotient of two polynomials: R(x) = P (x) Q(x).

.7. PRTIL FRCTIONS 3.7. Partial Fractions.7.. Rational Functions and Partial Fractions. rational function is a quotient of two polynomials: R(x) = P (x) Q(x). Here we discuss how to integrate rational

### 4.3 Lagrange Approximation

206 CHAP. 4 INTERPOLATION AND POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION Lagrange Polynomial Approximation 4.3 Lagrange Approximation Interpolation means to estimate a missing function value by taking a weighted average

### This is a square root. The number under the radical is 9. (An asterisk * means multiply.)

Page of Review of Radical Expressions and Equations Skills involving radicals can be divided into the following groups: Evaluate square roots or higher order roots. Simplify radical expressions. Rationalize

### Some Polynomial Theorems. John Kennedy Mathematics Department Santa Monica College 1900 Pico Blvd. Santa Monica, CA 90405 rkennedy@ix.netcom.

Some Polynomial Theorems by John Kennedy Mathematics Department Santa Monica College 1900 Pico Blvd. Santa Monica, CA 90405 rkennedy@ix.netcom.com This paper contains a collection of 31 theorems, lemmas,

### Real Roots of Univariate Polynomials with Real Coefficients

Real Roots of Univariate Polynomials with Real Coefficients mostly written by Christina Hewitt March 22, 2012 1 Introduction Polynomial equations are used throughout mathematics. When solving polynomials

### x 2 + y 2 = 1 y 1 = x 2 + 2x y = x 2 + 2x + 1

Implicit Functions Defining Implicit Functions Up until now in this course, we have only talked about functions, which assign to every real number x in their domain exactly one real number f(x). The graphs

### 3.6 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function

SECTION 3.6 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function 219 3.6 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function PREPARING FOR THIS SECTION Before getting started, review the following: Classification of Numbers (Appendix,

### 3.1 Solving Systems Using Tables and Graphs

Algebra 2 Chapter 3 3.1 Solve Systems Using Tables & Graphs 3.1 Solving Systems Using Tables and Graphs A solution to a system of linear equations is an that makes all of the equations. To solve a system

9.4 Multiplying and Dividing Radicals 9.4 OBJECTIVES 1. Multiply and divide expressions involving numeric radicals 2. Multiply and divide expressions involving algebraic radicals In Section 9.2 we stated

### Indiana State Core Curriculum Standards updated 2009 Algebra I

Indiana State Core Curriculum Standards updated 2009 Algebra I Strand Description Boardworks High School Algebra presentations Operations With Real Numbers Linear Equations and A1.1 Students simplify and

### This unit has primarily been about quadratics, and parabolas. Answer the following questions to aid yourselves in creating your own study guide.

COLLEGE ALGEBRA UNIT 2 WRITING ASSIGNMENT This unit has primarily been about quadratics, and parabolas. Answer the following questions to aid yourselves in creating your own study guide. 1) What is the

### FOIL FACTORING. Factoring is merely undoing the FOIL method. Let s look at an example: Take the polynomial x²+4x+4.

FOIL FACTORING Factoring is merely undoing the FOIL method. Let s look at an example: Take the polynomial x²+4x+4. First we take the 3 rd term (in this case 4) and find the factors of it. 4=1x4 4=2x2 Now

### Question 1a of 14 ( 2 Identifying the roots of a polynomial and their importance 91008 )

Quiz: Factoring by Graphing Question 1a of 14 ( 2 Identifying the roots of a polynomial and their importance 91008 ) (x-3)(x-6), (x-6)(x-3), (1x-3)(1x-6), (1x-6)(1x-3), (x-3)*(x-6), (x-6)*(x-3), (1x- 3)*(1x-6),

### 3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS RATIONAL NUMBERS In previous courses you have learned how to operate (do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) on rational numbers (fractions). Rational numbers

### Differentiation and Integration

This material is a supplement to Appendix G of Stewart. You should read the appendix, except the last section on complex exponentials, before this material. Differentiation and Integration Suppose we have

### Factoring Polynomials

UNIT 11 Factoring Polynomials You can use polynomials to describe framing for art. 396 Unit 11 factoring polynomials A polynomial is an expression that has variables that represent numbers. A number can

### SECTION 0.6: POLYNOMIAL, RATIONAL, AND ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

(Section 0.6: Polynomial, Rational, and Algebraic Expressions) 0.6.1 SECTION 0.6: POLYNOMIAL, RATIONAL, AND ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Be able to identify polynomial, rational, and algebraic

### Review of Intermediate Algebra Content

Review of Intermediate Algebra Content Table of Contents Page Factoring GCF and Trinomials of the Form + b + c... Factoring Trinomials of the Form a + b + c... Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials... 6

### ROUTH S STABILITY CRITERION

ECE 680 Modern Automatic Control Routh s Stability Criterion June 13, 2007 1 ROUTH S STABILITY CRITERION Consider a closed-loop transfer function H(s) = b 0s m + b 1 s m 1 + + b m 1 s + b m a 0 s n + s

### Algebra 1 Course Title

Algebra 1 Course Title Course- wide 1. What patterns and methods are being used? Course- wide 1. Students will be adept at solving and graphing linear and quadratic equations 2. Students will be adept

### Vocabulary Words and Definitions for Algebra

Name: Period: Vocabulary Words and s for Algebra Absolute Value Additive Inverse Algebraic Expression Ascending Order Associative Property Axis of Symmetry Base Binomial Coefficient Combine Like Terms

### Math Common Core Sampler Test

High School Algebra Core Curriculum Math Test Math Common Core Sampler Test Our High School Algebra sampler covers the twenty most common questions that we see targeted for this level. For complete tests

### by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given

Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors Example Suppose Then So, geometrically, multiplying a vector in by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given vector about the y-axis We observe that

### 1 Shapes of Cubic Functions

MA 1165 - Lecture 05 1 1/26/09 1 Shapes of Cubic Functions A cubic function (a.k.a. a third-degree polynomial function) is one that can be written in the form f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d. (1) Quadratic

### Partial Fractions. p(x) q(x)

Partial Fractions Introduction to Partial Fractions Given a rational function of the form p(x) q(x) where the degree of p(x) is less than the degree of q(x), the method of partial fractions seeks to break

### Factoring Trinomials: The ac Method

6.7 Factoring Trinomials: The ac Method 6.7 OBJECTIVES 1. Use the ac test to determine whether a trinomial is factorable over the integers 2. Use the results of the ac test to factor a trinomial 3. For

### Algebra II End of Course Exam Answer Key Segment I. Scientific Calculator Only

Algebra II End of Course Exam Answer Key Segment I Scientific Calculator Only Question 1 Reporting Category: Algebraic Concepts & Procedures Common Core Standard: A-APR.3: Identify zeros of polynomials

### Algebraic Concepts Algebraic Concepts Writing

Curriculum Guide: Algebra 2/Trig (AR) 2 nd Quarter 8/7/2013 2 nd Quarter, Grade 9-12 GRADE 9-12 Unit of Study: Matrices Resources: Textbook: Algebra 2 (Holt, Rinehart & Winston), Ch. 4 Length of Study:

### Math 120 Final Exam Practice Problems, Form: A

Math 120 Final Exam Practice Problems, Form: A Name: While every attempt was made to be complete in the types of problems given below, we make no guarantees about the completeness of the problems. Specifically,

### 5-3 Polynomial Functions. not in one variable because there are two variables, x. and y

y. 5-3 Polynomial Functions State the degree and leading coefficient of each polynomial in one variable. If it is not a polynomial in one variable, explain why. 1. 11x 6 5x 5 + 4x 2 coefficient of the

### Algebra I Vocabulary Cards

Algebra I Vocabulary Cards Table of Contents Expressions and Operations Natural Numbers Whole Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Absolute Value Order of Operations Expression

### 3.3. Solving Polynomial Equations. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes

Solving Polynomial Equations 3.3 Introduction Linear and quadratic equations, dealt within Sections 3.1 and 3.2, are members of a class of equations, called polynomial equations. These have the general

### Discrete Mathematics: Homework 7 solution. Due: 2011.6.03

EE 2060 Discrete Mathematics spring 2011 Discrete Mathematics: Homework 7 solution Due: 2011.6.03 1. Let a n = 2 n + 5 3 n for n = 0, 1, 2,... (a) (2%) Find a 0, a 1, a 2, a 3 and a 4. (b) (2%) Show that

### Roots of Polynomials

Roots of Polynomials (Com S 477/577 Notes) Yan-Bin Jia Sep 24, 2015 A direct corollary of the fundamental theorem of algebra is that p(x) can be factorized over the complex domain into a product a n (x

### What are the place values to the left of the decimal point and their associated powers of ten?

The verbal answers to all of the following questions should be memorized before completion of algebra. Answers that are not memorized will hinder your ability to succeed in geometry and algebra. (Everything

### Answer Key for California State Standards: Algebra I

Algebra I: Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra. Through the study of algebra, a student develops an understanding of the symbolic language of mathematics and the sciences.

### 9. POLYNOMIALS. Example 1: The expression a(x) = x 3 4x 2 + 7x 11 is a polynomial in x. The coefficients of a(x) are the numbers 1, 4, 7, 11.

9. POLYNOMIALS 9.1. Definition of a Polynomial A polynomial is an expression of the form: a(x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 +... + a 1 x + a 0. The symbol x is called an indeterminate and simply plays the role

### Factor and Solve Polynomial Equations. In Chapter 4, you learned how to factor the following types of quadratic expressions.

5.4 Factor and Solve Polynomial Equations Before You factored and solved quadratic equations. Now You will factor and solve other polynomial equations. Why? So you can find dimensions of archaeological