Surveying for California Civil PE License Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE Surveying for California Civil Engineering License

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1 Well Organized, Based on the Current California Board Test Plan and References, Detailed, Computer Generated Index (8 pages), Simplified Concepts, 66 Sample Problems with Detailed Solutions, and 181 Supplemental Practice Problems with Detailed Solutions. The only book has A comprehensive summary of surveying equations, tables, figures, and charts you need for the exam. All what you need at one location and at your fingertips. ONE BOOK HAS ALL WHAT YOU NEED! Surveying for California Civil Engineering License A Concise and Comprehensive Summary of Surveying Equations, Tables, and Figures is Included for a Quick Access During the Exam Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE First Edition

2 ISBN: Professional Engineering Services (PES) All right reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, without a written permission from the author. The author can be reached by Current printing of this edition 1 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Control Number

3 Preface O ur next generation of Civil PE books were carefully developed by Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E., a nationally recognized expert in PE Exam Preparation courses and founder of Professional Engineering Services, Inc., (PES). This generation is quickly becoming the Best in Class solution for engineering professionals working to pass upcoming California Board and NCEES exams. Each and every book in this comprehensive collection has been prepared with your readiness in mind and will serve as a powerful guide throughout your PE Exam Preparation studies in Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying concentrations. Dr. Mansour has taught and spoken to thousands of engineers and has been teaching PE, Seismic, Surveying, and EIT/FE classes for the past 22 years enabling his products, classes, and seminars to continuously evolve and adapt to the changing demands of this challenging field. His real-world experience and intercommunication with so many engineers throughout America has greatly improved his ability to craft concise and knowledgeable resources that work for professionals striving to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam and other California special exams. One of the primary advantages of PES preparation books is their compact and succinct format. The experiences and feedback of engineering students and professionals that have worked with these materials affirms our effective use of good, factual diagrams and illustrations to more fully explain concepts throughout each text. In fact, Dr. Mansour makes great use of this style of teaching through figures, comparative tables, charts, and illustrations to concisely convey important information to engineers preparing for the exam. The primary focus of each book in our collection is targeted on subjects that are directly relevant to the PE exam. This method provides substantial time savings to students that simply don t have the wherewithal to digest leading competitive volumes, which typically exceed 1,000 pages. Another strong asset of these next generation books is the separation of Breadth (a.m.) and Depth (p.m.) topics. Each Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying book is organized in accordance with the most current exam specifications and has matured since their inception through the inputs, complaints, wishes, and other feedback given from course participants and colleagues for over 22 years. Recent changes in the format of the Civil PE exam have made it necessary to address the change from essay to multiple choice problems, separation of a.m. and p.m. sections, and the introduction of the construction module. The books improved organization is completed with a very detailed, which addresses both the a.m. and p.m. subjects and more, making them a favored resource for preparation as well as exam time. The best part in all this growth and continuous improvement is the ability to apply this knowledge and experience to our supplemental products developed to give you the best head start for passing your Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Every book, DVD, seminar, and accompanying Problems & Solutions workbooks are designed with all relevant codes, topics, board test plans, and NCEES exam specifications. And, these study materials and seminars, also manage to cover these fields of study in the same order as listed in the latest exam specifications for easy reference at-a-glance. Not only are our next generation books written to be current and well-organized to save you time during exam preparation and test taking; they are also affordable and authored by a highly qualified and nationally recognized Civil Engineering Professor. Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. His easy, step-bystep approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. We hope that you ll find the many resources at Professional Engineering Services, Inc. to be exceptional textbooks, DVDs, and seminars and as valuable a resource as we believe them to be iii

4 Disclaimer This publication is to help the candidates for the Special Surveying Exam for California PE Civil. This publication expresses the opinion of the author. Every effort and care has been taken to ensure that all data, information, solutions, concept and suggestions are as accurate as possible. The author cannot assume or accept the responsibility or liability for errors in the data, information, solutions, concept and suggestions and the use of this material in preparation for the exam or using it during the exam. Also, Professional Engineering Services (PES) and the author are in no way responsible for the failure of registrants in the exam, or liable for errors or omission in the solutions, or in the way they are interpreted by the registrants or others. Errata Notification PES and the author have made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this publication is accurate. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed, these will be posted on PES web site at PES and the author at their discretion, may or may not issue written errata. PES and the author welcome comments or corrections which can be ed to How to Use This Book This book was written to help you in preparing for the Special Surveying Examination. A comprehensive summary of surveying equations and topics is provided to help you in answering the questions. The following is a suggested strategy for the exam: 1- Have all references organized before you start. Also, familiarize yourself with the comprehensive summary provided in this book. 2- Read the questions and ALL answers carefully and look for KEYWORDS in the question and the 4 possible answers. 3- Solve the easy questions first (need no or minimum calculations) and record your answers on the answer sheet. 4- Work on questions that require lengthy calculations and record your answers on the answer sheet. 5- Questions that seem difficult or not familiar to you and may need considerable time in searching in your references should be left to the end. 6- Never leave an answer blank. 7- Remember the D 3 rule: DO NOT EXPECT THE EXAM TO BE EASY DO NOT PANIC DO NOT WASTE TOO MUCH TIME ON A SIGNLE EASY, DIFFICULT OR UNFAMILAR PROBLEM About the Author Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE, has been teaching PE, Seismic, Surveying and EIT/FE courses for the last 22 years. Dr. Mansour taught Civil Engineering courses for 7 years at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM. Also, he has been teaching Civil and Construction Engineering courses (graduate & undergraduate) at CSU, Fresno, CA, for the last 18 years. iv Disclaimer, Errata, How to use this book, About the author

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS California Special Surveying Principles Exam (Test Plan 2005) 1 Summary of Surveying Equations... 9 Definitions of Surveying and Associated Terms.. 29 Abbreviations 37 Chapter 1- Introduction and CA Special Engineering Surveying Exam 1-1 Definition of Surveying Types of Surveys Types of Maps Professional Land Surveys Act Professional Engineers Act Subdivision Map Act California Special Surveying Exam. 48 Supplemental Practice Problems Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 2- Theory of Measurements 2-1 Types of Measurements in Surveying Units of Measurements Significant Figures Rounding off Numbers Errors, Types and Magnitude of Errors in Measurements Probability and Measures of Precision 58 Practice Problems. 62 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 3- Surveying Equipment & Field Notes 3-1 Introduction & Reasons for Field Notes Requirements for Good Notes Kinds of Notes Arrangement of Fields Notes Suggestions on Recording Notes Surveying Methods and Equipment Left Thumb Rule Practice Problems Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems v

6 Chapter 4- Horizontal Distance Measurements 4-1 Introduction Method of Measuring Horizontal Distances Slope Computations & Approximate Formula Precision of Various Measuring Methods Sources of Error in Taping Types of Error in Taping Summary of Corrections of Errors in Taping Types, Sources, and Classifications of Taping Errors Combined Correction Stationing (STA), Post Mile (PM), and Kilo Post (KP) Review of Sources of Errors in Taping Common Mistakes Practice Problems. 102 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 5- Leveling-Theory, Equipment & Measurements 5-1 Introduction Leveling Definitions & Terms Types of Leveling Leveling Equipment Curvature and Refraction Theory of Differential Leveling Two-Peg Test Three-Wire Leveling Reciprocal Leveling Sources and Types of Errors in Leveling 123 Practice Problems 124 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 6- Angles, Bearings, Azimuths, & Compass 6-1 Introduction Interior, Exterior, and Deflection Angles Bearings (True, Magnetic & Grid) Azimuths (True, Magnetic & Grid) Comparison of Bearings and Azimuths Magnetic Declination True, Grid & Magnetic Meridians Methods of Determining Angles and Directions Vertical and Zenith Angles. 147 vi

7 Practice Problems 148 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 7- Traverse Computations 7-1 Introduction Measurements and Directions of Traverses Latitudes and Departures Traverse Computations Balancing Angles Traverse Balancing (Adjustment) Rectangular Coordinates. 161 Practice Problems. 167 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 8- Length, Area, Volume Computations & Mass Diagram 8-1 Length Computation Methods of Measuring Area 174 Area by division into triangles and other shapes Area by offsets from straight lines Area by double-meridian-distance method (DMD). 178 Area by coordinates (criss-cross). 179 Measurement of area by planimeter Methods of Volume Measurement The cross-section method. 183 Average-end area formula Mass Diagram. 187 Practice Problems 197 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 9- Topography 9-1 Introduction to Topography Control for Topographic Surveys Methods for Obtaining Topography Topographic Maps Scales for Topographic Maps Contours: Definitions and Properties Spot Elevations and Contour Index Direct and Indirect Methods of Locating Contours..209 vii

8 9-9 Rules for Drawing (Plotting) Contours Key Points for Contours Methods for Locating Contours 216 Practice problems.217 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems 222 Chapter 10- Horizontal, Spiral and Vertical Curves 10-1 Introduction Types of Horizontal Curves Terminology of Horizontal Curves Geometry of Circular Curves Deflection Angles, Chord, and Offset Calculations Moving up on the Curve Compound Circular Curves Reverse Curves Spiral Curves Vertical Curves Vertical Terminology Types of Vertical Curves Geometric Properties of the Parabola High and Low Points on Vertical Curves Vertical Curves Under or Over an Obstruction Asymmetrical (Unsymmetrical) Vertical Curves..253 Practice Problems..255 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems 258 Chapter 11- State Plane Coordinate System 11-1 Introduction Shape of the Earth Advantages of the Rectangular Coordinate System California Coordinate System of 1927&1983 (CCS 27& CCS Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Transverse Mercator Projection Ground Distance Versus Grid Distance Conversion Between SPCS 27 & SPCS Practice Problems.270 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Chapter 12-Construction Surveys viii

9 12-1 Introduction Cut and Fill Stakes Header and Cluster Information Slope Stake listing 277 Practice Problems Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Caltrans Surveys Manual- Chapter 12 Construction Surveys Chapter 13- Photogrammetry 13-1 Introduction Ground Control for Photogrammetry Aerial Cameras for Photogrammetry Photograph Forward and Side Overlap Photo Scale Map Scale National Map Accuracy Sources of Error in Photogrammetry Mistakes in Photogrammetry 322 Practice Problems.323 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems 326 Chapter 14- Surveys of Public Lands 14-1 Introduction Initial point Principal Meridian Baseline Standard Parallels (Correction Lines) Guide Meridians Township and Range Designation of Townships Subdivision of Township into Sections Subdivision of Sections Fractional Sections Witness Corners Meander Corners Lost and Obliterated Corners Description by Township, Sections, and Smaller Subdivision 339 Practice Problems 342 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems ix

10 Chapter 15- Global Positioning System (GPS) & Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 15.1 Introduction Theory of GPS Differential GPS Weather Conditions Specifications for GPS Surveys Practice Problems 352 Solutions for Supplemental Practice Problems Index (8 pages Computer generated index). 355 Other books and DVDs by Dr. Shahin A. Mansour Facts About Surveying for California Civil PE License Book By Dr. Mansour, PE Based on the Special Civil Engineer Examination Test Plan of December 2005 of California Board of Registration Detailed table of contents (5 pages) 15 chapters, 362 pages Well organized, simplified concepts, and concise approach of the surveying topics and subjects An excellent 8 pages of compute generated index for keywords 66 practice problems similar to the exam format with detailed solutions 181 supplemental practice problems similar to the exam format with detailed solutions A comprehensive summary of surveying equations, tables, charts & and figures for an easy and quick access during the exam x

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